Nectanebo I.

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Names of Nectanebo I.
Louvre 042007 56.jpg
Statue head of Nectanebo I ( Louvre , Paris )
Horus name
V13 U2 D36
With a strong arm
s mn
Smnḫ-t3wj Who
makes the two countries splendid
Gold name
D4 Z1 R8 Z1 R8 Z1 R8 U6
Jrj-mrt-nṯrw He does what the gods please
Throne name
Hiero Ca1.svg
N5 L1 D28
Hiero Ca2.svg
With a designed Ka , a Re
Proper name
Hiero Ca1.svg
Hiero Ca2.svg
Nechetnebef (Nechet nebef)
Nḫt nb.f The mighty of
his master
Manetho :
Demotic Chronicle :



Cheperkare Nechetnebef , better known by his Hellenized name Nectanebos I , was an ancient Egyptian pharaoh who founded the last native dynasty of Egypt with the 30th dynasty .


Accession to the throne and family

Nectanebos was a general from Sebennytos and the son of a high-ranking officer named Tachos (Hellenization of the Egyptian name Djedhor ). A stele discovered in Hermopolis provides evidence that Nectanebos came to power through the overthrow, possibly even murder, of the last pharaoh of the 29th Dynasty, Nepherites II . Possibly Nektanebos was supported in his coup by the Athenian General Chabrias . His coronation ceremony was Nektanebos 379/378 v. Both in Sais and Memphis , and moved the capital from Mendes to Sebennytos.

The relationships between Nektanebos and his predecessors of the 29th Dynasty are not fully understood. He showed little appreciation for Nepherites II and Achoris , since he considered the first to be incapable and called the second a usurper . For Nepherites I , however, he seemed to have more attention; the king is therefore seen as Nektanebo's father or grandfather, although it is currently believed that this assignment can be traced back to a misinterpretation of the Demotic Chronicle . However, it is believed that both Achoris and Nektanebos were related to Nepherites I in some way.

Two sons of Nektanebos are known: Tachos and Tjaihepimu, who was appointed his successor .

Activities in Egypt

Porch of the Temple of Isis in Philae

Nectanebos had so many buildings erected and restored like no other Egyptian pharaoh before him. His commissioned work focused on temples in all parts of the country.

On the island of Philae near Aswan , he began building the vestibule for the Temple of Isis , which would later become one of the most important religious sites in Egypt. Nektanebos also had the first pylon built in the Amun district in Karnak . It is also believed that the earliest known Mammisi from Dendera came from him. Archaeological finds at Hermopolis, Hermopolis Parva , Saft el-Hinna and Mendes testify that the sacred animal cult , which was widespread especially during the Persian period (27th to 31st Dynasty), was promoted by Nectanebos. Other sanctuaries were commissioned by the Pharaoh in Memphis, Tanis, and Elkab .

First pylon in Karnak

Nectanebos was very generous to the priesthood. A decree from his first year, discovered on a stele from Naukratis , stipulated that ten percent of the city's tax revenue from imports and domestic production went to the Temple of Neith in Sais. A copy of the stele was discovered a few years ago in the now buried city of Herakleion . The previously mentioned stele from Hermopolis, which stood in front of a pylon by Ramses II , lists donations from Nectanebos to local gods as well as other approved donations to the priests of Horus of Edfu . Nektanebo's generosity shows his devotion to the gods, but also that he tried to secure the support of the wealthiest in the country through financial donations.

Invasion of the Persians

374/375 BC BC Nectanebos was confronted with a Persian attempt to recapture Egypt. For the Achaemenid King Artaxerxes II, the country was one of many rebellious satrapy . After six years of preparation, during which you a. When Athens exerted pressure to recall the Greek general Chabrias , who was in Egyptian service, to return home, Artaxerxes sent a large army led by the Athenian general Iphicrates and the Persian Pharnabazos II . According to reports, it was said to have been over 200,000 strong and to have included Persian soldiers, Greek mercenaries and over 500 ships. The fortification of the Pelusian arm, commissioned by Nektanebos, forced the enemy fleet to take a different route to sail up the Nile . The fleet eventually chose the less well-defended Mendes arm of the Nile.

A mutual distrust that had developed between Iphicrates and Pharnabazos prevented a further advance to Memphis. The annual flood of the Nile and the determination with which the Egyptian troops defended their country turned a defeat that initially seemed certain to Nectanebos into a clear victory.

From 368 B.C. Many western satraps of the Achaemenid Empire began to rebel against Artaxerxes II. Nektanebos assured the insurgent satraps financial support and restored relations with Sparta and Athens.


