Ramses I.

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Name of Ramses I.
StatueHeadOfParamessu-TitledFrontalView-RamessesI MuseumOfFineArtsBoston.png
Head of a statue of Ramses I .; Museum of Fine Arts , Boston
Throne name
Hiero Ca1.svg
F9 F9
Hiero Ca2.svg
Remaining / permanent is the strength of Re
Proper name
Hiero Ca1.svg
ra ms s sw w
Hiero Ca2.svg
Rˁ msj sw
Re is the one who gave birth to him
Greek Flavius ​​Josephus :
Ῥαμέσσης (Raméssēs)

Ramses I was an ancient Egyptian king ( Pharaoh ) and founder of the 19th Dynasty ( New Kingdom ), who lived from 1291 BC. BC to 1290 BC Ruled.

Origin and advancement

Like his predecessor Haremhab , Ramses I also comes from the ranks of the military leaders. As a political foster son of the haremhab, who had no children himself, he was initially a simple officer , then troop and fortress commander, and later on the general staff. Eventually he became the king's envoy and general of the chariot troops before Haremhab appointed him vizier . In this capacity he became the king's representative in Upper and Lower Egypt.

The traditional designation according to the festival calendar did not take place under Haremhab. The title "King's son of the Haremhab" with the nickname Neb-Henemmet was only applied to the pre-existing sarcophagi of Ramses I after Haremhab's death . One was found in Thebes , the other in Gurob . The special circumstances of the subsequent affixing of the “prince's title” show that Ramses I had to assume that he would be buried in his function as vizier before he ascended to the throne. In this context, Ramses I referred to the decision of the Council of Gods to appoint him as the successor of Haremhab as the new king of the two countries .

His son Seti I also referred to the "neglected circumstances in Egypt" before his father Ramses I ascended the throne. The official appointment as successor was also obviously opposed to the practice that only biological sons of the reigning king could be designated as successors and publicly proclaimed for later coronation . Thus, Ramses I, like his predecessor Haremhab or Hatshepsut , was one of the few ancient Egyptian kings who could not refer to an official designation.


Stela of Ramses I before Seth

At the beginning of his reign, Ramses I was well over 50 years old. During his very short reign of only 16 months, Ramses I left only a single stele that could be dated to him . He continued to consolidate and stabilize the iniquity and after his death left behind an orderly government apparatus with loyal officials.

Punitive expedition

His son Sethos I undertook a punitive expedition to southern Palestine as crown prince ; the prisoners of war were donated to the temple in Buhen . This temple was dedicated to Amun - Min by Ramses I , as the stele from Wadi Halfa reports.

Construction activity

Relief from Abydos

Construction work on the Karnak Temple continued: the 2nd pylon and the great hall of columns began. Further references to the king can be found in Memphis and Heliopolis as well as the temples of Seti I in Abydos and Qurna , where he built memorial chapels for his father. The well-known statue of Horus von Mesen together with Ramses I also dates from the time of Sethos I.

As king, he began building a new grave in the Valley of the Kings ( KV16 ), which is best known for its well-preserved and high-quality wall paintings depicting texts and scenes from the port book .

His death

His tomb was not finished when the pharaoh died. The mummy was buried in an antechamber that had been prepared as a burial chamber.

Boar calendar and heliacal rise of Sirius

Heliacal rise of Sirius in the 1st year of the reign of Ramses I.
Observation site Egyptian date Gregorian calendar Possible years
Memphis 1. Thoth 5th July 1315 to 1314 BC Chr.
Elephantine 1. Thoth June 29th 1292 to 1291 BC Chr.

The period of the heliacal rise of Sirius mentioned in the boar calendar of Amenophis I determines the year of the takeover of government by Ramses I, the date of which corresponds to the assignment of Jürgen von Beckerath , among other things .

Odyssey of the Mummy

Mummy returned to Egypt from Atlanta, USA

The king's mummy experienced a true odyssey . Already in the 21st dynasty (under Smendes I / Pinudjem I ) it was brought to the grave of Seti I ( KV17 ) together with that of his grandson Ramses II , probably as protection from grave robbers . Under Siamun (21st Dynasty) another reburial took place in the famous cachette of Deir el-Bahari (DB / TT320). After the discovery of the cachette, Abd el-Rassul sold the mummy to an American. In 1870 it appeared in the Niagara Falls Museum and stayed there until 1999, when it was sold to the Michael C. Carlos Museum in Atlanta / USA. After long negotiations, it was returned to the Cairo Egyptian Museum in 2003. Zahi Hawass identified her as the mummy of Ramses I, mainly because of the similarity to that of Sethos I. Doubts about her identity are in order as long as no DNA analysis has been carried out. On March 9, 2004 she found her (temporarily) final resting place in the Luxor Museum , together with that of Ahmose , the founder of the 18th dynasty .


Web links

Commons : Ramses I.  - Collection of pictures, videos and audio files


  1. July 5, 1315/1314 BC Of the Gregorian calendar corresponds to July 18, 1315/1314 BC. In the proleptic calendar.
  2. June 29, 1292/91 BC Of the Gregorian calendar corresponds to July 12, 1292/91 BC. In the proleptic calendar.

Individual evidence

  1. Contra Apionem I 15: τοῦ δὲ Ῥαμέσσης ἓν καὶ μῆνας τέσσαρας.
  2. Siegfried Schott: The memorial stone Sethos 'I for the chapel Ramses' I in Abydos. P. 43.
  3. Siegfried Schott: The memorial stone Sethos 'I for the chapel Ramses' I in Abydos. Pp. 36-37.
  4. Siegfried Schott: The memorial stone Sethos 'I for the chapel Ramses' I in Abydos. P. 45.
  5. ^ Rolf Gundlach : 4th Egyptological Temple Conference. Festivities in the temple, Cologne, 10. – 12. October 1996. Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden 1998, ISBN 3-447-04067-X , p. 63.
  6. ^ Jean Meeus : Astronomical Algorithms. Applications for Ephemeris Tool 4.5. Barth, Leipzig 2000 for: Ephemeris Tool 4.5 according to Jean Meeus, conversion program, 2001 .
  7. Rolf Krauss: Sothis and moon data: Studies on the astronomical and technical chronology of ancient Egypt. Hildesheim 1985, p. 207.
  8. Cf. also Gernot Wilhelm : The Egyptian Chronology of the New Kingdom. In: Bernd Janowski, Gernot Wilhelm: Texts from the Environment of the Old Testament Vol. 1 (New Series), Gütersloher Verlagshaus, Gütersloh 2004, p. 359.
  9. National Geographic News: US Museum to Return Ramses I Mummy to Egypt , April 30, 2003, accessed June 4, 2017.
  10. Spiegel TV Special: Mysterious Mummies
predecessor Office successor
Haremhab Pharaoh of Egypt
19th Dynasty (beginning)
Seti I.