Ninth of Heliopolis

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Gods of the nine in the Ani Book of the Dead : Isis and Nephthys (4th from left), Nut , Geb , Tefnut , Schu and Atum (2nd from right)

Under the term Neunheit (or Enneade) from Heliopolis (from Greek ennea "nine"), ancient Egyptian Pesdjet ( psḏt ), the nine creator deities of the Heliopolitan cosmological cratogony ("cosmological origin of worldly rule") are summarized. Well , according to ancient Egyptian mythology, the cosmological embodiment of the primordial water from which the world arose does not belong to the "secular creator deities". The principle of Nun embodied the deity Atum on a worldly level , who, as the god of creation, symbolized the “trinity” of “earthly nothingness” as well as the bisexuality .

The heliopolitanische therefore cosmogony of secular creation understands Atum as the light God as sun during his first sunrise was the earthly life still in it. Out of it, the divine two sexes Shu and Tefnut emerged through separation .

Creation myth

The creation story of Heliopolis is one of the oldest Egyptian myths about the creation of the world. He assumes a pre-existing, chaotic primal water (Nun) from which the creator god Atum arose. Atum created a primeval hill in the Nun - which was later equated with Heliopolis - and settled on it. Now that the water and the creator god existed, Atum began to bring forth the elements of creation from himself: the air (Schu), the moisture (Tefnut), the heavenly vault , the earth and time.

Schu and Tefnut formed the first pair of gods of the Enneads of Heliopolis. They were raised by Nun, the pre-existing primordial water, and observed by Atum's forehead eye , which he placed on his forehead. The pair of gods begat the earth god Geb and the sky goddess Nut , who in turn begat Osiris, Isis, Seth and Nephthys.

The creator deities

Although the term “Ninth” comes from Heliopolis , the local gods Re and Horus do not belong to it. For Re, a connection to Heliopolis is documented for the first time in the pyramid texts under King Unas at the end of the 5th dynasty . In the pyramid texts Atum is already mentioned as "the foremost of the great nine".

light, primal nothing
life, air
truth, fire
water, Duat

See also


Web links

Commons : Ninth from Heliopolis  - collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. PT 482a-483b .
  2. Pyramid text 1660; according to Manfred Görg: 3. Egyptian religion: roots - ways - effects (= religions in the environment of the Old Testament. Volume 3). Kohlhammer, Stuttgart 2007, ISBN 978-3-17-014448-4 , p. 49.