Nectanebos died in his 19th year of reign. His grave, sarcophagus and mummy were never found. Towards the end of his reign, possibly to remedy the dynastic problems suffered by his predecessors, Nektanebos reintroduced the long-abandoned practice of coregentorship with the enthronement of his son Tachos . Shortly after Tacho's accession to the throne, however, he was betrayed by his brother Tjaihepimu, who put his own son Nectanebo II on the Egyptian throne.


  • Adolf Erman , Ulrich Wilcken : The naukratis stele . In: Journal for Egyptian Language and Antiquity . Volume 38, 1900, pp. 127-135.
  • Herman de Meulenaere: La famille royale des Nectanébo. In: Journal for Egyptian Language and Antiquity. Volume 90, 1963, pp. 90-93.
  • Mahmud Abdel Raziq: A stele of Nektanebo I. In: Communications of the German Archaeological Institute, Cairo Department. Volume 34, 1978, ISSN  0342-1279 , pp. 111-115.
  • Karol Mysliwiec: the head of a statue of Nektanebos'I. from Hermopolis Magna . In: Communications from the German Archaeological Institute, Cairo Department. (MDAIK) Vol. 47, 1991, ISSN  0342-1279 , pp. 263-268.
  • Nicolas Grimal : A History of Ancient Egypt . Blackwell Books, Oxford 1992, ISBN 978-0-631-19396-8 .
  • Peter A. Clayton: Chronicle of the Pharaohs . Thames & Hudson, 1994, ISBN 978-0-500-05074-3 .
  • Alan B. Lloyd: Egypt, 404-332 BC In: Alan E Astin, John Boardman, Alan K Bowman et al. a .: The Cambridge ancient history. Volume 6: The fourth century BC 2nd edition, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 1994, ISBN 0-521-23348-8 .
  • Jürgen von Beckerath : Handbook of Egyptian King Names  (= Munich Egyptological Studies), Volume 46. von Zabern, Mainz 1999, ISBN 3-8053-2310-7 .
  • Thomas Schneider : Lexicon of the Pharaohs. Albatros, Düsseldorf 2002, ISBN 3-491-96053-3 , pp. 176-177.
  • Leo Depuydt : Saite and Persian Egypt, 664 BC-332 BC (Dyns. 26-31, Psammetichus I to Alexander's Conquest of Egypt). In: Erik Hornung, Rolf Krauss, David A. Warburton (eds.): Ancient Egyptian Chronology (= Handbook of Oriental studies. Section One. The Near and Middle East. Volume 83). Brill, Leiden / Boston 2006, ISBN 978-90-04-11385-5 , pp. 265-283 ( online ).
  • Jean Yoyotte : An extraordinary pair of twins: the steles of the Pharaoh Nektanebo I. In: Franck Goddio, Manfred Clauss, Christoph Gerigk: Egypt's Sunken Treasures. Prestel, Munich / New York 2006, ISBN 3-7913-3545-6 , pp. 316–323.
  • Toby Wilkinson : The Rise and Fall of Ancient Egypt . Bloomsbury, London 2010, ISBN 9781408810026 .
  • Susanne Martinssen-von Falck: The great pharaohs. From the New Kingdom to the Late Period. Marix, Wiesbaden 2018, ISBN 978-3-7374-1057-1 , pp. 236-239.

Web links

Commons : Nektanebos I.  - Collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Adolf Erman , Ulrich Wilcken : Die Naukratisstele . In: Journal for Egyptian Language and Antiquity . 38, 1900, pp. 127-135.
  2. a b c d Lloyd, Egypt, 404-332 BC , 1994, pp. 340-341.
  3. ^ Grimal, A History of Ancient Egypt. 1992, p. 372.
  4. ^ Wilkinson, The Rise and Fall of Ancient Egypt. 2010, p. 458.
  5. ^ A b c Wilkinson, The Rise and Fall of Ancient Egypt. 2010, pp. 456-457.
  6. a b Grimal, A History of Ancient Egypt. 1992, p. 373.
  7. ^ A b Clayton, Chronicle of the Pharaohs . 1994, p. 203.
  8. ^ A b Lloyd, Egypt, 404-332 BC , 1994, p. 353.
  9. ^ A b c Grimal, A History of Ancient Egypt. 1992, p. 377.
  10. Lloyd, Egypt, 404-332 BC , 1994, p. 354.
  11. ^ A b Lloyd, Egypt, 404-332 BC , 1994, p. 343.
  12. jean yoyotte : An extraordinary pair of twins: the steles of the Pharaoh Nectanebo I . In: F. Goddio & M. Clauss (eds.): Egypt's Sunken Treasures 2006, pp. 316–323.
  13. a b Grimal, A History of Ancient Egypt. 1992, pp. 375-376.
  14. Lloyd, Egypt, 404-332 BC , 1994, p. 348.
predecessor Office successor
Nepherites II. Pharaoh of Egypt
379 to 360 BC Chr.