Radjedef pyramid

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Radjedef pyramid
Ruin of the Radjedef pyramid
Ruin of the Radjedef pyramid
Egyptian name
Hiero Ca1.svg
ra Dd f
Hiero Ca2.svg
s H d
N14 w O24
Sehedu Radjedef (Djedefre)
Sḥdw Rˁ ḏd = f (ḏd = f Rˁ)
Star tent of Radjedef
(with determinative for pyramid)
place Abu Roasch
builder Radjedef
construction time 4th Dynasty (≈2580 to ≈2570 BC)
Type pyramid
Building material Limestone with partial granite cladding
Base dimension 106 m
Height (originally) 67 m
Height (today) 11.4 m
volume 131,043 m³
Tilt 52 °
Cult pyramid Yes (?)
Queen pyramids 1 or 2 ?)

The Radjedef pyramid (also known as the Djedefre pyramid ) is the ruin of an Egyptian pyramid , the construction of which was built in the 4th Dynasty around 2580 to 2570 BC. BC for King ( Pharaoh ) Radjedef (Djedefre), son and successor of King Cheops , but was probably not completed and was later excessively robbed of its stones. It is located at today's place Abu Roasch and is after the no longer existing pyramid of Athribis and the neighboring Lepsius I pyramid, the third northernmost known pyramid of Egypt.

In popular science depictions, the Radjedef pyramid is often incorrectly referred to as the “fourth pyramid of Giza” , even though it is about 8 km from the necropolis of Giza .


The history of research extends over more than 150 years. The first main pyramid was explored for the first time around 1840 by John Shae Perring ; his work focused on its substructure. Karl Richard Lepsius cataloged the pyramid and a possible queen pyramid in his list of pyramids under the numbers Lepsius II and III . In the 1880s, Flinders Petrie examined the structure. However, a systematic study of the complex did not take place until the beginning of the 20th century, when in 1901 Émile Gaston Chassinat began further research. Pierre Montet and Fernand Bisson de la Roque followed in the 1920s . Further research was only undertaken again in the 1960s by Vito Maragioglio and Celeste Rinaldi . A French-Swiss team from the expedition of the Institut Francais d'Archéologie Orientale, led by Michel Valloggia , began in 1995 with the most precise excavation of the complex to date.

Construction circumstances

King Radjedef (head of a sphinx statue found near the Radjedef pyramid )

The pyramid complex was built by King Radjedef (also known as Djedefre), the son of Cheops , during his reign, presumably only eight years. However, the length of the reign is controversial and, according to other theories, can have been up to 25 years.

Radjedef carried out the burial of his father in the Cheops pyramid in Giza , which is documented by inscriptions in the ship pits there. For his own tomb he chose a place about 8 km further north-west near the present-day town of Abu Roasch . The pyramid was significantly smaller than the buildings of its two predecessors, although the reasons for the size reduction are unclear. The tomb stands on a hill that towers above the Gizeh Plateau by about 80 m, which, despite the smaller pyramid, enabled a prominent and widely visible placement of the building, which was therefore comparable in overall height to the Cheops pyramid. Theological reasons in the context of the increasing sun cult could be responsible for the change of location. Radjedef was the first king to bear the title of son of Re ( Sa Ra ). Previously assumed disputes with his siblings over the succession to the throne did not arise according to recent research. The new choice of location required a very long path to the pyramid district, the length of which is estimated to be around 1700 m.

The quarry for the material of the pyramid core was located about 2 km to the east, near the Lepsius I pyramid and a mastaba cemetery. The thickness of the layers of limestone found there correspond to the stone sizes of the pyramid.

Degree of completion

Whether the Radjedef pyramid was really completed and later removed to its present state is still the subject of scientific controversy . As a fact it can be stated that the complex was completed to the point that a functioning cult of the dead was possible, since priests of the Radjedef cult are proven up to the 6th dynasty . The peculiar integration of workshop buildings into the mortuary temple suggests that the completion of the temple complex must have been carried out in a hurry, since no new buildings were erected, but the existing structure was converted.

Degradation by stone robbery

The Radjedef pyramid was the only one of the great pyramids of the 4th Dynasty that was almost completely demolished by stone robbers, while most of the other structures of this era have an exceptionally well-preserved core area. The stone robbery probably began as early as the Ramesside period and continued through the Middle Ages into the 19th century. The climax of the destruction was in Roman times. Petrie reported that even in the 1880s stone material was still being hauled away at the rate of about 300 camel loads per day. Not only the core masonry, but also almost the entire substructure of the pyramid were destroyed in this way. This was favored on the one hand by the secluded location of the building and on the other hand by the fact that the pyramid contained a large amount of the valuable rose granite .

