List of pharaohs

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The list of pharaohs gives a systematic overview of all known pharaohs . It contains the Egyptian kings from the pre-dynastic period to Maximinus Daia , the last hieroglyphically attested ruler of Egypt .

The key data, which form the basic structure of the Egyptian chronology , come from the writings of the Egyptian priest Manetho , the originals of which have been lost and only survived through quotations in writings from the first to eighth centuries AD. Manetho's division into 30 dynasties is still the basis of Egyptology today , although it is outdated in many respects. A peculiarity is that Manetho arranged the dynasties according to the local origin of the rulers and not according to family relationships.

The names of the kings are given here partly in the Egyptian, partly in the Greek form. The annual data take into account the works of Thomas Schneider and Wolfgang Helck . The dates in brackets show the dating according to Jürgen von Beckerath .



Differing data within the articles about individual pharaohs can not be avoided due to different sources from the individual authors.

Writing conventions

The names in this list are written according to the writing conventions of the Egyptology portal . These provide that the proper name of a pharaoh be written without his remaining names, but with hyphens. However, some pharaohs are more known by their throne than their proper name. In these cases, the writing conventions stipulate that the names in the article headings are written without hyphens. Therefore, the corresponding links in this list are also written without hyphens.

In all hyphenated names, the beginning of the word and the first letter of the god name syllable are capitalized, regardless of whether the latter is at the end (User-ka-Re) or within the name (Sechem-Re-sanch-taui). This regulation also applies if the deities Amun , Hor , Mut , Ptah and / or others are included in the names instead of Re .

Since the word syllable maat in the name stands primarily for the principle of the world order and not for the deity in person, this syllable should always be written in lower case when using hyphens in the names in question (Heru-Hor-maat, Neb-maat- Re).


colour meaning

List of pharaohs


Pharaoh Throne name Reign Remarks
Before the 0th Dynasty
Finger snail Only attested by clay scratches. The existence of this ruler is mostly doubted in research today.
fish Only attested by clay scratches.
Pen-abu around 3300 BC Chr. Tested by clay scratches, reading of his name uncertain.
animal Only attested by clay scratches.
stork Only attested by clay scratches. The existence of this ruler is mostly doubted in research today.
dog Only attested by clay scratches. The existence of this ruler is mostly doubted in research today.
bull around 3250 BC Chr. Existence controversial, perhaps not a name, but a place or dormer designation . According to Dreyer Kleinkönig and counter-ruler to Scorpio I.
Scorpio I. around 3250 BC Chr. During his reign, writing and irrigation systems are said to have been introduced.
0th dynasty
Hedju-Hor around 3200 BC Chr. Existence and chronological classification of this king are very uncertain.
Ni-Hor around 3100 BC Chr Known for clay and stone vessels from graves near Tarchan , Tura and Naqada . The reading of the name is uncertain.
Double falcon around 3100 BC Chr Known for clay and stone vessels from El Beda , El-Mehemdia and north-west Sinai .
Ni-Neith Known for two clay carvings on vases from grave 257 in Helwan .
Hat-Hor Known for a vessel from Tura . Uncertain reading and interpretation of his name.
crocodile around 3100 BC Chr. Existence highly controversial. Known for clay seals from Tarchan and Saujet el-Arjan . According to Dreyer Gegenkönig.
Iri-Hor Existence controversial as there may not be a name, just an advertisement.
Scorpio II around 3025 BC Chr. Grave in Hierakonpolis or in Abydos . A representation from Hierakonpolis shows him with the white crown of Upper Egypt.
Ka / Sechen around 3020 BC Chr. Grave in Abydos. Name reading unsure.
Narmer around 3000 BC Chr. Double grave at Abydos. Cultural and religious upswing. Classification of Narmer in the 0th Dynasty disputed (cf. Menes).
Lower Egyptian kings
Seka Only attested on the Palermostein .
Iucha Only attested on the Palermostein.
Tiu Only attested on the Palermostein.
Itjiesch Only attested on the Palermostein.
Niheb Only attested on the Palermostein.
Wenegbu Only attested on the Palermostein.
Imichet Only attested on the Palermostein. Another, destroyed name follows after him.
Washing Existence controversial, perhaps subjugated anti-king of Narmer.

Early Dynastic Period

Proper name Throne name Horus name Greek Reign Remarks
1st dynasty
Aha around 3000/2980 BC Chr. First King of Egypt. He is mostly identified with Menes . Grave in Abydos.
Teti I. , Atoti Athotis I. around 2980 BC Chr. Only documented in later king lists.
Atti, Iteti Djer Athotis II, Kenkenes around 2980/2960 BC Chr. Campaigns to Nubia . Grave in Abydos.
Wadji (Djet) Athotis III., Uenephes around 2960/2930 BC Chr. Grave in Abydos. Known for its ornate grave stele .
Chasti Den (Udimu) Usaphais, Usaphaidos, Kenkenes around 2930/2910 BC Chr. Grave in Abydos. Long reign, advances in art and writing. In addition, war against Asian Bedouins .
Nebui-meri-bia-pe Anedj-ib Niebais, Miebis, Miebidos around 2910/2890 BC Chr. Grave complex in Abydos. Had an unusually large number of cult statues made for himself.
Iri? / Semsu? Iri? / Semsu? Semerchet Semempses / Mempses around 2890/2870 BC Chr. Grave in Abydos. According to Manetho, a “great calamity” befell Egypt under him.
Qaa Ubienthes, Bieneches around 2870/2850 BC Chr. Grave in Abydos. For the first time there is evidence of a mortuary temple at the grave.
a Snefer-ka Hardly documented ruler from the end of the 1st dynasty.
b " bird " Also hardly documented ruler from the end of the 1st dynasty.
c sixet Existence and chronological assignment very uncertain.
2nd dynasty
Bedjau, Bedjatau, Baunetjer Hetep Hetep-Sechemui Boethos, Bochos around 2840 BC Chr. The rulers are now buried in Saqqara . After Manetho , Egypt experienced a severe earthquake under him .
Weneg? Neb-Re Kaichoos, Choos around 2830 BC Chr. Presumably buried in Saqqara, possibly the first signs of a sun cult . Possibly. identical to Weneg.
Ni-netjer Binothris around 2810 BC Chr. Grave in Saqqara. Possibly government and economic crises towards the end of his rule.
Nubnefer Only two inscriptions on the vessel testify to it at the time. Classification uncertain.
Weneg Evidenced by eleven inscriptions on vessels. Chronological classification and identity uncertain.
Wadjenes Weneg? Outlas / Tlas around 2790 BC Chr. Not used at the present time. Possibly. identical to Weneg, Sechemib or Peribsen .
Sened Senthenes around 2790 BC Chr. Only evidenced by an inscription on the vessel at the time. Possibly. identical to Peribsen .
Sechemib Sechem-ib With Peribsen identical, its successor, or an anti-king under whose reign.
Peribs Per-ib-sen Seth-Per-ib-sen Grave in Abydos. Has a Seth name instead of a Horus name .
Neferkare I. / Aaka Nefercheres?, Chaires? Not used at the present time.
Neferkasokar Not used at the present time.
" Hudjefa I. " Sesochris? Pseudonym for a ruler whose name has been lost.
Chasechemui-Nebuihetepimef Cha-sixemui-nub-chet-sen Hor-Seth-cha-sixemui Cheneres around 2740 BC Chr. Grave in Abydos. Waged war in Lower Egypt and celebrated the reunification of Upper and Lower Egypt.

