|Name of Hatshepsut|
Bust of hatshepsut
Rich in Ka forces
Lots of years
With divine appearances
Justice and life force of Re
The first of the ladies
|Karnak King List||
The first of the ladies Amun hugs
Josephus : Amesse, Amessis
Africanus : Amensis, Amersis
Eusebius : -
Eusebius, A -Version : -
Hatshepsut was an ancient Egyptian queen ( Pharaoh nin). It is attributed to the 18th Dynasty ( New Kingdom ). According to Egyptian chronology , she ruled from about 1479 to 1458 BC. (Helck: 1467–1445, Krauss: 1479–1458).
The name Hatshepsut means “the first of the noble women” or, as shown in the cartouche of personal names in the king's list of Karnak on the lower right: “The first of the noble women (ladies) to hug Amun”.
Members of the family are:
- Father: Thutmose I.
- Mother: Queen Ahmose
- Brothers: Amunmose and Wadjmes
- Sister: Nofrubiti
- Half-brother and husband: Thutmose II (mother: concubine Mutnofret )
Hatshepsut and Thutmose II had two daughters together. In the past there were controversial discussions about the second daughter Meritre Hatshepsut . The only indications arise from the same name as the mother of Amenophis II and the remark by Ahmose Pennechbet , who describes the daughter Neferu-Re as the “first / oldest” daughter. When naming, the first daughter was usually given the name of the grandmother, while the second daughter was given the name of the mother.
Neferu-Re practiced until her death in the 23rd or 24th year of reign (around 1456 BC) of Thutmose III. the office of the " wife of God of Amun ". Previous assumptions that Neferu-Re died between the 11th and 16th year of Hatshepsut's reign are invalid due to the evidence of the usurped representation of Neferu-Re. Another title by Neferu-Re: "Daughter from the loins of the king". Nothing is known about the cause of death, there is only a hint from Ahmose Pennechbet, who looked after and raised Neferu-Re: “The great royal consort , the consort of God, showed me her favor to raise her first daughter, Neferu-Re, the blessed , as she was a child and lay on her breasts ”. She was later looked after by Senenmut . Her title "Consort of Amun" does not automatically mean that she married Thutmose III. conclude; Evidence of this has not yet been found.
The successor of Thutmose II was his son Thutmose III., Who comes from the union of the Pharaoh with the concubine Isis . Hatshepsut was the boy's aunt and stepmother at the same time, and after the death of her husband took over the reign of the new ruler, who was three to four years old at the time.
She was born around 1495 BC.
Queen Ahmose's account can be read in the terrace temple of Deir el-Bahari :
“ Amun-Re had seen a beautiful woman in Thebes . So Amun-Re sent Thoth to find out more about her. After the report, Amun went to Thebes and assumed the shape of his husband. He found her sleeping, but she was awakened by the scent of God. Amun-Re fell in love with her, came closer to her, and Queen Ahmose recognized in him the divine figure of Amun-Re. She was delighted, kissed him and said: 'Truly, it is wonderful to see your face, which surrounds my husband as a splendor.' Amun-Re replied: 'The name of my daughter, who I put in your womb, should therefore also be Hatshepsut, as you said yourself in your own words from your mouth. Hatshepsut will exercise the excellent office of king throughout the land. '"
In Egyptology , the character of the text has been interpreted as a retrospectively inserted and invented narrative for the purpose of legitimizing the takeover of government by Hatshepsut. However, the text makes reference to traditions of the 4th and 5th Dynasties in the Old Kingdom . The content of the Papyrus Westcar , which relates to the story of the three sun sons , probably served as the basis . Cheops was not very enthusiastic about the prospect that his biological offspring would be replaced by sons of gods in the future .
In her report on the divine birth, Hatshepsut does not deny her "earthly" father Thutmose I , but refers specifically to the fact that the god himself took the form of Thutmose I. And only to the queen did Amun-Re reveal himself as god, who spoke to her through her husband Thutmose I. Hatshepsut's story shows typical elements of Egyptian mythology and therefore does not mean a contradiction to ancient Egyptian traditions. Rather, Hatshepsut's report shows a conscious representation of the teachings of the Old Kingdom. In Hatshepsut's eyes, Thutmose II, as the non-biological son of Thutmose I, can only derive his divine descent if Hatshepsut himself is of divine descent.
Other linguistic features of the Old Kingdom also show similarities to the report of the " Birth of the Sun King ". The style and structure of the text are also typically ancient Egyptian. The comparison of fragments from the Middle Kingdom , which in turn are based on texts from the Old Kingdom, shows the mythological origin. The connection with the political situation of Hatshepsut as proof of legitimacy for their assumption of government, which has so far been assumed in research, is therefore no longer valid.