The pyramid

The original base length was about 106.2 m (about 200  Königsellen ), of which 97 m are still preserved today. With a presumed inclination angle of 52 °, the pyramid would have reached a height of 67 m and a total volume of 131,043 m³. The alignment of the pyramid only deviates by about 0.8 ° from the exact cardinal points. It was erected over a small hill, which made up about 44% of the total volume of the pyramid and thus led to significant labor and material savings, and possibly also served as a symbol of the original mound of the ancient Egyptian creation mythology. This hill is easily recognizable through the exposed shaft of the substructure. When completed, the building was roughly the size of the Mykerinos pyramid in Giza.

The core masonry consisted of limestone blocks laid in horizontal layers . These were of different sizes and sometimes irregular in shape, with the resulting gaps being partially filled with plaster of paris. Due to the severe destruction, it is no longer clear today whether the pyramid core has a step structure, as it is e.g. B. is proven in the Mykerinos pyramid possessed.

The inclined facing stones of the Radjedef pyramid

For the first time, the lower area of ​​the pyramid was clad in rose granite, which had to be transported from Aswan for this purpose. The upper area should probably be provided with the usual cladding made of fine Tura limestone, but the evidence of the find is missing. During excavations in the area of ​​the pyramid, only granite cladding stones were found, which had an outer angle of 60 ° to 64 °, from which it was originally concluded that this was an above-average steep pyramid. However, excavations at the base of the pyramid revealed a foundation of the cladding that was inclined inwards by 12 °. This technique served to improve the hold of the cladding and was previously used on the queen pyramids of the Great Pyramid of Cheops . Due to the inclined attachment of the cladding stones, but not the core masonry, the inclination angle of the pyramid was reduced to 48 ° to 52 °. Today one assumes a side angle of 52 °, which corresponds to the angle of inclination of the Cheops pyramid. The slope of the foundation becomes less at the corners of the pyramid and finally merges into the horizontal. This avoids complicated shaping of the corner stones.

The absence of fragments of Tura limestone cladding blocks in the rubble heap allows the assumption that the construction of the pyramid did not get beyond the approximately 20 stone layers high, rose granite clad area.

The name of the pyramid, "Starry tent of Radjedef" , was found on inscriptions. An alternative translation is "Djedefre belongs to the firmament" .

The substructure

The substructure (substructure) of the Radjedef pyramid marks a departure from the trend that has been observed since Sneferu to relocate the burial chamber higher and higher into the body of the pyramid. Here again a completely subterranean arrangement of the grave and antechambers was realized, whereby the construction took place in an open trench and was bricked up after completion.

Substructure of the Radjedef pyramid (reconstruction according to Maragioglio and Rinaldi)
A = trench of the substructure, later lined with limestone. Lining no longer preserved
B = chambers of the substructure, rose granite, no longer preserved
C = corridor, presumably lined with limestone, no longer preserved, ended in a slightly higher antechamber
D = limestone masonry of the pyramid body, still preserved
E = remains of the pyramid cladding , rose granite
F. = Surface of the pyramid structure, no longer preserved

The descending passage was built in a trench 44.25 m long and 5.5 m wide at the bottom. The gradient is 22 ° 35 ′. The floor is still covered with the fine Tura limestone on which the passage was built. In the trench of the descending passage, fragments of granite were found bearing construction workers' inscriptions from the first year of the Radjedef cattle count. It has not yet been confirmed with certainty whether the passage consisted of granite blocks.

The subsequent horizontal passage extends over 5.4 m in length. Directly at the connection of the descending passage there is a 3.1 m deep pit, which was supposed to protect against ingress of water. On the western side of the end of the horizontal area, the remains of a grave robber tunnel can be found in the rock material, which is clear evidence that the chambers and the passage were originally built and only later destroyed by stone robbers. Traces of processing on the rock face suggest that the area of ​​the substructure, which was made of granite, began at the end of the passage, as the processing of the surrounding limestone material was easier than that of the granite blocks used. The grave robber tunnel also provides an indication of a granite fall stone barrier, which was bypassed via the tunnel through the softer surrounding rock.