Old empire

Proper name Throne name Horus name Greek Reign Remarks
3rd dynasty
Nebka Necherophes, Necherochis around 2740-2720 BC Chr. Possibly. identical to Sanacht.
Djoser Netjeri-chet Tosorthros around 2720-2700 BC Chr. Built the first pyramid in Egypt in Saqqara .
Djoserteni / Teti Sechem-chet Tyreis around 2700–2695 BC Chr. Tested by unrolled seals and relief images. Unfinished pyramid in Saqqara.
" Hudjefa II. " around 2695 BC Chr.? Pseudonym for a ruler whose name has been lost.
Mesochris around 2690 BC Chr.? Exact classification uncertain, not proven at the time.
Nebcars Exact classification uncertain, not proven at the time.
Neferkare Exact classification uncertain, not proven at the time.
Huni between 2690–2670 BC Chr. Presumably Builder of some smaller pyramids. Tomb unknown.
Saturday night until around 2670 BC Chr. Possibly identical to Nebka. Tomb unknown.
Cha-ba until around 2670 BC Chr. Probable builder of a pyramid in Saujet el-Arjan .
Qa-hedjet until around 2670 BC Chr. Only attested on a stele .
Sat Exact classification uncertain.
4th dynasty
Sneferu Neb-maat Soris around 2670-2620 (2614-2579) BC Chr. Three pyramids ( Meidum and Dahshur [2x]), change from levels - to the real pyramid.
Chufu, Khnumchufu Mededju Cheops *, Suphis around 2620-2580 (2579-2556) BC Chr. Builder of the Great Pyramid of Cheops ; Expeditions to Nubia and the Sinai , trade with Byblos .
Radjedef , Djedefre Cheper Ratoises around 2580-2570 (2556-2547) BC Chr. Pyramid in Abu Roasch (possibly unfinished)
Chafre User-ib Chephren *, Suphis II. around 2570-2530 (2547-2521) BC Chr. Known only for its pyramid in Giza . Trade with Syria and Byblos.
Baka, Bakare Bicheris around 2530 (2521-2514) BC Chr. Existence uncertain as not documented at the time. Possibly unfinished pyramid in Saujet el-Arjan .
Menkaure Ka-chet Mykerinos *, Mencheres around 2530-2510 (2514-2486) BC Chr. Mainly known for its pyramid in Giza. Pharaohs are now revered as the "son of Re ".
Sheepseskaf Schepse-chet Sebercheres around 2510-2500 (2486-2479) BC Chr. Large mastaba in Saqqara - south.
Thamphthis around 2500 (2479-2477) BC Chr. Existence uncertain as not documented at the time. Perhaps with Queen Chentkaus I. identical.
5th dynasty
Userkaf Hor-iri-maat Usercheres around 2500-2490 (2479-2471) BC Chr. Pyramid in Saqqara, solar sanctuary in Abusir .
Sahure Neb-chau Sephres around 2490-2475 (2471-2458) BC Chr. Pyramid in Abusir, solar sanctuary (lost). Expeditions to the Sinai and Nubia, trade with the Middle East, possibly war against the Libyans .
Kakai Nefer-ir-ka-Re User chau Nephercheres around 2475-2465 (2458-2438) BC Chr. Pyramid in Abusir, solar sanctuary (lost).
Netjeruser Schepses-ka-Re Sechem-chau Sisiris around 2465-2460 (2438-2431) BC Chr. Only attested by seal impressions from Abusir.
Isi Re-nefer-ef (Nefer-ef-Re) Chau-nefer Cheres around 2460-2455 (2431-2420) BC Chr. Pyramid in Abusir (unfinished), solar sanctuary (lost).
Ini Ni-user-Re Set-ib-taui Rathures at 2455-2420 (2420-2389) BC. Chr. Pyramid in Abusir, solar sanctuary in Abu Gurob .
Kaiu Men-kau-Hor Men-chau Mencheres around 2420-2410 (2389-2380) BC. Chr. Pyramid perhaps identical to the Lepsius L pyramid in Dahshur or the Lepsius XXIX pyramid in Saqqara-Nord. Sun sanctuary (lost).
Isesi Djed-ka-Re Djed-chau Tancheres around 2410-2380 (2380-2342) BC Chr. Pyramid in Saqqara-South.
Unas Universities Wadj-taui Onnos around 2380-2350 (2342-2322) BC Chr. Pyramid in Saqqara with the oldest pyramid texts .
6th dynasty
Teti II. Sehotep-taui Othoes around 2318-2300 (2322-2312) BC Chr. Pyramid in Saqqara-North.
Userkare around 2300 (2312-2310) BC Chr. Possibly usurper or transitional regent for the still underage Pepi I.
Pepi I. Meri-Re,
Meri-taui Phiops around 2295-2250 (2310-2260) BC Chr. Pyramid in Saqqara. The reign was marked by internal tensions.
Nemtiemsaef I.
(Antiemsaf I.)
(Merenre I.)
Meri-en-Re Ankh-chau Menthesuphis around 2250-2245 (2260-2254) BC Chr. Pyramid in Saqqara-South (unfinished). Campaign against Nubia.
Pepi II. Nefer-ka-Re Netjeri-chau Phiops around 2245-2180 (2254-2194) BC Chr. Ruled for over 60 years. Decentralization of administration. Pyramid in Saqqara.
Nemtiemsaef II.
(Antiemsaf II.)
(Merenre II.)
Menthusuphis around 2180 (2194-2193) BC Chr. Only handed down at the time by a decree from Saqqara South.
Saptah Nit-ikeri Nitokris around 2180 (2193-2191) BC Chr. Contemporary unoccupied queen or king.

First split

Pharaoh Throne name Reign Remarks
7th dynasty
According to the information in the Aegyptiaca of Manetho , 70 kings ruled in 70 days. So far, however, no traces of this have been found.
8th dynasty
Neteri-ka-Re Known only from the Abydos list .
Men-ka-Re Contemporary only covered by cylinder seals.
Nefer-ka-Re Known only from the Abydos list.
Neferkare Nebi Nefer-ka-Re Son of Pepi II. He is said to have built a pyramid, which has not yet been found and which probably did not get beyond the planning phase.
Djed-ka-Re Schemai Known only from the Abydos list.
Neferkare Chendu Known only from the Abydos list.
Mer-en-Hor Known only from the Abydos list.
Nefer-ka-min Known only from the Abydos list and its copy by Ramses II .
Nikare I. (Ni-ka-Re) Known only from the Abydos list.
Nefer-ka-Re Tereru Known only from the Abydos list.
Nefer-ka-Hor Known only from the Abydos list and cylinder seals.
Neferkare Pepi seneb Nefer-ka (-Re) -scheri Known only from the Abydos List and the Turin Royal Papyrus.
Neferkamin Anu Nefer (-ka-min?) Known only from the Abydos list and perhaps from the Turin Royal Papyrus .
Ibi Qa-ka-Re Its only known monument is a small pyramid in Saqqara.
Nefer-kau-Re Certainly only known from the Abydos list.
Neferkauhor Chuiuihapi Nefer-kau-Hor Some of the Koptos decrees date from his reign .
Neferirkare II. (Nefer-ir-ka-Re) Exact classification very uncertain. Certainly only known from the Abydos list.
a Sechem-ka-Re (Ankh-ka-Re) Name reading and exact classification very uncertain, possibly identical to Nemtiemsaef II. (6th Dynasty).
b Wadj-ka-Re Testified only on behalf of an official.
c Iti Exact classification very uncertain.
d Imhotep Exact classification very uncertain.
e Hetep …-Re Exact classification very uncertain.
f Chui Exact classification very uncertain.
g Isu Exact classification very uncertain.
h Iytenu Exact classification very uncertain.
9th and 10th dynasties
Wah-ka-Re-cheti I. Exact classification uncertain.
Neferkare III. Exact classification uncertain.
Mer-ib-Re Exact classification uncertain.
Nefer-ka-Re-cheti III. Exact classification uncertain.
Neb-kau-Re-cheti Exact classification very uncertain.
Meri-ka-Re Exact classification very uncertain.

Middle realm

Proper name Throne name Horus name Greek Reign Remarks
11th dynasty
Mentuhotep I. Hor-tepia Wasn't considered a king until the later tradition.
Anjotef I. Seer-taui 2077-2065 (2119-2103) v. Chr. First Theban king; Egypt is now split into two domains.
Anjotef II. Wah-anch 2065-2016 (2103-2054) v. Chr. Antef II secured the rule of the 11th dynasty in the south to Elephantine and expanded the sphere of influence to the north.
Anjotef III. Neb-tep-nefer, night-neb-tep-nefer 2016–2008 (2054–2046) v. Chr. Little is known about his rule. Possibly. he continued the expansion to the north.
Mentuhotep II. Neb-hepet-Re Seanch-ib-taui, Netjer-hedjet, Sema-taui 2008-1957 (2046-1995) v. Chr. Mentuhotep II ended the rule of the 9./10. Dynasty and reunited Egypt. Some Egyptologists consider the time of reunification to be the actual beginning of the Middle Kingdom.
Mentuhotep III. Seanch-ka-re, Senefer-ka-re Seanch-taui 1957-1945 (1995-1983) v. Chr. Testified by numerous temple buildings.
Mentuhotep IV. Neb-taui-Re Neb-taui 1945–1938 (1983–1976) v. Chr. Only attested by rock inscriptions and a sacrificial tablet.
a to (jotef) Qai-ka-Re Senefer baptism Exact classification unclear; presumably the opposing king or pretender to the throne .
b Ijibchentre Gerg-taui Exact classification unclear; presumably pretender to the throne.
b Segerseni Menech-ka-Re Exact classification unclear; presumably pretender to the throne.
12th dynasty
Amenemhet I. Sehotep-ib-Re Wehem-mesut Ammenemes I. 1939 / 38-1909 (1976-1947) v. Chr. Amenemhet I was perhaps a vizier under Mentuhotep IV before he came to power . He completed the unification of the empire and made his son Sesostris I co-regent in the 20th year of his reign. He built a pyramid in El-Lisht .
Senwosret I. Cheper-ka-Re Ankh-mesut Sesostris I. , Sesonchosis 1919-1875 / 74 (1956-1911 / 10) v. Chr. Sesostris I was probably the most important ruler of the 12th dynasty. It is attested by a very extensive construction activity. Important literary works were created during his reign, e. B. the story of Sinuhe . He built a pyramid in El-Lisht.
Amenemhet II Nub-kau-Re Heken-maat Ammenemes II. 1877 / 76–1843 / 42 (1914–1879 / 76) v. Chr. Amenemhet II operated intensive trade relations with the Middle East and Crete . For about two years he was co-regent of his father Sesostris I. He built a pyramid in Dahshur.
Senwosret II. Cha-cheper-Re Seschemu-taui Sesostris II. 1844-1837 / 36 BC Chr. Sesostris II was co-regent of his father Amenemhet II for three years. He built a pyramid in El-Lahun .
Senwosret III. Cha-kau-Re Netjeri-cheperu Sesostris III. 1836-1818 (1872-1853/52) v. Chr. Strong centralization of the country. The length of his reign was 19 years. Earlier uncertainties regarding the length of the government were based on the information in the Berlin 1204 stele, which was initially incorrectly translated. Interim evaluations of the moon data were able to determine the exact length of the government. In the New Kingdom Sesostris III. deified and was considered the patron of Nubia. He built a pyramid in Dahshur.
Amenemhet III. Ni-maat-Re Aa-construction Ammenemes III., Lamares, Ameres 1818 / 17-1773 / 72 (1853-1806 / 05) v. Chr. The most important achievement of his rule was the development of the Fajum . A co-regency with his father Sesostris III. is not secured. He built two pyramids, the first in Dahshur and the second in Hawara .
Amenemhet IV. Maa-cheru-Re Cheper-cheperu Ammenemes 1773–1764 / 63 (1807 / 06–1798 / 97) v. Chr. Several expeditions to Sinai are attested from his reign. He was probably coregent of his predecessor Amenemhet III for about a year. It is unclear whether he was the builder of the southern pyramid of Masghuna .
Nofrusobek Sobek-ka-Re Merit-Re Arsino, Skemiophris 1763-1759 (1798 / 97-1794 / 93) v. Chr. Nofrusobek was the first contemporary verifiable queen of Egypt. It is unclear whether she built the northern pyramid of Masghuna .
a unknown Seanchibre Seanchibtawy early 12th dynasty Either anti-king or identical to Amenemhet I, Sesostris I or Amenemhet II before a name change