At the coronation ceremony "the whole country was amazed in silence." Hatshepsut came out of the palace and threw himself on the floor in front of the high priest, who embodied Amun-Re: "What do you want to let happen?" After this question, the priests led the priests to the sanctuary of the mate . In the name of the gods, the priests of Amun-Re made the change of clothing with the receipt of the royal insignia and celebrated the titulature of the throne name and then the crowning of both countries in the barque shrine of the shadow of God . This was followed by the walk to the great gate of the Lord of both countries. In the temple, her hands were placed on her head: "Amun-Res's will be done, she shall rule Egypt".
The text ends with the words: “All these miracles happened on the 29th of Peret II (February 8, 1477 BC) , that is the second year of Thutmose III's reign, on the third day of the Amun festival (birth of Amun and Amun's creation of the earth through the elevation of heaven and coronation to the king of the gods Amun-Re), at the litanies of Sachmet , when the two countries were announced to me , in the court of Luxor ”. The extensive description is shown in an inscription on the Red Chapel .
It is remarkable that Hatshepsut celebrated her coronation on the 29th Peret II, the day her father Thutmose I was also crowned. It bore the full title of a king of Upper and Lower Egypt , with the exception of the title "Strong Bull". Hatshepsut legitimized her kingship with the "divine birth", her conception by the god Amun-Re.
Takeover of government
From the seventh year of Thutmose III's reign. (1472 BC) is the earliest evidence of the active takeover of government by Hatshepsut. As a result of an obelisk expedition, a graffito was installed in the quarries of Aswan , in which it is described that Re gave her the " mate-equitable royalty ". Hatshepsut changed its title to Nisut-biti in connection with the installation of the obelisk in Karnak .
In addition, there are depictions of the takeover of government from the processions of the valley festival , which can be seen on the walls of the Hathor chapel of their mortuary temple in Deir el-Bahari .
Although Thutmose III. was officially crowned as the successor of Thutmose II, master builder Ineni paid tribute to Hatshepsut's achievements:
“Thutmose took the place of king of both countries, he ruled on the throne of him who had begotten him. His sister, the wife of God Hatshepsut, looked after the land. The two countries lived according to their plans and were served with humility. She was the seed that came out of the god, bow rope of Upper Egypt, tail rope of Lower Egypt, landing stake of the southern peoples, mistress of orders, excellent plans that calmed both countries when she spoke. "
Expedition to Punt
One of Hatshepsut's greatest undertakings in her 9th year in reign was the expedition to Punt , a kind of Eldorado with an unclear location in the eastern Mediterranean today. The representation of this expedition takes up a lot of space in the decoration of your mortuary temple. The wife of the "ruler" of Punt, who is characterized by an extraordinary body size, always attracts attention. It is not sufficiently clear whether this is a natural representation.
The most important goods imported from Punt were incense and ebony , but other objects and animals were also brought with them. Since the images in her mortuary temple show the transport of whole frankincense plants planted in pots, this is considered the first botanical collecting trip in history (see plant hunters ).
Only one campaign under Hatshepsut is documented, but it was under Thutmose III. was led: the capture of Gaza at the end of her reign. Remnants of an inscription from the grave of Senenmut ( TT71 ) name Nubia and a "third time of grabbing". Under Hatshepsut itself, only punitive expeditions against Nubia and other dependent areas are documented:
- Against the Nubians at the beginning of the reign (inscription of the treasurer Tij on the island of Sehel ), led by Hatshepsut
- Punitive expedition to Syria - Palestine (historical inscription from Deir el-Bahari; another Nubian punitive expedition mentioned here?)
- Punitive expedition of the year 12 (inscription in the Nubian Tangur- West; first double dating of Hatshepsut and Thutmose III.)
- Punitive expedition of the year 20 to Nubia (stele in tombos )
- Punitive expedition to Mau (area of Firka in Nubia) between the year 20 and 22
As a master builder, she completed the mortuary temple in Deir el-Bahari next to the burial temple Mentuhotep II with her architect (suspected Senenmut ) in 15 years of construction and carried out numerous buildings in the Amun temple in Karnak . In addition to the Red Chapel , a barque sanctuary, its obelisks are known, one of which is still in the temple of Karnak ( in situ ) today. Senenmut was the architect, builder and chief asset manager of Hatshepsut as well as the tutor of her daughter Neferu-Re.