Reconstruction of the substructure within the excavation of the Radjedef pyramid:
A = descending passage
B = horizontal passage
C = antechamber
D = niche (or serdab?)
E = burial chamber
F = sarcophagus
G = canopic chest

The central shaft, which contained the chambers, measures 23 m × 10 m and is 21 m deep. The floor of the chamber was walled up with five layers of fine limestone to reach the level of the horizontal passage. Only small remains of the chambers could be detected on the limestone floor.

Apparently there was an antechamber under the center of the pyramid, from which a passage to the west led to the burial chamber. The antechamber probably had a niche on the east side or an extension to a serdab . The floor of the burial chamber has depressions that indicate that a sarcophagus and a canopic chest were set in here, similar to the one in the Chephren pyramid .

A fragment of a large granite beam was found in the pit, one end of which did not end at an angle of 90 ° to the side surface, but at 135 °. From this it can be concluded that this was part of the gable roof of the burial chamber. There is also an inscription on this fragment that refers to Radjedef. There was also a limestone block with similar inscriptions.

On the walls of the shaft there are remains of mortar , which testify that the shaft above the burial chamber was bricked up and the substructure of the pyramid was thus completed.

The pyramid complex

The pyramid district has a clear north-south orientation, as is known from the pyramid complexes of the 3rd dynasty , for example that of Djoser . The pyramid complexes of Snefru and Cheops from the 4th Dynasty , however, were more square or oriented in an east-west direction.

Radjedef-Pyramid.png A = pyramid
B = queen pyramid (?)
C = cult or queen pyramid
D = mortuary temple
E = ship's pit
F = inner enclosure wall
G = outer enclosure wall
H = access path
I = inner
access path J = access to the burial chamber
K = pit of the burial chamber
L = workshops, later cult building
M = bakery / brewery, later cult building
N = gates

Light areas: parts of the complex that have not yet been exposed

Outer wall

Entrance gate in the outer wall

The outer wall encloses the complex in a clearly north-south oriented form. The southern wall does not adjoin the other walls at right angles and in an exactly east-west direction, but runs in a north-easterly direction, which is due to the topography of the plateau . The corners of the complex were rounded. There were a number of monumental gates in the wall, which is also based on the construction of the 3rd Dynasty.

In the area north of the pyramid, no buildings have been found so far, but remains of quarry work from Roman times. Some researchers suspect that a northern mortuary temple can be found in this area , as the north-south orientation of the complex is based on the building practice of the 3rd Dynasty and the mortuary temple was built in the north of the pyramid during this period.

Inner wall

Inner wall north of the pyramid

The inner wall, which surrounds the pyramid and also the parts of the mortuary temple, which originally served as a workshop building, consists of two boundary walls made of dry masonry , the space between which was filled with loose stone material. The outer sides were each covered with an additional layer of wall and plastered with clay. In the area of ​​the cult pyramid, the wall has a bulge to the south to also enclose the cult pyramid.

Mortuary temple

Temple area. In the foreground the bakery / brewery converted into a cult building

Directly adjacent to the east wall of the pyramid was the actual mortuary temple, built of stone, which bordered on the east side of the workshop building and the ship's pit. The small dimensions of about 13 m in the east-west and 26 m (25 × 50 Königsellen) in the north-south direction indicate an urgent construction. The area is covered with stone paving that served as the foundation of the actual mortuary temple. The walls of the temple were erected on top of this, but only a few individual finds bear witness to this and no longer allow a reconstruction of the arrangement of the rooms.

The actual pavement was probably located on the foundation, but it has no longer been preserved. It was most likely relocated because there was a difference in height to one of the entrances. The material of the plaster can no longer be determined due to a lack of findings.

In the middle of the east side of the pyramid there is an indentation which, according to Maragioglio and Rinaldi, housed a niche with steles and was connected to the temple in front of it by a sacrificial hall. However, recent studies show that this indentation is too high to be a niche and was caused by a thickening of the granite pyramid cladding.

Workshop building

Ruins of the brick buildings of the workshop or cult building complex

On the eastern side of the pyramid are the remains of brick buildings, which were surrounded by a very thick dry stone wall of field stone masonry. The internal layout of the rooms is similar to that of workshop buildings near the Khafre pyramid , which suggests that these buildings originally served to support the construction of the pyramids. Later they seem to have been used in a hurry for use in the cult of the dead, which suggests that there was no time to build special temples.