Second split

The sequence in the 13th Dynasty to Merkaure Sobekhotep follows the Turin royal papyrus . After that this papyrus is very fragmentary and all classifications up to the end of the 17th dynasty are highly speculative.

Pharaoh Throne name Reign Remarks
13th Dynasty
Wegaf Chui-taui-Re around 1759–1757 BC Chr. Probably first king of the 13th dynasty, although Sobekhotep II was also believed to be the first ruler of this dynasty.
Amenemhet V. Sechem-ka-Re around 1750 BC Chr. Another supposed king named Amenemhetsenbef should be deleted because he is identical to Amenemhet V.
Sechemrechuitaui around 1752–1746 BC Chr. He was previously identified with Pentini , who is arguably a separate king.
Ameni Qemau He is only known from his pyramid in Dahshur. Its exact classification is uncertain.
Seehetep-ib-Re around 1743/42 BC Chr. Contemporary only attested by a cylinder seal and a stele.
Efni (Iuefni) Semen-ka-Re around 1741 BC Chr. Only attested in the Turin Royal Papyrus.
Amenemhet VI. Seanch-ib-Re around 1740 BC Chr. Only a few documents documented at the time.
Nebennu (Nebnun) Semen-ka-Re around 1739 BC Chr. Contemporary only attested by a stele.
Qemausahornedjherjotef Hotep-ib-Re around 1738 BC Chr. Probably a king of Asian origin.
Sewadj-ka-Re around 1737 BC Chr. Only attested in the Turin Royal Papyrus.
Nedjem-ib-Re around 1736 BC Chr. Only clearly attested in the Turin Royal Papyrus. Two scarab finds are uncertain.
Sobekhotep Cha-anch-Re around 1735 BC Chr. Contemporary witnessed by monuments from Abydos. Exact classification very uncertain.
Renseneb Amenemhet Only attested in the Turin Royal Papyrus and on a pearl. In the royal papyrus, his reign is given as four months.
Hor I. Au-ib-Re around 1732 BC Chr. He was next to the pyramid of Amenemhet III. buried in Dahshur.
Amenemhet VII Kay Sedjefa-ka-Re around 1731–1724 BC Chr. Contemporary only attested by a statue, as well as a few cylinder seals and a scarab.
Sobekhotep II Sechem-Re-chui-taui around 1724–1718 BC Chr. Possible builder of a pyramid in Saqqara.
Chendjer User-ka-Re around 1718–1712 BC Chr. Erected a pyramid in South Saqqara.
Emramescha (Mermescha) Semench-ka-Re around 1711 BC Chr. Evidenced by two statues from Tanis.
Anjotef IV. Sehotep-ka-Re around 1710 BC Chr. Only a statue and a few scarabs testify to it at the time.
Seth ... -ib-Re around 1709 BC Chr. Only attested in the Turin Royal Papyrus.
Sobekhotep III. Sechem-Re-sewadj-taui around 1708–1705 BC Chr. Construction activity across the country.
Neferhotep I. Cha-sixem-Re around 1705–1694 BC Chr. Expeditions to Byblos, numerous monuments of the ruler have been preserved and prove a certain late bloom of the Middle Kingdom.
Sahathor Men-wadj-Re around 1694 BC Chr. Ruled only a few months.
Sobekhotep IV. Cha-nefer-Re around 1694–1685 BC Chr. Numerous monuments from all parts of the country.
Sobekhotep V. Cha-hotep-Re around 1685–1680 BC Chr. Only a few scarabs testify to it at the time.
Jaib Wah-ib-Re around 1680–1670 BC Chr. Only a few documents documented at the time.
Aja I. (Eje I.) Meri-nefer-Re around 1669–1659 BC Chr. Last ruler of the Second Intermediate Period, who is documented in both the north and south of the country.
Sobekhotep VI. Meri-hotep-Re around 1656–1654 BC Chr. Only a few monuments testify to it at the time, but their assignment is not always clear.
b Ani Meri-hotep-Re Perhaps identical to Sobekhotep VI as he bears the same throne name.
Sewadjtu Seanch-en-Re around 1654–1651 BC Chr. Only attested in the Turin royal papyrus and perhaps in the royal table of Karnak.
Ined Meri-Sechem-Re Only attested in the Turin Royal Papyrus. Perhaps identical to Neferhotep II.
Neferhotep II Meri-Sechem-Re around 1651–1648 BC Chr. Contemporary attested by two statues.
Hori Sewadj-ka-Re around 1647 BC Chr. Certainly only documented in the Turin Royal Papyrus.
Sobekhotep (VII.) Meri-kau-Re around 1646–1644 BC Chr. He is the last ruler of the 13th dynasty, whose name is preserved in the Turin Royal Papyrus. The order of the following kings is therefore very uncertain.
c dedumose Djed-hotep-Re Exact classification uncertain. Perhaps identical to Dedumose Djed-nefer-Re.
d dedumose Djed-nefer-Re Exact classification uncertain. Perhaps identical to Dedumose Djed-hetep-Re.
e Ibi II. ... -maat-Re Only attested in the Turin Royal Papyrus.
f Hor II. … -Weave-Re Only attested in the Turin Royal Papyrus.
G Se-… -ka-Re Only attested in the Turin Royal Papyrus.
h Senebmiu Sewah-en-Re after 1640 BC Chr. Evidenced by a few contemporary documents and a presumable mention in the Turin Royal Papyrus.
i Secha-en-Re after 1640 BC Chr. Evidenced by a few fragments from the mortuary temple of Mentuhoteps II and a presumable mention in the Turin royal papyrus.
j Mer-cheper-Re Only attested to on a fragment of the Turin Royal Papyrus and perhaps by a scarab.
k Mer-ka-Re Only attested on a fragment of the Turin Royal Papyrus.
l Sesostris IV. Senefer-ib-Re Exact classification unclear. Evidenced by a few monuments at the time.
m Mentuemsaf Djed-anch-Re Testified by a stele and several scarabs.
n Neferhotep III. Sechem-Re-seanch-taui Exact classification uncertain, reports of fighting in his capital Thebes.
o Mentuhotep V. Meri-anch-Re Exact classification uncertain.
p Usermonth Exact classification uncertain.
q Sobekhotep VIII. Sechem-Re-seuser-taui Tested in the Karnak King List.
r Ini I. Meri-schepes-Re Only attested by a statue.
s Mentuhotep VI. Se-wedja-Re Evidenced by a relief fragment from the mortuary temple of Mentuhoteps II.
t senaaib Men-chau-Re Only attested by a stele from Abydos.
u Sobekhotep IX. Maa-Re Only surely attested by scarabs.
v Upuautemsaf Sechem-Re-nefer-chau Only attested by a stele and probably by a graffito.
w Abai Only attested in the Memphite priest family tree.
x Aqen Only attested in the Memphite priest family tree.
y Sebekai His name is only mentioned on a knife from Abydos. He is perhaps identical to Amenemhet VII or a Sobekhotep.
z Chuiqer Only attested on an architrave in Abydos.
aa Seanchptah Se-heka-en-Re
bb Ner-ka-Re Only attested to on a fragment of a stele that is now lost. Probably identical to another king.
cc Si (?) - ka-Re
dd Pentini Sechem-Re-chui-taui A king from Abydos, who is probably to be set at the transition from the 13th to the 17th dynasty. He was previously equated with another king Sechem-Re-chui-taui, but was probably an independent ruler.
Senebkay Weser-ib-Re Perhaps local ruler in Abydos, grave only discovered in 2014
14th dynasty
Nehesy Aa-see-Re Tested by some monuments in the northeast delta.
Cha-tit-Re Royal Papyrus Turin: 8.2
Neb-fau-Re Royal Papyrus Turin: 8.3
Sehab-Re Royal Papyrus Turin: 8.4
Mer-djefa-Re Contemporary only attested by a stele.
All other pharaohs of the 14th Dynasty are only known from the Turin Royal Papyrus. See list of kings of the 14th dynasty .
15th Dynasty ( Hyksos )
Schalik (salitis) around 1630-1615 (1648-1633) BC Chr. Perhaps identical to Scharek .
Beon around 1615-1602 (1633-1619) BC Chr. Perhaps identical to Sheschi .
Apachnas around 1602-1594 (1619-1610) BC Chr. Maybe identical to Jaqobher .
Charjan Seuser-en-Re around 1594–1574 (1610–1590) BC Chr. Exact classification uncertain. Charjan's monuments were also found in Baghdad , Knossos and Boghazköi , where they had been abducted or given away.
Apopi 1. Aa-qen-en-Re
2. Aa-user-Re
around 1574-1534 (1590-1549) BC Chr. Under Apopi I, the Theban 17th dynasty rebelled against the supremacy of the Hyksos. Important writings such as the Ebers , Smith and Rhind papyri emerged during his reign .
Chamudi (Chalmudi) around 1534-1522 (1549-1539) BC Chr. Chamudi has to cede the Hyksos capital Auaris to the Theban King Ahmose . The rule of the Hyksos ends with it.
16th Dynasty (local minor kings)
a Anather (Anathaddi) Occupied only on a scarab; probably a petty prince from southern Palestine.
b Aperanat (Useranat) Occupied only on a scarab; probably a petty prince from southern Palestine.
c Semqen Little prince occupied only on a scarab.
d Sakarher
e Apopi II. Neb-chepesch-Re Possibly. identical to Apopi I.
f Scheschi Maa-ib-Re Occupied on scarabs from Palestine to Kerma ; maybe identical to Beon.
g Jaqobher (Jaqabhaddu) Meri-user-Re Occupied on scarabs as far as Sudan; possibly identical to Apachnas or Beon.
h Jamu (Jaam) (Nub-user-Re) Ruler only attested to on scarabs in the delta.
i Jaqebmu (Jakabam) (Secha-en-Re) Only attested by scarabs.
j Aamu (Cha-user-Re) Local prince occupied on scarabs in Lower Egypt.
k Pepi III. Senefer-ankh-Re Occupied only on scarabs.
l Neb-maat-Re Evidenced by an inscription on an ax; possibly Middle Egyptian small king.
m Aa-hetep-Re Occupied only on scarabs.
n Aa-netjeri-Re Occupied only on a scarab.
O Mer-ib-Re Only attested on a scarab.
p Nub-anch-Re Only attested on scarabs.
q Nikare II. Only attested on scarabs.
r ... (?) - ka-Re Only attested in the Turin Royal Papyrus, the name is heavily fragmented.
s … -Ka-Re Only attested in the Turin Royal Papyrus, the name is heavily fragmented.
t … -Ka-Re Only attested in the Turin Royal Papyrus, the name is heavily fragmented.
u Scharek Possibly. identical to Schalik.
v Wadjed Only attested by scarabs.
w Qareh (Qur) Only attested by scarabs.
x Schenes
y Inek Only attested in the Turin Royal Papyrus, possibly assigned to the 14th dynasty.
z A… Only attested in the Turin Royal Papyrus, the name is heavily fragmented.
aa Ap ... Only attested in the Turin Royal Papyrus, the name is heavily fragmented.
17th dynasty
Rahotep Sechem-re-wah-chau around 1622–1619 BC Chr. Classification uncertain; maybe he also belongs to the 13th dynasty.
Sobekemsaf I. Sechem-Re-wadj-chau around 1619–1603 BC Chr. It is attested by little building activity and some rock inscriptions. His grave was apparently only opened and robbed in 1827.
Djehuti Sechem-Re-semen-taui around 1602–1601 BC Chr. Evidenced by a few blocks and a canopic box .
Mentuhotep VII. Seanch-en-Re around 1601 BC Chr. His sphere of influence no longer extended far beyond Thebes.
Nebirirau I. Sewadj-en-Re around 1601–1582 BC Chr. A previously suspected successor named Nebereraw II should probably be deleted.
Semen-en-Re around 1582–1580 BC Chr. Only attested in the Turin Royal Papyrus and by an ax.
Bebanch Seuser-en-Re around 1580–1572 BC Chr. Previously assigned to the 14th or 16th Dynasty.
Sobekemsaf II. Sechem-Re-sched-taui around 1572–1570 BC Chr. Presumably a son of Sobekemsaf I.
Anjotef V. Sechem-Re-wep-maat around 1570–1560 BC Chr.
Anjotef VI. Sechem-Re-heru-Hor-maat around 1560 BC Chr. He was a brother of Anjotef VII. His grave was robbed around 1850.
Anjotef VII. Nub-cheper-Re Perhaps a son of Sobekemsaf II, best known for his grave in Thebes-West, as well as some monuments from Karnak and Koptos.
Ahmose Senacht-en-Re around 1550 BC Chr. Apparently he came from a different family than his predecessors.
Taaa Seqen-en-Re around 1545 (1554) BC Chr. Probably a son of his predecessor Senachtenre. He fought the Hyksos and fell in battle.
Kamose Wadj-cheper-Re around 1545-1539 / 30 (1554-1550) BC Chr. He continued the fight against the Hyksos and was able to expand his sphere of influence northwards.
Heqa-Ptah Only attested on a stele, classification uncertain.