→ Main article: Mortuary temple of Hatshepsut
Their outstanding building is their own mortuary temple, which Dieter Arnold described as "one of the most important and idiosyncratic creations of Egyptian temple architecture". From the valley temple on the edge of the fruit land, an access path leads to the lower terrace and - on both sides of the uphill ramp - to the south and north hall. In the west of the central terrace in the south is the hall with the depictions of the point expedition, in the north that with the depiction of the divine birth and election of Hatshepsut. Another ramp leads to the upper terrace with a colonnaded courtyard and the sanctuary behind.
Hatshepsut had the buildings decorated with round sculptural images. In tradition these were adapted to the king type Thutmose II. At first she was portrayed as a woman and later as a man.
She created a new type of statue - the sistrum victim - which was only spread among her. Their statues reveal a further development of the royal statue type and can be classified chronologically in sections in which physiognomic and iconographic developments become clear.
The anniversary of Hatshepsut's death, the 10th Peret II of her 22nd year of reign (January 14, 1457 BC), is evident from the inscription on a stele from Armant . Manetho dated her reign at 21 years and 9 months. Since the whereabouts of her mummy were unknown for a long time, it was previously assumed that she was murdered for political reasons.
At a press conference on June 27, 2007, the then Egyptian minister of culture, Farouk Hosny , presented the results of current investigations by Egyptian archaeologists , according to which the mummy of Hatshepsut was identified. Through DNA analysis and CT -Investigating was allegedly proved beyond doubt that it is in one of two already in 1903 by Howard Carter in the grave chamber KV60 of Sitre-In ( wet nurse of Hatshepsut) found mummies in the Valley of the Kings in Luxor to which the pharaoh acted. For this purpose, the individual tooth mentioned below was compared with a gap in the mummy's teeth. After this mummy identification, further investigation revealed that Hatshepsut's reign ended with her natural death from cancer or diabetes . Presumably she was only about 35 years old. However, there is also an estimate of 45–60 years.
In the meantime, the identification of Hatshepsut's mummy has been questioned again, as the tooth is a molar of the lower jaw and cannot be inserted into the upper jaw.
Hatshepsut's own tomb is located in the Valley of the Kings and is now called KV20 . She may have enlarged the grave of her father Thutmose I and then used it herself. She had Thutmose I's coffin set up next to hers. So far, only one tooth has been found from her grave when a wooden box from her temple was x-rayed and her internal organs, which were found in a box labeled with her name in the hiding place ( cachette of Deir el-Bahari ) of Deir el-Bahari. The remains of her wooden coffin were found in a shaft of the tomb of Ramses XI , along with some objects from other pharaohs . ( KV4 ) discovered.
After Hatshepsut's death, the cartouches with her name on numerous reliefs and statues were destroyed. Researchers saw Thutmose III for a long time. as the culprit, since his stepmother had robbed him of the throne. In the meantime, the destruction has been dated to a more recent period. Since a personal enemy would have caused such destruction immediately after her death, it is believed that it was unacceptable for a later successor to the Egyptian throne for a woman to rule as pharaoh and achieve great things. Perhaps through the destruction the continuity of the male line of succession of the Pharaohs in the official Egyptian historiography should be preserved.
In many areas, developments began under Hatshepsut that were typical of the New Kingdom and were based on old traditions, but included all social classes (see also: Pa ). Numerous innovations can therefore be observed, for example the first writing of the Book of the Dead on papyrus , the construction of monumental, decorated rock graves in West Thebes, as well as the emergence of a new ceramic repertoire. Overall, Hatshepsut's reign is judged to be a flourishing epoch that is counted among the heyday of Egyptian history. Egyptologists consider Hatshepsut to be one of the most important rulers of the New Kingdom. Paradoxically, the long period of peace in ancient Egypt and the economic boom under Thutmose III made it possible to undertake far-reaching military campaigns and to extend Egypt's influence to the Euphrates .
Some researchers believe that Senenmut and the queen were lovers, citing a statue showing him together with Neferu-Re in a protectively hugging gesture.
Reception in art
Hatshepsut also found its way into the visual arts of the 20th century. The feminist artist Judy Chicago made her role in the history of women clear: In The Dinner Party, she dedicated one of the 39 place settings to her .
- Suzanne Ratié: Hatshepsut. The woman on the throne of the pharaohs. 3rd edition, Brockhaus, Wiesbaden 1976, ISBN 3-7653-0272-4 .
- Peter H. Schulze: Mistress of both countries. Hatshepsut. Woman, God and Pharaoh. Lübbe, Augsburg 1990, ISBN 3-89350-082-0 .