Directly south of the stone temple was a smaller brick building, the ruins of which contain references to grain containers. There were also numerous beer mugs and bowls. Based on this, the building seems to have housed the bakery and brewery for supplying the construction workers.

Cult or queen pyramid on the southeast corner

Ruins of the cult pyramid on the southeast corner of the complex

During excavations in the area of ​​the inner courtyard, the Swiss-French team led by Michel Valloggia found the remains of a small pyramid in the southeast corner of the pyramid, directly south of the ship's pit. The building had a base length of 10.5 m (20 Königsellen) and is only about 2 m high today. The small pyramid is located within the inner wall of the main pyramid, which was led around the secondary pyramid with a bulge. According to Zahi Hawass, the side slope corresponds to that of the main pyramid, while Valloggia starts from a steep angle of 60 °. The pyramid core consists of irregularly shaped limestone blocks and is bricked in horizontal layers. The outer layers have more regular blocks, but no blocks have been preserved from the cladding.

Access to the substructure begins on the north side, from where a vertical shaft leads to a horizontal passage and the chambers. In the horizontal passage there is one chamber on the east side and two on the west side. The passage and chambers are carved out of the rock relatively irregularly. Some unusual finds were made within the substructure: in addition to complete and fragmented alabaster and ceramic vessels and fragments of a limestone sarcophagus, faience tiles were also found, similar to those discovered in the Djoser complex . Such tiles have so far not been found in any other pyramid complex.

This pyramid is believed to be a queen pyramid by some researchers such as Valloggia. Others, like Rainer Stadelmann , consider the building to be the cult pyramid of the complex. The latter is supported by the fact that the pyramid is located in the typical position of the cult pyramids and is also integrated into the inner enclosure of the main pyramid. In addition, the three-chamber substructure according to Stadelmann's three-chamber theory has the characteristics of a royal pyramid, while the queen pyramids of the Cheops and Mykerinos complexes only have two chambers. The sarcophagus fragments found do not contradict the assessment as a cult pyramid, as these represent symbolic Ka graves and the sarcophagus could have belonged to a symbolic burial.

Valloggia suspects that the building, originally erected as a cult pyramid, was rebuilt in a second phase for the burial of a queen, which cannot be ruled out, as a similar rebuilding of the queen pyramid G-IIIa of the Mykerinos pyramid is known. If it was the tomb of a queen, the queens Chentetenka or Hetepheres II were probably buried there.

Possible queen pyramid on the southwest corner

In the southwest corner, in the area between the inner and outer enclosure wall, Lepsius already identified the ruins of a secondary pyramid and cataloged them under Lepsius III . This building, which has not yet been intensively investigated, represents a queen pyramid according to current knowledge, but was considered a cult pyramid for a long time until the discovery of the secondary pyramid on the southeast corner, although no other cult pyramids on the southwest corner of other pyramid complexes are known are. It has a base length of about 26 m (50 royal cells). Today the structure is even more destroyed than the main pyramid by stone robbery and appears only as a flat mound of rubble with the remains of an excavation. The pyramid character of the building has not yet been proven.

Ship grave

The boat pit of the Radjedef pyramid

On the east side, directly adjacent to the mortuary temple, there is a ship pit that was discovered by Émile Chassinat. With the exception of the north side, it was surrounded by stone walls. The north wall, however, consisted of adobe bricks. The east and south walls belong to the thick wall system of the workshop buildings north of the pit. Between the surrounding wall and the actual boat pit was a base that supported the pit's cover stones. Based on the fragments found, one can conclude that the capstones have a size of about 5.2 × 1.1 m (10 × 2 royal cells).

The walls of the boat pit itself are vertical in the bow and stern area, but inwardly arched in the midship area. The longitudinal axis of the pit follows the curve of the boat's hull and is marked by a red line on the carefully smoothed floor of the pit. Remnants of mortar at the north end indicate that a facing layer must have existed.

No remains of the barque were found in the pit , but numerous fragments of Radjedef statues, which were probably deposited there by the stone robbers.

On the way

The path to the north of the pyramid complex

The pathway reaches the pyramid complex coming from the north-east on the north side of the complex. This is unusual because in most other cases, coming from the east, it ends on the east side of pyramid complexes. Due to the remote location of the complex, the pathway is likely to have had a length of 1,700 m, but so far only the upper part has been excavated. Further down, the path followed the valley of a wadi . The associated valley temple to be expected at the end of the path towards the valley has not yet been found.