New kingdom

Pharaoh Throne name Reign Remarks
18th dynasty
Ahmose I. Neb-pechti-Re 1539-1514 (1550-1525) v. Chr. Ahmose still belongs to the 17th dynasty. He finally drove the Hyksos out of Egypt and also restored rule over Nubia. Built the last royal pyramid in Egypt.
Amenhotep I. Djeser-ka-Re 1514-1493 (1525-1504) v. Chr. Son of Ahmose. He ensured the internal political consolidation of the state and expanded the conquests in Nubia. He had numerous monuments erected based on those of the Middle Kingdom.
Thutmose I. Aa-cheper-ka-Re 1493-1482 (1504-1492) v. Chr. Thutmose I was not related to his predecessors, but came to the throne through marriage to a princess. He led campaigns against Nubia and Syria.
Thutmose II. Aa-cheper-en-Re 1482-1479 (1492-1479) v. Chr. He was married to his half-sister Hatshepsut and ruled only briefly.
Hatshepsut Maat-ka-Re 1479-1458 (1479 / 73-1458 / 57) v. Chr. Queen Hatshepsut initially ruled for the still underage Thutmose III, but then made herself sole ruler. An expedition to Punt is documented on reliefs on her mortuary temple in Deir el-Bahari .
Thutmose III. Men-cheper-Re 1458-1426 (1479-1425) v. Chr. Thutmose III. came to power only after the death of his stepmother Hatshepsut. He undertook numerous campaigns in the Middle East. Under him Egypt was at its greatest extent.
Amenhotep II Aa-cheperu-Re 1426-1400 (1428-1397) BC. Chr. Amenhotep II was a son of Thutmose III. and his co-regent for about two years. He undertook several campaigns in the Syrian-Palestinian area.
Thutmose IV. Men-cheperu-Re 1400-1390 (1397-1388) BC. Chr. He freed the Great Sphinx of Giza from the desert sand and erected the famous Sphinx stele .
Amenhotep III Neb-maat-Re 1390-1353 (1388-1351 / 50) v. Chr. Amenhotep III maintained diplomatic relations with Mitanni and undertook campaigns in Nubia. His construction activity was enormous, from him, for example, the main part of the Luxor Temple and his mortuary temple in Thebes West, the only remains of which are the famous Colossi of Memnon .
Amenhotep IV (Akhenaten) Nefer-cheperu-Re-wa-en-Re 1353-1336 (1351-1334) v. Chr. Akhenaten founded the first known monotheistic religion in world history with the worship of Aten as the only god . In Amarna he had the new residence "Achet-Aton" (horizon of the Aton) built. After his death, his memory was erased .
Neferneferuaton Anchet-cheperu-Re (merit-wa-en-Re) 1336-1335 BC Chr. Classification as reigning queen; Identification as Meritaton (after Rolf Krauss ) or Nefertiti is controversial.
Semenchkare Ankh-cheperu-Re 1335-1332 (1337-1333) v. Chr. A king almost nothing is known about. Maybe he was just a co-regent of Akhenaten.
Tutankhamun Neb-cheperu-Re 1332-1323 (1333-1323) v. Chr. Tutankhamun gained fame primarily for his grave . He moved the residence from Amarna to Memphis and restored the old religion. His early death is still the cause of much speculation.
Eje II. Cheper-cheperu-Re 1323-1319 BC Chr. Perhaps the father of Nefertiti and thus Akhenaten's father-in-law; Vizier under Tutankhamun.
Haremhab (horemheb) Djeser-cheperu-Re-setep-en-Re 1319-1292 BC Chr. Haremhab was of non-royal origin and is attested under Tutankhamun as commander in chief of the army.
19th dynasty
Ramses I. (Ramesse I.) Men-pechti-Re 1292-1290 BC Chr. Presumably general and vizier under Haremhab.
Sethos I. (Sethi I.) Men-maat-Re 1290-1279 (1290-1279 / 78) v. Chr. Seti I undertook campaigns in Syria and against the Libyans. His construction activity was very extensive. His mortuary temple with the famous list of kings was built in Abydos .
Ramses ii User-maat-Re 1279-1213 BC Chr. Ramses II was one of the most important pharaohs. After conflicts with the Hittites , the first known peace treaty in world history was drawn up under their rule . His building activity was the most extensive of all the pharaohs. The biblical exodus from Egypt probably happened during his reign.
Merenptah Ba-en-Re-meri-Amun 1213-1204 (1213-1203) v. Chr. Merenptah successfully repelled attacks by the Libyans and Sea Peoples . A people named Israel was first mentioned under his rule.
Seti II User-chepru-Re-setep-en-Re 1204–1198 (1200 / 1199–1194 / 93) v. Chr. (?) Some important papyri come from his reign.
Amenmesse Men-mi-Re-setep-en-Re 1203-1200 (1203-1200 / 1199) v. Chr. (?) The exact classification of this pharaoh is unclear. Perhaps he was an anti-king during the reign of Seti II.
Siptah 1. Secha-en-Re-meri-Amun
2. Ach-en-Re-setep-en-Re
1198-1193 (1194 / 93-1186 / 85) v. Chr. 1st throne name: 1st to 2nd year of government
2nd throne name: 2nd to 6th year of government
Thaw Sat-Re-meri-Amun 1193-1190 (1194 / 93-1186 / 85) v. Chr. Tausret was the wife of Seti II, who already ruled for the still underage stepson Siptah and after his untimely death assumed sole rule.
20th dynasty
Set night User-chau-Re-setep-en-Re-meri-Amun 1190-1187 (1186 / 85-1183 / 82) v. Chr. He had probably already opposed the reign of Tausret and came to the throne briefly after their death.
Ramses III. User-maat-Re-meri-Amun 1187-1156 (1183 / 82-1152 / 51) v. Chr. Ramses III. waged war against the Libyans and Sea Peoples. He fell victim to the conspiracy of some members of his court .
Ramses IV User-maat-Re-setep-en-Amun
1156-1150 (1152 / 51-1145 / 44) v. Chr. Second throne name from the 2nd year of government.
He was able to prevail against the conspirators who had murdered the father. The trial against these has come down to us in several papyri.
Ramses V. User-maat-Re-Secheper-en-Re 1150-1145 (1145 / 44-1142 / 40) v. Chr. Some important papyri, especially on legal history , have survived from his reign .
Ramses VI. Neb-maat-Re-meri-Amun 1145-1137 (1142 / 40-1134 / 32) v. Chr. In his first year of reign, Libyans presumably invaded Egypt.
Ramses VII User-maat-Re-setep-en-Re 1137-1129 (1134 / 32-1126 / 23) v. Chr. Documents from Deir el-Medine testify to an economic crisis during his reign.
Ramses VIII User-maat-Re-ach-en-Amun 1128 (1126 / 23-1125 / 21) v. Chr. It is only attested from Medinet Habu and by a few small objects.
Ramses IX. Nefer-ka-Re-setep-en-Re 1127-1109 (1125 / 21-1107 / 03) v. Chr. Under his rule the economic crisis continued; necropolises were looted .
Ramses X. Cheper-maat-Re-setep-en-Re 1109-1105 (1107 / 03-1103 / 1099) v. Chr. Son or son-in-law of Ramses IX.
Ramses XI. Men-maat-Re-setep-en-Ptah 1105-1076 / 70? (1103 / 1099-1070 / 69) v. Chr. The ongoing economic crisis culminated in a civil war under his rule.

Third intermediate time

Pharaoh Throne name Reign Remarks
21st dynasty
Smendes I. Hedj-cheper-Re 1069-1043 BC Chr. in the north 1080-1069? v. Chr.
Amenemnesut Nefer-ka-Re 1043-1039 BC Chr. Currently only attested in the grave of his successor Psusennes I.
Psusennes I. Aa-cheper-Re 1039-991 BC Chr. Best known for his pristine grave in Tanis .
Amenemope User-maat-Re 993-984 BC Chr. Valuable gifts were found in his grave.
