Armant ( Arabic أرمنت Armant , also Arment or Erment; Ancient Egyptian "Iunu-Monthu" (On ( Heliopolis ) des Month ) or southern Heliopolis ( Jwnj šm'j ), Greco-Latin Hermonthis , Coptic: ⲉⲣⲙⲉⲛⲧ) is a city in Upper Egypt on the west bank of the Nile in the Luxor governorate. It is located about 20 km south of Thebes-West opposite the city of at-Tōd . The place was thecapital of the 4th Upper Egyptian Gau until the 18th dynasty and in Roman times.
Large predynastic necropolises and settlements have been excavated near Armant . Some traces of finds indicate continuous settlement from the early period to the First Intermediate Period .
In the 11th Dynasty Armant played an important role in the reunification of the empire . The Temple of the Month dates from this time. Several princes or kings of the 11th dynasty (e.g. Mentuhotep II ) had this god name in their name. The expansion of the temple to a large temple took place under Thutmose III. During Akhenaten's reign , Amun's name was destroyed in many places. Ramses II furnished the temple with two colossi . His son Merenptah was associated with several statues of Osiris . The temple was destroyed by the Persians and replaced by a new building at the end of the Late Period under Nectanebo II or in Greco-Roman times . In the 19th century, however, the temple was largely demolished for the purpose of building sugar factories and private houses.
In addition to Month, his companion Tjenenet was also venerated here, in her place later, similar to the Month temple in al-Madamud, the goddess Rat-taui ("Council of the Two Lands"), a female sun goddess, and her son Hor-pa-Re- pa-chered ("Horus-Re, the child") entered. On the wall of the Mammisi by Armant, which Cleopatra VII had built by the fourth Upper Egyptian Gau at the same time as the town was named capital, seven child deities are depicted: Harpocrates , Hor-pa-Re-pa-chered, Horus-Schu-pa -chered , Semataui-pa-chered , Ihi , Heka-pa-chered and Hor-Hekenu-pa-chered .
A large necropolis for the holy Buchis bulls ( Bucheum ) and their mother cows was laid out northwest of the temple . The Greeks and Romans continued a cult that had been here for ages. To the east of the temple was a Roman village with a large accessible well. Armant is also an important Coptic center. The place was a bishopric . The former basilica of Armant is no longer preserved.
- Kathryn A. Bard: Armant. In: Kathryn A. Bard (Ed.): Encyclopedia of the Archeology of Ancient Egypt. Routledge, London 1999, ISBN 0-415-18589-0 , pp. 143-145.
- Hans Bonnet : Hermonthis. In: Lexicon of Egyptian Religious History. Nikol, Hamburg 2000, ISBN 3-937872-08-6 , p. 293.
- Karl Richard Lepsius : Monuments from Egypt and Ethiopia. Text volume 4, Hinrichs, Leipzig 1901, pp. 1–11; Tafelband Abth. 4, Volume 9, panels 59-65, panel volume Abth. VI, Volume 12, Plate 103 ( online version ).
- Robert Ludwig Mond, Oliver Humphrys Myers: The Bucheum. 3 volumes, The Egypt Exploration Society, London 1934.
- Robert Ludwig Moon; Oliver Humphrys Myers: The Cemeteries of Armant I. (text and table book), The Egypt Exploration Society, London 1937.
- Robert Ludwig Moon; Oliver Humphrys Myers: Temples of Armant: a preliminary survey. (Text and panel), The Egypt Exploration Society, London 1946.
- Sandra Sandri: Har-Pa-Chered (Harpokrates). The genesis of an Egyptian child of gods (= Orientalia Lovaniensia analecta. Vol. 151). Peeters, Leuven 2006, ISBN 90-429-1761-X .
- Daniela Rutica: Cleopatra's Forgotten Temple. The birth house of Cleopatra VII in Hermonthis. A reconstruction of the decoration (= Göttingen miscells. Vol. 1). Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, Seminar for Egyptology and Coptic Studies, Göttingen 2015, ISBN 978-3-9817438-0-7 .
- Excavations of the l'Institut d'Égyptologie François Daumas de l'Université de Montpellier (French)
- Excavation report 2009 (French)
- ^ KA Bard: Encyclopedia of the Archeology of Ancient Egypt. London 1999, p. 144.
- ^ KA Bard: Encyclopedia of the Archeology of Ancient Egypt. London 1999, pp. 144-145.
- ^ S. Sandri: Har-Pa-Chered (Harpokrates). The genesis of an Egyptian child of gods. Leuven 2006, p. 66.
- ^ KA Bard: Encyclopedia of the Archeology of Ancient Egypt. London 1999, p. 145.
Coordinates: 25 ° 37 ′ 0 ″ N , 32 ° 32 ′ 0 ″ E