More finds

In the area of ​​the ship's pit on the east side of the pyramid, numerous fragments of Radjedef statues were found, which Émile Chassinat found during his excavations between 1901 and 1924. None of the statues are fully preserved and only four heads of the king have been discovered. The destruction of the statues probably took place in Roman times in the 2nd century and is therefore a testimony to the stone robbery and not, as previously assumed, a damnatio memoriae . The statue fragments found here are now in the Louvre in Paris , in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo and in the State Museum of Egyptian Art in Munich .

In addition to the statue fragments of the king, several statues of family members, some well preserved, some fragmented, were found. The family members proven on the basis of these finds were his sons Baka , Hornit , Setka , Princess Neferhetepes and Queen Hetepheres II.

Outside the corridor to the valley temple there was a depot with votive ceramic.



Excavation publications

  • John Shae Perring : Giza III. , 1848.
  • Émile Gaston Chassinat : Note sur les fouilles d'Abou Roash. (1900-1901), Comptes rendus de l'Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-lettres 1901, pp. 616-619.
  • Fernand Bisson de la Roque : Report sur les fouilles d'Abou-Roasch. (1922–1923) (= Fouilles de l'Institut français d'archéologie orientale du Caire . (FIFAO) Volume 1) 1924.
  • Fernand Bisson de la Roque: Report sur les fouilles d'Abou-Roasch. (1924) (= Fouilles de l'Institut français d'archéologie orientale du Caire . (FIFAO) Volume 2) 1925.
  • Vito Maragioglio , Celeste Rinaldi : L'Architettura delle Piramidi Menfite , V - Le piramidi di Zedefra e di Chefren. Turin-Rapallo, 1966.
  • Nicolas Grimal : Travaux de l'Institut français d'archéologie orientale en 1996–1997. Chantiers archéologiques et programs de research. Etudes égyptologiques et papyrologiques. 2. Abou Rawash. In: Le Bulletin de l'Institut français d'archéologie orientale (BIFAO) Volume 97, 1997, pp. 317-326.
  • Nicolas Grimal: Travaux de l'Institut français d'archéologie orientale en 1997–1998. Chantiers archéologiques et programs de research. Etudes égyptologiques et papyrologiques. 2. Abou Rawash. In: Le Bulletin de l'Institut français d'archéologie orientale (BIFAO) Volume 98, 1998, pp. 499-505.
  • Nicolas Grimal: Travaux de l'Institut français d'archéologie orientale en 1998–1999. Chantiers archéologiques et programs de research. Etudes égyptologiques et papyrologiques. 2. Abou Rawash. In: Le Bulletin de l'Institut français d'archéologie orientale (BIFAO) Volume 99, 1999, pp. 456-462.
  • Bernard Mathieu: Travaux de l'Institut français d'archéologie orientale en 1999–2000. Chantiers archéologiques et programs de research. Etudes égyptologiques et papyrologiques. 1. Abou Rawash. In: Le Bulletin de l'Institut français d'archéologie orientale (BIFAO) Volume 100, 2000, pp. 447-452.
  • Bernard Mathieu: Travaux de l'Institut français d'archéologie orientale en 2000–2001. Chantiers archéologiques et programs de research. Etudes égyptologiques et papyrologiques. 1. Abou Rawash. In: Le Bulletin de l'Institut français d'archéologie orientale (BIFAO) Volume 101, 2001, pp. 453-461.