Osochor Aa-cheper-Re 984-978 BC Chr. He is also called "Osorkon the Elder" and was probably of Libyan origin.
Siamun Netjeri-cheper-Re 978-959 BC Chr. Was the first ruler to bear the title of king "Pharaoh".
Psusennes II. Tit-cheperu-Re 959-945 BC Chr. Almost nothing is known about him. Perhaps he is with the high priest Psusennes III. identical.
High priest of the late 20th and 21st dynasties
Pianch 1087-1075 BC Chr. A general of the late 20th dynasty.
Herihor 1076-1066 BC Chr. Commander-in-Chief of the Army, Viceroy of Kush and Vizier during the transition from the 20th to the 21st dynasty.
Pinudjem I. Cheper-chau-Re 1070-1055 BC Chr. King 1070 / 54-1032 BC Chr.
Masaharta 1054-1046 BC Chr. Son of Pinudjem I.
Djedchonsiuefanch 1046-1045 BC Chr. Son of Pinudjem I.
Mencheperre Hem-netjer-tepi-en-Amun 1045-992 BC Chr. Son of Pinudjem I.
Smendes II. 992-990 BC Chr. Grandson of Psusennes' I.
Pinudjem II 990-969 BC Chr. Brother of Smendes II
Psusennes III. 969-945 BC Chr. Perhaps identical to Psusennes II.
22nd dynasty
Sheschonq I. Hedj-cheper-Re around 946-924 BC Chr. Made a campaign to Palestine and ransacked the Temple of Jerusalem .
Osorkon I. Sechem-cheper-Re around 925–890 BC Chr. From him rich donations to the Egyptian temples and trade relations with Syria are attested.
Takelot I. Hedj-cheper-Re around 890–877 BC Chr. Not clearly documented at the time.
Scheschonq II. Heka-cheper-Re around 924 BC Chr High priest of Amun in Thebes and later co-regent of his father Osorkons I.
Osorkon II. User-maat-Re 880 / 879-852 / 851 BC Chr. He supported the states of Syria-Palestine in the fight against Assyria. Co-regent of Takelot I from around 886/885 BC Chr.
Harsiese I. Hedj-cheper-Re-setep-en-Amun 870-860 BC Chr. High priest of Amun in Thebes and anti-king
Upper Egyptian line of the 22nd Dynasty
Takelot II. Hedj-cheper-Re 852 / 851-831 / 830 v. Chr. He installed his son Osorkon as high priest in Thebes, which led to the confrontation with Harsiese II. Takelot II came in the 23rd year of Osorkon II's reign around 856/855 BC. As co-regent to power.
Auput I. 831 / 830–? v. Chr. An insignificant petty king in Thebes.
Osorkon III. User-maat-Re 790-762 BC Chr. During his reign there was an exceptionally high flood of the Nile.
Takelot III. User-maat-Re 762-754 BC Chr. Originally high priest of Amun in Thebes.
a Ini 754-749 BC Chr. only attested by a graffito in the Temple of Month at Karnak . After DA Aston he would be the successor of Rudjamun in the Theban 23rd Dynasty.
b Pajeftjauemauibastet 749-727 BC Chr. Local king of Herakleopolis; is counted by Aston to the Theban 23rd Dynasty.
Sheschonq VI. 727-715 BC Chr. Existence uncertain.
Lower Egyptian line of the 22nd Dynasty
Scheschonq III. User-maat-Re 863-825 / 813 BC Chr. Tested by some construction projects in the Delta.
Sheschonq IIIa. possibly 825–813 BC Chr. Existence uncertain.
Pami User-maat-Re 813-804 BC Chr Apparently there was a famine at the end of his reign.
Scheschonq V. Aa-cheper-Re / Aa-cheperu (-Re) 804-767 BC Chr. Major construction work in Tanis is attested from his later reigns.
Petubastis II 767-732 / 730 BC Chr.
Osorkon IV. Aa-cheper-Re-setep-en-Amun 732 / 730-715 / 713 BC Chr. He submitted to the Cushite Pije.
23rd Dynasty
Petubastis I. User-maat-Re-setep-en-Amun 856 / 855-831 / 830 BC Chr. Opponent of Takelot II. , Scheschonq III. and Osorkon, son of Takelot II.
Sheschonq IV. User-maat-Re 831 / 830-825 / 824 BC Chr. Existence uncertain.
Rudjamun User-maat-Re 759-754 BC Chr. Evidenced by little building activity in Karnak and Medinet Habu.
Iupet II. 753-730 BC Chr Iupet II was an opponent of Pije, to which he eventually submitted.
24th dynasty
Tefnights Schepses-Re 727-720 BC Chr. Originally local king of Sais, then founder of the 24th dynasty.
Bakenrenef (Bokchoris) Wah-ka-Re 720-716 BC Chr. Only a few steles and scarabs testify to it at the time.
25th Dynasty ( Cushites )
Alara 780-760 BC Chr. Not documented at the time, probably not yet ruled in Egypt itself. Perhaps identical to Aryamani .
Kashta Maa-Re 760-746 BC Chr. Conquered Lower Nubia and Egypt to Aswan .
Pije User-maat-Re / Senefer-Re 746-716 BC Chr. Continued the campaigns of his predecessors and completely conquered Egypt.
Shebitko (Shabataka) Djed-kau-Re / Djed-ka-Re 716-707 / 706 BC Chr. Lost a battle against the Assyrians in Palestine . Older research saw him as the successor to Shabaka.
Shabaka Nefer-ka-Re 707 / 706-691 BC Chr. First Kushite king to reside in Egypt.
Taharqa Chui-nefertem-Re 691-664 BC Chr. His reign was marked by the struggle against the Assyrians, who took northern Egypt to Thebes in 667/66.
Tanotamun Ba-ka-Re 664-657 BC Chr. Brief recapture of northern Egypt.
High priest of Amun
Iupet 944-924 BC Chr. Son of Scheschonq I.
Scheschonq II. Maa-cheper-Re-setep-en-Re 924-894 BC Chr. In later years a king of the 22nd Dynasty.
Iuwelot 894-884 BC Chr. Son of Osorkon I.
Smendes III. 884 - 874 BC Chr. Son of Osorkon I.
Harsiese I. Hedj-cheper-Re-setep-en-Amun 874-860 BC Chr. Son of Scheschonq II.
... diu ... 860-855 BC Chr. Son of Harsieses I; Name preserved only in fragments.
Namilt (II.) 855-840 or 855-845 BC Chr. Son of Osorkon II.
Takelot 845-840 BC Chr. Son of Namilt (II.), Perhaps identical to the Takelot who succeeded Harsiese II.
Osorkon (Prince) 840-785 BC Chr. Perhaps identical to Osorkon III.
Harsiese II. 835-800 BC Chr. Maybe a grandson of Harsiese I.
Takelot 800-775 BC Chr. Son of Namilt (II.), Perhaps identical to his successor, otherwise a younger son of the same name.
not clear 775-765 BC Chr.
Takelot III. 765-754 BC Chr. Later a 23rd Dynasty king.
Between 754 and 704 BC There were either two unknown high priests or the office was vacant .
Haremachet 704-660 BC Chr. Son of Shabaka.
Harchebi 660-644 BC Chr. Son of haremachets.
Between 644 and 595 BC There were either two unknown high priests or the office was vacant.
Anchnesneferibre Hekat-neferu-courage 595-560 BC Chr. Consort of Amun.
Nitokris II 560-550 BC Chr. Daughter of Amasis
Wives of God
Karomama Meritmut I. 870-840 BC Chr. Maybe daughter of Harsieses I.
Taschacheper around 770 BC Chr.?
Schepenupet I. Chenem (-et) -ibimen 754-714 BC Chr. Daughter of Osorkon III.
Amenirdis I. Chat neferu courage 740-700 BC Chr. Daughter of Kashta.
Schepenupet II. Henut-neferu-courage 710-650 BC Chr. Daughter of Pije.
Amenirdis II. 670-640 BC Chr. Daughter of Taharqa.
Nitokris I. Neb (-et) -neferu-courage 656-595 BC Chr. Daughter of Psammetich I.
Anchnesneferibre Hekat-neferu-courage 595-525 BC Chr. 595-560 BC At the same time high priestess of Amun.
Local royalties
see Local Royalty of the Third Intermediate Period
Assyrian rule
Azarhaddon 681–669 (in Egypt from 671) BC. Chr. The anti-Assyrian policies of the Cushite 25th Dynasty prompted him to attack Egypt. He managed to conquer the delta.
Ashurbanipal 669–627 (in Egypt to 664) BC. Chr. After the death of Azarhaddon, Ashurbanipal resumed the conquest of Egypt and finally drove out the Cushites.

