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Iphicrates (* 415 BC ; † around 353 BC) was an Athenian general in the first half of the 4th century BC. Chr.

Iphicrates came from the Attic community of Rhamnus, his father's name was Timotheus. As a young man, Iphikrates took command of a mercenary army in the Corinthian War and initiated an army reform in which the fixation on hoplites was relativized by a stronger emphasis on the more agile, lightly armed Peltasts . While Iphikrates made the equipment of the hoplite lighter in order to allow greater mobility, the Peltasts received stronger shields and helmets in order to be able to survive better in close combat. The branches of arms thus converged. Also, more and larger units were formed from Peltasts, which could now operate largely independently. He achieved (between 393 and 390 BC) with these new Peltasts a success against a Spartan hoplite unit ( Battle of Lechaion ) and then fought in Thrace . 389/88 BC He operated successfully against the Spartan general Anaxibios.

After the conclusion of the royal peace (386 BC) he entered the service of the Thracian king Kotys I and married his daughter. 374/373 BC It was "awarded" to Persia in order to take command of the fight against the Egyptian king Nectanebos I under Artaxerxes II . The battle was lost for Artaxerxes II. In the following years Iphicrates fought against the Thebans for Athens and later for Sparta.

368 BC Eurydice, the widow of the murdered Macedonian king Amyntas III , fled . , after the murder of her son (King Alexander ) to him while he was operating on the Thracian coast to kill the life of her other son and heir to the throne Perdiccas III. to protect.

After a few years in Thrace, where he had temporarily fought against Athens, Iphicrates led the war of allies in 357/356 BC. Together with Timotheus and his son Menestheus the Athenian fleet against the breakaway islands of Chios and Rhodes . Due to the lack of success, the generals were permanently relieved of their offices. Iphicrates died shortly afterwards.

His life has been briefly described by Cornelius Nepos .


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