- Joyce Tyldesley : Hatshepsut - The Female Pharaoh. Limes, Munich 1997, ISBN 3-8090-3012-0 .
- Alfred Grimm , Sylvia Schoske : Hatshepsut. King of Egypt. In: Sudan Antiquities Service, Occasional Papers. (SAS) 8, Munich 2002.
- Thomas Schneider : Lexicon of the Pharaohs. Albatros, Düsseldorf 2002, ISBN 3-491-96053-3 , pp. 130-132.
- Catharine H. Roehrig, Renee Dreyfus, Cathleen A. Keller (Eds.): Daughter of Re: Hatshepsut, King of Egypt. Yale University Press, New York 2005, ISBN 0-300-11139-8 .
- Christiane Desroches-Noblecourt : Hatshepsut: The mysterious queen on the pharaoh's throne. 1st edition. Bastei Lübbe, Bergisch Gladbach 2007, ISBN 978-3-404-64224-3 .
- Darrell D. Baker: The Encyclopedia of the Egyptian Pharaohs. Volume I: Predynastic to the Twentieth Dynasty (3300-1069 BC). Bannerstone Press, London 2008, ISBN 978-1-905299-37-9 , pp. 104-110.
- Marianne Schnittger: Hatshepsut. A woman as King of Egypt. von Zabern, Mainz 2008, ISBN 978-3-8053-3810-3 .
- Peter Nadig: Hatshepsut. von Zabern, Mainz 2014, ISBN 978-3-8053-4763-1 .
- Kara Cooney : The Woman Who Would Be King: Hatshepsut's Rise to Power in Ancient Egypt. Crown Publishing, New York 2014, ISBN 978-0-307-95676-7 .
- Susanne Martinssen-von Falck: The great pharaohs. From the New Kingdom to the Late Period. Marix, Wiesbaden 2018, ISBN 978-3-7374-1057-1 , pp. 55-69.
Questions of detail
- Edouard Naville : The Temple of Deir el Bahari. Part III, London 1898; Part IV, London 1901.
- Dieter Arnold : Deir el-Bahari III (buildings of Hatshepsut and Thutmose III). In: Wolfgang Helck (Ed.): Lexicon of Egyptology. Volume I, Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden 1975, ISBN 3-447-01670-1 , pp. 1017-1025.
- William C. Hayes : Varia from the Time of Hatshepsut. In: Communications from the German Archaeological Institute, Cairo Department. (MDAIK) 17, 1957, pp. 78-90, von Zabern, Mainz 1984, pp. 329-349.
- Hellmut Brunner : The Birth of the God King. Studies on the transmission of an ancient Egyptian myth (= Egyptological treatises. (ÄA) 10). 2nd Edition. Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden 1986, ISBN 3-447-02554-9 .
- Donald B. Redford : Pharaonic king-lists, annals, and day-books: a contribution to the study of the Egyptian sense of history. Benben, Mississauga 1986, ISBN 0-920168-07-8 .
- Emma Brunner-Traut : Pharaoh and Jesus as sons of God. In: E. Brunner-Traut: Lived Myths: Contributions to the ancient Egyptian myth. 3. Edition. Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, Darmstadt 1988, ISBN 3-534-08425-X , pp. 31-59.
- Dieter Arnold : The temples of Egypt. Apartments for gods, places of worship, architectural monuments. Artemis & Winkler, Zurich 1992, ISBN 3-7608-1073-X .
- Zygmunt Wysocki: The Temple of Queen Hatshepsut at Deir el-Bahari: The Raising of the Structure in View of Architectural Studies. In: Communications of the German Archaeological Institute, Cairo Department (MDAIK) 48, von Zabern, Mainz 1992, ISBN 3-8053-1294-6 , pp. 233-254.
- Joachim Kügler: Pharaoh and Christ? Study of the history of religion on the question of a connection between ancient Egyptian royal theology and New Testament Christology in the Gospel of Luke. In: Bonner Biblical Contributions (BBB) 113, Bodenheim 1997.
- Magnus Reisinger: Development of the Egyptian royal sculpture in the early and high 18th dynasty. Agnus, Münster 2005, ISBN 3-00-015864-2 .
- Erik Hornung : The New Kingdom. In: Erik Hornung, Rolf Krauss, David A. Warburton (eds.): Ancient Egyptian Chronology (= Handbook of Oriental studies. Section One. The Near and Middle East. Volume 83). Brill, Leiden / Boston 2006, ISBN 90-04-11385-1 , pp. 197-217 ( online ).