Late period

Pharaoh Throne name Reign Remarks
26th Dynasty (Saïten period)
Psammetich I. Wah-ib-Re 664-610 BC Chr. Moved the capital from Memphis to Saïs . Supported Assyria against the Medes and Scythians .
Necho II. Wehem-ib-Re 610-595 BC Chr. Established a naval force for the first time in Egyptian history. Had a canal built between the Nile and the Red Sea .
Psammetich II. Nefer-ib-Re 595-589 BC Chr. Waged a war against Nubia and destroyed the monuments of the Kushite kings and his father.
Apries Haa-ib-Re 589-570 BC Chr. After military failures in Palestine and Libya, uprising under Amasis .
Amasis Khnum-ib-Re 570-526 BC Chr. Led Egypt to a new cultural and economic prosperity.
Psammetich III. Ankh-ka-en-Re 526-525 BC Chr. Ruled only about 6 months. Was defeated by Cambyses II at Pelusion .
27th Dynasty (1st Persian rule )
Cambyses II Mestiu-Re 525-522 BC Chr. Son of Cyrus II. Conquered Egypt and incorporated it into the Persian Empire.
Petubastis IV. Seheribre Seher-ib-Re / Seheru-ib-Re Opposite king at the beginning of the 27th dynasty, exact classification uncertain.
Darius I. 1. Setut-Re
2. Meri-imen-Re
521-486 BC Chr. Next to Cyrus the great most famous Persian king. Patron of the arts and skilled reformer.
Psammetich IV. around 486 BC Chr. according to some demotic documents from Diospolis Parva
Xerxes I. 486-466 BC Chr. Failed to conquer Greece.
Artaxerxes I. 465-424 BC Chr. Defeated a united army of Egyptians, Libyans and Greeks in the Battle of Papremis .
Inaros II Opposite king of Libyan origin.
Xerxes II. 424-423 BC Chr. Was murdered in his sleep by Sogdianos.
Sogdianos 423 BC Chr. Was captured and executed by Darius II.
Darius II 423-404 BC Chr. Under him, Egypt gained independence with Greek support.
Artaxerxes II. 404-402 BC Chr. It was still used until 402 BC. Recognized as Pharaoh in southern Egypt.
28th Dynasty
Amyrtaios (Psammetich V.) 404-399 BC Chr. The only pharaoh of the 28th Dynasty. Was initially only recognized in Lower Egypt, 400 BC. Then in Upper Egypt.
29th Dynasty
Nepherites I. Ba-en-Re 399-393 BC Chr. Supported Sparta in the war against Persia .
Muthis 393-392 BC Chr.? According to Manetho as Muthis and according to Demotic Chronicle, son of Nepherites I.
Hakor Chenem-maat-Re 393-380 BC Chr.? Operate an anti-Persian policy.
Psammuthis User Re 393-392 BC Chr.? Against king.
Nepherites II. 380 BC Chr. Ruled only 4 months.
30th dynasty
Nectanebo I. Cheper-ka-Re 379-360 BC Chr. He deposed Nepherites II as ruler. 373 BC He succeeded in repelling an attempted Persian invasion.
Djedhor Iri-maat-en-Re 360-359 BC Chr. He recaptured Palestine and Syria with the help of Greek mercenaries.
Nectanebo II Senedjem-ib-Re 359-341 BC Chr. Nectanebo II supported uprisings against the Persians, which nevertheless gradually conquered Egypt from winter 342/341.
31st Dynasty (2nd Persian rule )
Artaxerxes III. 341-338 BC Chr. He managed to reintegrate Egypt into the Persian Empire for a short time. He had coins minted on which he identified himself as Pharaoh. Artaxerxes was poisoned by his general Bagoas .
Arses 338-336 BC Chr. Arses was installed as the new Great King by Bagoas after his father was poisoned, but later also poisoned.
Chabbash Senen-Tenen 338-336 BC Chr. Against king. His reign is sometimes referred to as “32. Dynasty ”.
Dareios III. 336-332 BC Chr. His satrap Mazakes handed over in 332 BC. BC Egypt without a fight Alexander the Great, who finally defeated Darius a year later.