Web links

Commons : Radjedef Pyramid  - collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Roman Gundacker: On the structure of the pyramid names of the 4th dynasty. In: Sokar. No. 18, 2009, pp. 26-30.
  2. a b c T. Schneider: Lexicon of the Pharaohs. Albatros, Düsseldorf 2002, ISBN 3-491-96053-3 , p. 102.
  3. ^ ZDF history: The forgotten pyramid of Giza. ( Memento of the original from March 4, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www.phoenix.de
  4. a b c d Miroslav Verner: The pyramids. P. 247 ff: The pyramid of Djedefre.
  5. Peter Jánosi: Giza in the 4th Dynasty. The building history and occupancy of a necropolis in the Old Kingdom. Volume I: The mastabas of the core cemeteries and the rock graves . Publishing house of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna 2005, ISBN 3-7001-3244-1 , p. 72.
  6. ^ Alberto Siliotti: Pyramids - Pharaohs tombs of the Old and Middle Kingdom . P. 92
  7. Altitude information from Google Earth : Abu Roasch ≈150 m above sea level. d. M. , Giza ≈70 m above sea level d. M.
  8. a b c Mark Lehner: Mystery of the pyramids , p. 120 ff Djedefre in Abu Roasch
  9. a b Rainer Stadelmann: The Egyptian pyramids. From brick construction to the wonder of the world. P. 126 ff.
  10. a b c d e f g Bernard Mathieu: Chantiers archéologiques et programs de recherche. Etudes égyptologiques et papyrologiques. 1. Abou Rawash. In: BIFAO Volume 100, 2000, pp. 447-452.
  11. Dietrich Wildung: The role of Egyptian kings in the consciousness of their posterity. Part I: Posthumous sources on the kings of the first four dynasties. In: Munich Egyptological Studies . Volume 17, Deutscher Kunstverlag, Munich / Berlin 1969, pp. 193–199.
  12. Peter Jánosi: The pyramids - myth and archeology. Pp. 71-72.
  13. ^ A b c Institut français d'archéologie orientale: Le Caire: Abou Roach
  14. Michel Valloggia: Au coeur d'une pyramide. Une mission archéologique en Egypt. P. 54.
  15. ^ A b Nicolas Grimal: Chantiers archéologiques et programs de recherche. Etudes égyptologiques et papyrologiques. 2. Abou Rawash. In: BIFAO Volume 98, 1998, p. 502.
  16. Mark Lehner: Secret of the pyramids. P. 17: Statistical information on the most important pyramids.
  17. Michel Valloggia: Au coeur d'une pyramide. Une mission archéologique en Egypt. P. 59.
  18. a b Michel Valloggia: Au coeur d'une pyramide. Une mission archéologique en Egypt. P. 60.
  19. a b c Nicolas Grimal: Chantiers archéologiques et programs de recherche. Etudes égyptologiques et papyrologiques. 2. Abou Rawash. In: BIFAO Volume 97, 1997, p. 324.
  20. Michel Valloggia: Au coeur d'une pyramide. Une mission archéologique en Egypt. P. 61
  21. ^ A b Nicolas Grimal: Chantiers archéologiques et programs de recherche. Etudes égyptologiques et papyrologiques. 2. Abou Rawash. In: BIFAO Volume 98, 1998, p. 500.
  22. ^ Nicolas Grimal: Chantiers archéologiques et programs de recherche. Etudes égyptologiques et papyrologiques. 2. Abou Rawash. In: BIFAO Volume 99, 1999, p. 459.
  23. ^ Nicolas Grimal: Chantiers archéologiques et programs de recherche. Etudes égyptologiques et papyrologiques. 2. Abou Rawash. In: BIFAO Volume 97, 1997, p. 322.
  24. Vito Maragioglio, Celeste Rinaldi: L'Architettura delle Piramidi Menfite. Volume V: Le piramidi di Zedefra e di Chefren. Rapallo, Turin 1966, pp. 14, 30.
  25. ^ Nicolas Grimal: Chantiers archéologiques et programs de recherche. Etudes égyptologiques et papyrologiques. 2. Abou Rawash. In: BIFAO Volume 97, 1997, p. 323.
  26. ^ A b Supreme Council of Antiquities, Secretary General Office: Pyramid Discovered at Abu Rowash .
  27. Rainer Stadelmann: The three-chamber system of the royal tombs of the early days and the Old Kingdom. In: Communications from the German Archaeological Institute, Cairo Department. (MDAIK) 47, 1991, pp. 373-387.
  28. ^ Bernard Mathieu: Chantiers archéologiques et programs de recherche. Etudes égyptologiques et papyrologiques. 1. Abou Rawash. In: BIFAO Volume 101, 2001.
  29. ^ A b Peter A. Clayton: Chronicle of the Pharaohs: The Reign-by-Reign Record of the Rulers and Dynasties of Ancient Egypt. Thames & Hudson, London 2006, ISBN 0-500-28628-0 , p. 50.


  1. a b Possibly the cult pyramid was converted into a queen pyramid

Coordinates: 30 ° 1 ′ 56 ″  N , 31 ° 4 ′ 29 ″  E

This article was added to the list of excellent articles on June 12, 2009 in this version .