- Joachim Kügler: Hatshepsut - a multiple daughter as king: gender roles, myth politics and legitimation of an ancient Egyptian ruler. In: J. Kügler, L. Bormann (Ed.): Töchter (Gottes). Studies on the relationship between culture, religion and gender. Lit, Berlin / Münster 2008, ISBN 978-3-8258-1185-3 , pp. 22-45.
- Pauline Gedge : The Mistress of the Nile. Rowohlt, Reinbek 1981, ISBN 3-499-15360-2 . (Original edition: Child of the morning. The Macmillan Company of Canada, 1977)
- Hanns Kneifel : Hatshepsut - The Pharaoh. Schneekluth, Munich 1995, ISBN 3-7951-1323-7 .
- Susan von Ghyczy: The first female pharaoh. Econ 1999, ISBN 978-3-612-27421-2 .
- Philipp Vandenberg : The Pharaoh: historical novel. (= Bastei-Lübbe-Taschenbuch. Volume 15928: General series). Original edition, 1st edition. Bastei Lübbe, Bergisch Gladbach 2008, ISBN 978-3-404-15928-4 .
- Birgit Fiolka : Hatshepsut. The black lioness. 1st edition, Create Space, Charleston SC. 2012, ISBN 978-1-4775-6145-4 .
- Birgit Fiolka: Hatshepsut. The golden hawk. Create Space, Charleston SC. 2012, ISBN 978-1-4776-1660-4 .
- Stephanie Thornton: Daughter of the Gods. A Novel of Ancient Egypt. Nal, New York 2014, ISBN 978-0-451-41779-4 .
- Literature by and about Hatshepsut in the catalog of the German National Library
- Maat-ka-Ra - Hatshepsut
- Descent of Hatshepsut ( Memento from July 6, 2016 in the Internet Archive )
- 360 ° panoramic images ( Memento from March 24, 2016 in the Internet Archive )
- Hidden Story of Hatshepsut
- Peter F. Dorman: The monuments of Senenmut: Problems in historical methodology. Kegan Paul International, London 1988, ISBN 0-7103-0317-3 , pp. 78-79.
- Donald B. Redford: Pharaonic King Lists. See literature.
- cf. Alexandra von Lieven : Plan of the course of the stars - the so-called groove book. The Carsten Niebuhr Institute of Ancient Eastern Studies (inter alia), Copenhagen 2007, ISBN 978-87-635-0406-5 , p. 240.
- Siegfried Schott: Ancient Egyptian festival dates. Publishing house of the Academy of Sciences and Literature, Mainz / Wiesbaden 1950, p. 97.
- mein-altaeggypt.de ( Memento from November 29, 2011 in the Internet Archive )
- n-tv of June 27, 2007: Archaeological sensation: Hatshepsut identified. Retrieved June 26, 2011.
- Zahi Hawass: Press Release: Identifying Hatshepsut's Mummy. ( Memento of February 3, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) On: drhawass.com. Retrieved January 26, 2014.
- Zahi Hawass: The Search for Hatshepsut and the Discovery of her Mummy. June 2007 On: guardians.net. Retrieved January 26, 2014.
- Hatshepsut. Researchers identify mummy. On: focus.de/Wissen. Retrieved January 26, 2014.
- The tooth gap brought it to the day ( Memento from February 23, 2010 in the Internet Archive ). In: tagesschau.de. June 27, 2007.
- GEO magazine 07/02
- Pharaoh could have put cream on herself to death. At: spiegel.de. August 19, 2011.
- The sick skin of the pharaoh. ( Memento from February 2, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) In: Frankfurter Umschau online. August 19, 2011.
- Erhard Graefe: The alleged tooth of the allegedly cancerous diabetic Queen Hatshepsut, or: The mummy of Hatshepsut remains unknown. In: Göttinger Miscellen . Vol. 231, 2011, pp. 41-43.
- Mummy of Hatshepsut identified. ( Memento from October 14, 2007 in the Internet Archive ) At: heute.de. June 28, 2007.
- Janine Bourriau: Umm el-Ga'ab: pottery from the Nile valley before the Arab conquest: exhibition organized by the Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge, 6 October to 11 December 1981. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 1981, ISBN 0-521-24065 -4 , p. 72.
- Elizabeth A. Sackler Center for Feminist Art: The Dinner Party. On: brooklynmuseum.org. Retrieved April 20, 2014.
Pharaoh of Egypt
|BRIEF DESCRIPTION||ancient Egyptian queen in the New Kingdom|
|DATE OF BIRTH||15th century BC Chr.|
|DATE OF DEATH||15th century BC Chr.|