Greco-Roman time

Pharaoh Throne name Reign Remarks
Alexander III the great Meri-Amun-setep-en-Re 332-323 BC Chr. Conquered Egypt on his way and founded Alexandria .
Philip III Arrhidaios Meri-Amun-setep-en-Re 323-317 BC Chr. Half brother of Alexander. Was considered imbecile. Murdered by Olympias .
Alexander IV Aigos Haa-ib-Re-setep-en-Amun 317-310 BC Chr. Son of Alexander . Murdered by Kassandros .
Interregnum from 310 to 306 BC Chr.
Ptolemy I Soter Meri-Amun-setep-en-Re 323-306 BC BC (Satrap of Egypt)
306–283 BC BC (king)
One of the generals of Alexander the Great and Diadoche . Founder of the Ptolemaic dynasty. Builder of the Library of Alexandria .
Magas 300 - approx. 250 BC Chr. Independent king of Cyrene . Led Cyrene to cultural bloom.
Ptolemy II Philadelphus User-ka-en-Re-meri-Amun 285-283 BC BC (co-regent)
283–246 BC Chr. (Sole ruler)
Maintained Egypt's position in the first and second Syrian wars. Builder of the Alexandria lighthouse
Demetrios the fair 250-249 / 248 BC Chr. Successor to the magazine . Was murdered by the Cyrenian people after an affair with Apame (widow of the Magas).
Ptolemy III Yours Iua-en-netjerui-senui-Sechem-anch-Re-setep-Amun 248-246 BC BC (King of Cyrene)
246–222 BC Chr. (Sole ruler)
Largest expansion of the Ptolemaic Empire after the Third Syrian War .
Ptolemy IV Philopator Iua-en-netjerui-men-chui-setep-Ptah-user-ka-Re 222-205 BC Chr. Won in the Battle of Raphia over Antiochus III.
Horwennofer 206-200 BC Chr. Anti-king in Upper Egypt; ruled in Thebes; recognized by the Amun priesthood .
Ptolemy V Epiphanes Iua-en-netjerui-meruj-it-setep-Ptah-user-ka-Re 205-180 BC Chr. The Ptolemaic possessions in Europe, Asia Minor and Syria were lost. Poisoned by their own courtiers.
Anchwennefer 200-186 BC Chr. Successor (possibly even the son) of Hor-Wennofer . Captured and executed after losing to Komanos.
Ptolemy VI Philometor Iua-en-netjerui-perui-setep-en-Ptah-chepri-iri-maat-en-Amun-Re 180-164 BC Chr.
163-145 v. Chr.
Started building the Philae temple complex . Fell in the Battle of Oinoparas .
Antiochus IV. Epiphanes 168 BC Chr. Seleucid king . Forced by the Romans to withdraw on the day of Eleusis .
Ptolemy Eupator 152 BC BC (co-regent) Eldest son of Ptolemy VI. Died in the summer of 152 BC. Chr.
Ptolemy VII. Neos Philopator 145 BC Chr. Son of Ptolemy VI. Murdered by his uncle Ptolemy VIII .
Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II 170-164 BC BC (co-regent)
164/163 BC Chr. (
Sole ruler) 163–145 BC BC (King of Cyrene)
145–131 BC BC (sole ruler)
128–116 BC Chr. (Sole ruler)
Sales Jews and intellectuals from Alexandria. Fought a civil war (132-124 BC) against Cleopatra II. Had his son Ptolemy Memphites murdered.
Cleopatra II. 170-164 BC BC (co-regent)
131–128 BC Chr.
116/115 v. Chr.
Married her two brothers Ptolemy VI. and Ptolemy VIII. After the latter had taken their daughter as his wife, civil war broke out.
Harsies 131-130 BC Chr. Counter-king in Thebes . Last ancient Egyptian to bear the title of pharaoh.
Ptolemy IX Sotêr II. 116-107 BC Chr.
106-88 v. BC (King of Cyprus)
88–81 BC Chr.
From Cleopatra III. expelled to Cyprus. Was at war with Alexander Iannaios .
Cleopatra III. 116-107 BC BC (co-regent)
107–101 BC Chr.
Intervened in the Seleucid family dispute. Murdered by her son Ptolemy X.
Ptolemy X. Alexander I. 110-107 BC BC (King of Cyprus)
107–101 BC BC (co-regent)
101–88 BC Chr. (Sole ruler)
From Ptolemy IX expelled. Killed trying to conquer Cyprus .
Ptolemy Apion 100-96 BC Chr. King of Cyrene . Also called Ptolemy IX . designated. Inherit his empire to the Romans .
Berenike III. 81-80 BC Chr. Daughter of Ptolemy IX. From Ptolemy XI. murdered.
Ptolemy XI. Alexander II 80 BC Chr. Son of Ptolemy X. Ruled only a few days. Killed by an angry crowd.
Ptolemy XII Neos Dionysus Iua-en-pa-netjer-nehem-setep-en-Ptah-iri-maat 80-58 BC Chr.
55–51 BC Chr.
Illegitimate son of Ptolemy IX. Recognized by the Roman Senate as amicus et socius populi Romani .
Ptolemy of Cyprus 80-58 BC Chr. Under him and his brother Ptolemy XII. the empire was divided. Committed suicide after the Roman conquest of Cyprus.
Berenike IV. 58-55 BC Chr. Half-sister of Cleopatra . Dethroned her father Ptolemy XII. Later murdered by him.
Cleopatra VI. 58/57 BC Chr. (Co-regent) Ruled briefly with Berenike IV. 58/57 BC Chr.
Archelaus 56/55 BC BC (co-regent) Consort of Berenike IV. Fell in battle against Aulus Gabinius .
Cleopatra VII. 52/51 BC BC (co-regent)
51–30 BC Chr.
Beloved Caesar and Antony . Suicide after the capture of Alexandria by Augustus .
Ptolemy XIII 50-47 BC BC (co-regent) Brother of Cleopatra VII. Drowned while fleeing in the Nile.
Arsinoe IV. 48/47 BC Chr. Counter Queen. Sister of Cleopatra VII. Captured by Caesar after the Alexandrian War .
Ptolemy XIV 48/47 BC BC (King of Cyprus)
47–44 BC BC (co-regent)
Brother of Cleopatra VII. Murdered by this.
Ptolemy XV Kaisarion Iua-pa-netjer-neti-nehem-setep-en-Ptah-iri-maat-Re-Sechem- (anch) -Amun 44-30 BC BC (co-regent) Son of Caesar . At the age of 3 he was named co-regent of his mother Cleopatra VII . Murdered on the orders of Augustus .
Roman emperor
This table only contains the emperors who are also hieroglyphically attested in Egypt. For a complete overview see the list of Roman emperors of antiquity .
Augustus 1. Heka-hekau-setep-en-Ptah
2. Autocrator
27 BC Chr. – 14 AD Took 30 BC BC Alexandria, made Egypt a Roman province .
Tiberius AD 14–37 Persecuted the Isis cult in Rome in 19 AD .
Caligula Autocrator Heka-hekau-meri-Ptah-aset A.D. 37–41 Adopted the Isis cult into the Roman state religion; Persecution of the Jews around 38 AD; Execution of Ptolemy of Mauritania around AD 40
Claudius 1. Autocrator Heka-hekau-meri-aset-Ptah
2. Kaisaros Germanikos
3. Kaisaros Sebastos
AD 41–54 With the pronaos of the Khnum temple of Esna, the last Egyptian temple construction began.
Nero 1. Heka-hekau-setep-en-Ptah-meri-aset
2. Kaisaros Germanikos
A.D. 54–68 Expedition to subjugate the Empire of Meroe .
Galba 68-69 AD Attested in the temple of Isis at Deir esch-Schelwit in West Thebes.
Otho 69 AD Attested in the temple of Isis at Deir esch-Schelwit in West Thebes.
Vespasian AD 69–79 Caused the closure of the Yahweh temple in Tell el-Jahudija .
Titus 1. Titos
2. Autocrator Titos Kaisaros
AD 79-81 Tested in several Egyptian temples.
Domitian Her-sa-aset-meri-netjeru-neb (u) A.D. 81–96 Was very committed to the Isis cult.
Nerva AD 96-98 Nerva is attested in Aswan , Esna and Diospolis Parva .
Trajan 1. Autocrator Kaisaros Nerouas
2. Germanikos Dakikos
AD 98-117 Uprising of the Jews a . a. in Egypt and Cyrene around 115/116; Brisk construction activity in Egypt.
Hadrian A.D. 117–138 Foundation of Antinoopolis ; Villa Adriana partly in Egyptian style.
Antoninus Pius Autocrator Kaisaros Titos Ailios Adrianos A.D. 138–161 Peasant uprising in Egypt 152/53 AD
Marc Aurel A.D. 161–180 Revolt of Avidius Cassius in Egypt and Syria.
Lucius Verus 161–169 AD (co-regent) Lucius Verus is attested in Qaw el-Kebir and in Philae .
Commodus A.D. 180–192 In processions he appeared as an officer of the Egyptian cult.
Pertinax 193 AD Ruled 3 months; hieroglyphically documented in Dachla .
Septimius Severus C 193–211 Re-establishment of city councils in Alexandria and other Egyptian cities.
Caracalla C 211–217 For the first time had the image of Serapis struck on coins; an uprising in Alexandria was bloodily suppressed.
Geta 211 AD Brother of Caracalla, murdered at his behest.
Macrinus AD 217–218 Murdered while fleeing Elagabal .
Diadumenianus AD 218 (co-regent) Son of Macrinus; murdered while fleeing from Elagabal in Zeugma .
Severus Alexander 222–235 AD Last emperor of the Severi . Testified in the pronaos of Esna.
Philip Arabs A.D. 244–249 Was killed fighting Decius.
Decius C 249-251 Testified in the Temple of Khnum at Esna.
Valerian A.D. 253–260 Only attested on a stele.
Aurelian 270–275 AD Only attested to on a stele for a beech animal .
Zenobia AD 270-272 After conquering Egypt, she declared herself Queen of Egypt. She also claimed to be descended from Cleopatra VII.
Probus A.D. 276–282 Suggested the incident in Egypt Blemmyes back.
Diocletian A.D. 284–305 Persecuted Christianity .
Maximian C 285-310 Only attested on a stele.
Galerius AD 293-311 Suppression of the uprising in Busiris and Koptos (294 AD); Opposing emperors: Domitius Domitianus and Aurelius Achilleus (297 AD)
Maximinus Daia A.D. 305-313 Last emperor with hieroglyphics.

See also


General representations
  • Darrell D. Baker: The Encyclopedia of the Egyptian Pharaohs. Volume I: Predynastic to the Twentieth Dynasty (3300-1069 BC). Bannerstone Press, Oakville / CT 2008, ISBN 978-0-9774094-4-0 .
  • Jürgen von Beckerath : Chronology of the pharaonic Egypt. The timing of Egyptian history from prehistoric times to 332 BC BC (= Munich Egyptological Studies . Vol. 46). von Zabern, Mainz 1997, ISBN 3-8053-2310-7 .
  • Jürgen von Beckerath: Handbook of the Egyptian king names (= Munich Egyptological studies. Vol. 49). 2nd edition, von Zabern, Mainz 1999, ISBN 3-8053-2591-6
  • Peter A. Clayton: The Pharaohs. Econ, Düsseldorf 1995, ISBN 3-430-11867-0 .
  • Martin von Falck, Susanne Martinssen-von Falck: The great pharaohs. From the early days to the Middle Kingdom. Marix, Wiesbaden 2015, ISBN 978-3-7374-0976-6 .
  • Susanne Martinssen-von Falck: The great pharaohs. From the New Kingdom to the Late Period. Marix, Wiesbaden 2018, ISBN 978-3-7374-1057-1 .
  • Erik Hornung , Rolf Krauss , David A. Warburton (Eds.): Ancient Egyptian Chronology (= Handbook of Oriental Studies. Section 1: The Near and Middle East. Vol. 83). Brill, Leiden / Boston 2006, ISBN 978-90-04-11385-5 .
  • Thomas Schneider : Lexicon of the Pharaohs. Artemis & Winkler, Düsseldorf 1997, ISBN 3-7608-1102-7
Predynastic time
  • Francies Amadeus Karl Breyer: The testimonies of the predynastic royal tomb Uj in Umm el-Qaab, attempt at a new interpretation. In: The Journal of Egyptian Archeology. Vol. 88, 2002, pp. 53-65 (the author is skeptical about Dreyer's royal name readings).
  • Günter Dreyer : Umm el-qaab I. The predynastic royal tomb Uj and its early written documents. von Zabern, Mainz 1998, ISBN 3-8053-2486-3 .
  • Wolfgang Helck : Investigations on the Thinite Age (= Ägyptologische Abhandlungen. (ÄA) Vol. 45). Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden 1987, ISBN 3-447-02677-4 , ( limited online version ).
Old empire
  • Peter Der Manuelian , Thomas Schneider (Ed.): Towards a New History for the Egyptian Old Kingdom. Perspectives on the Pyramid Age (= Harvard Egyptological Studies. Volume 1). Brill, Leiden / Boston 2015, ISBN 978-90-04-30188-7 .
  • Günter Dreyer: The first king of the 3rd dynasty. In: Heike Guksch, Daniel Polz (Ed.): Stations. Contributions to the cultural history of Egypt. Dedicated to Rainer Stadelmann. von Zabern, Mainz 1998, ISBN 3-8053-2526-6 , pp. 31-34.
  • Rolf Krauss : Chronology and pyramid construction in the 4th dynasty. In: Orientalia. No. 66, Rome 1997, ISSN  0030-5367 , pp. 1-14.
First split
Middle realm
  • Rolf Krauss: Problems of the ancient Egyptian calendar and the chronology of the Middle and New Kingdom in Egypt. Dissertation Free University, Berlin 1981.
  • Ulrich Luft: The chronological fixation of the Egyptian Middle Kingdom according to the temple archive of Illahun. In: Meeting reports of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, Philosophical-Historical Class. Vol. 598, Vienna 1992, ISBN 3-7001-1988-7 .
Second split
  • Jürgen von Beckerath: Investigations into the political history of the second intermediate period. Augustin, Glücksstadt 1964.
  • KSB Ryholt : The Political Situation in Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period c. 1800-1550 BC Museum Tusculanum Press, Copenhagen 1997, ISBN 87-7289-421-0 (in much controversial work on the period, but it contains detailed lists of all known rulers).
New kingdom
Third intermediate time
  • Farouk Gomaà: The Libyan principalities of the Delta from the death of Osorkon II to the reunification of Egypt by Psametik I (= Tübingen Atlas of the Middle East. Supplements, Vol. 6). Reichert, Wiesbaden 1974, ISBN 3-920153-31-6 .
  • Kenneth Anderson Kitchen : The Third Intermediate Period in Egypt (1100-650 BC). Aris & Phillips, Warminster 1986, ISBN 0-85668-298-5 .
Late period
  • Friedrich Karl Kienitz : The political history of Egypt from the 7th to the 4th century before the turn of the century. Academy, Berlin 1953.
Ptolemaic Egypt
Roman Egypt
  • Günther Hölbl: Ancient Egypt in the Roman Empire: The Roman Pharaoh and his Temple / 1. Roman politics and ancient Egyptian ideology from Augustus to Diocletian, temple building in Upper Egypt. von Zabern, Mainz 2000, ISBN 3-8053-2392-1 .
  • Dietmar Kienast : Roman imperial table. Basic features of a Roman imperial chronology. 3rd edition, Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, Darmstadt 1996, ISBN 3-534-18240-5 .

Web links

Commons : Pharaohs  - collection of pictures, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Thomas Schneider: Lexicon of the Pharaohs. Artemis & Winkler, Düsseldorf 1997.
  2. Jürgen von Beckerath: Chronology of the Pharaonic Egypt. The timing of Egyptian history from prehistoric times to 332 BC BC (= Munich Egyptological Studies . Vol. 46). von Zabern, Mainz 1997.
  3. on ancient Egyptian culture, Volume 37
  4. a b On the topicality of Jan Assmann: Introduction to his work
  5. [1]
  6. [2]
  7. The order in this list follows the information provided by Günter Dreyer, who, based on archaeological finds, sees Djoser as the founder of the 3rd dynasty. Older works follow the information in the Abydos list and in the Turin Royal Papyrus, both of which let the 3rd dynasty begin with Nebka.
  8. Cf. Rolf Krauss: Sothis and Moon Data: Studies on the Astronomical and Technical Chronology of Ancient Egypt , Gerstenberg, Hildesheim 1985, ISBN 3-8067-8086-X , p. 4.
  9. The timing of his reign varies greatly. The information in this list is based on R. Krauss. Other information can be found e.g. B. Barta (1714–1701 BC) or Beckerath (1700–1690 BC).
  10. The division of the 22nd and the 23rd dynasty is quite problematic. This list largely follows the classic division into two parts by Kenneth A. Kitchen . Other classifications can be found e.g. B. at DA Aston or Jürgen von Beckerath.
  11. According to Beckerath, Scheschonq is not co-regent Osorkon I but successor to Takelot I.
  12. Aston no longer counts Takelot to the 22nd dynasty, but begins with him a "Theban 23rd Dynasty", into which, after Takelot II, he lets all kings from Kitchens 23rd dynasty follow, with the exception of Sheschonq IV., Iupet II. and the controversial Scheschonq VI. In addition, after Rudjamun, he adds Ini and Pajeftjauemauibastet. Beckerath constructs an Upper Egyptian line of the 22nd Dynasty, which is practically identical to the division of Aston, but ends with Ini.
  13. At the time of Artaxerxes II there was an uprising under Amyrtaios , which was only recognized as a pharaoh in some parts of Egypt.
  14. Ptolemy I counted his reign from Alexander's death (323 BC), since he was already the satrap of Egypt from this point on . In the fall of 306 BC He took the title of king.
  15. Werner Huss: Egypt in the Hellenistic Period 332-30 BC Chr. Munich 2001 , p. 506
  16. Ptolemy VI. was deposed by his younger brother, Ptolemy VIII , but was able to recapture the throne with the help of the Romans.
  17. After Ptolemy VIII fled Egypt, Cleopatra II was proclaimed sole ruler.
  18. Cleopatra ruled from autumn 116 to spring 115 BC Together with Ptolemy IX. and Cleopatra III.
  19. The beginning of his rule could not be until the year 100 BC. BC, but it probably began a little earlier.
  20. Max liver right Strack: The dynasty of the Ptolemies , 1897 Berlin
  21. Throne names that consist exclusively of the titles "Autocrator" or "Kaisaros" are not taken into account in the following
  22. Trevor Bryce: Ancient Syria: A Three Thousand Year History 2014, p. 304.
This version was included in the selection of informative lists and portals on April 30, 2007 .