|Name of Radjedef|
Ḫpr The Shaped
Ḫpr-m-nbtj The one shaped
by the two mistresses
Goldenest of the hawks
Rˁ ḏd = f (ḏd = f Rˁ)
He, Re , is permanent / permanent
|Royal Papyrus Turin (No. III./11)||
In the original, the name of the ruler has been broken off, only the name ideogram for a
king, which represents the Horus falcon, has been preserved.
|List of Kings of Abydos (Seti I) (No.22)||
Rˁ ḏd = f (ḏd = f Rˁ)
He, Re, is permanent / permanent
|List of Kings of Saqqara (No.18)||
Rˁ ḏd = f (ḏd = f Rˁ)
He, Re, is permanent / permanent
after Herodotus :
after Eratosthenes :
Africanus : Ratoises
Eusebius : missing
Eusebius, AV : missing
Radjedef (according to another reading Djedefre or Djedefra ) was the third king ( pharaoh ) of the ancient Egyptian 4th Dynasty ( Old Kingdom ) and ruled from about 2580 to 2570 BC. There is very little evidence of his person and time of reign. Radjedef is mainly known for his building activity, which included the completion of the tomb of his father Cheops and the construction of his own pyramid complex in Abu Roasch . Under his rule, the sun god Re was declared the central deity of Egypt.
Origin and family
Radjedef was a son of Pharaoh Cheops, his mother is unknown. Brothers were Babaef I , Minchaef , Hordjedef and Chephren , who ascended the Egyptian throne after Radjedef's death. The assignment of Anchhaf (brother or uncle) as well as Mindjedef and Duaenhor (brothers or nephews) is uncertain . It is also unclear whether Horbaef was a brother of the Radjedef. It is only attested by its sarcophagus , the exact location of which has not been noted. A later assignment to a grave in the east cemetery of the Great Pyramid of Cheops, where the sons of Cheops were buried, is therefore speculative. Bauefre , who is only known through testimonies from the Middle Kingdom , could be another brother if he is not identical to Babaef I. Chufuchaef I was possibly another brother, but it was also assumed that he is identical to Chephren. For a long time, Kawab was regarded as the eldest son of Cheops and the original heir to the throne . According to more recent findings, Kawab seems to have been a son of Snefru and thus not a brother, but an uncle of Radjedef.
Radjedef had two well-known wives: Chentetenka and his half-sister Hetepheres II , who had already been married to Radjedef's uncle Kawab before they married. Six children of the Radjedef are known by name, but their mothers have not yet been identified. These are the four sons Baka , Setka , Hornit and Nikauradjedef as well as the two daughters Hetepheres and Neferhetepes . Neferhetepes was possibly the mother of the later pharaohs Userkaf or Sahure . The successor of Chephren, Bicheris , known only by his Greek form of name , is often regarded as the son of Radjedef, but it is unclear which of his sons it is. Both Baka and Setka have been considered so far.
Term of office
The exact period of reign of the Radjedef is unknown. The royal papyrus Turin , which originated in the New Kingdom and is an important document on Egyptian chronology , gives him eight years of reign. In the 3rd century BC Egyptian priests living in BC Manetho , on the other hand, call it 25 years. Certainly only a “1. Times of the census ”, which means a nationwide census of cattle for the purpose of tax collection. When mentioning a “10th” or “11th” Times of the count ”on a capstone from one of the boat pits of the Great Pyramid of Cheops, it is not certain whether it refers to Cheops or to Radjedef, who had the boat pits constructed. If the latter is the case, there is the additional problem that these counts originally took place every two years (ie an “xth year of counting” was followed by a “year after the xth time of counting”), but later for Part could also take place annually (an “xth year of counting” was followed by the “yth year of counting”). Whether a regular biennial census took place under Radjedef cannot be read from the available source material. Due to these uncertainties, there are very different views in modern research about Radjedef's length of government. While some researchers agree with the eight years of the Turin papyrus, others consider a significantly longer reign of up to 25 years to be possible due to the rather extensive building activity of this king.
Events and developments
Inscriptions testify that Radjedef sent an expedition to the Dachla oasis in the Libyan desert , as his father Cheops had done twice before him. The aim of all these expeditions was the extraction of mineral pigments . The inscribed evidence for this comes from a camp site in the desert, about 60 km from Dachla. It lies at the foot of a sandstone rock and was evidently referred to as the “Radjedef water mountain” in Pharaonic times.
Under Radjedef, the cult of the sun god Re of Heliopolis was elevated to the highest state religion. With a few exceptions until the end of the 5th dynasty, the royal proper names now had the name of Re as a component (for example Chephren = Cha-ef-Re or Ra-cha-ef or Mykerinos = Men-kau-Re). In keeping with this, Radjedef introduced the epithet “Son of Re” ( Sa-Re ), which became the permanent title of the royal personal name from the Middle Kingdom onwards.
This religious change also made a new interpretation of the nature of the king necessary. If he was previously the embodiment of Horus and thus himself as the highest world god, now the concept of the sonship of God came to the fore, which reduced the king's own divinity and placed him in a stronger position of responsibility towards the gods.
After Radjedef's death, it was not one of his sons who succeeded him to the throne, but his brother Chephren. Since rule passed from father to son in Pharaonic Egypt, this change of government gave rise to numerous speculations. For example, George Andrew Reisner assumed that after the death of Cheops there were family disputes and two branches of the family fought for supremacy. Radjedef would therefore not have been intended as the rightful heir to the throne and after his death Chephren would have seized power. Reisner's assumption is not supported by any archaeological finds. After Radjedef's death there was no Damnatio memoriae , he enjoyed cultic veneration and also appears in later king lists. An unlawful seizure of power can therefore be ruled out. The question of why he was not followed by one of his sons but by his brother Chephren therefore remains open.
→ Main article: Great Pyramid of Cheops
The pyramid complex of Cheops includes five boat pits. Three of them were robbed, but two pits on the south side of the pyramid were found intact. Two wooden, dismantled boats were buried in them, one of which has been restored and is now on display in its own museum. On the walls and ceiling stones of the pit in which this boat was found there are numerous graffiti that contain the name of Radjedef. It can therefore be assumed that some parts of Cheops' tomb were only completed under Radjedef.
→ Main article: Radjedef pyramid
Radjedef built his own pyramid in Abu Roasch , north of Giza . With a side length of 106.2 m and a height of 67.4 m, it was designed much smaller than the tombs of his two ancestors Sneferu and Cheops. From Roman times until the 19th century, it served as a quarry, which was so badly damaged that the excavators originally considered it unfinished. However, recent excavations that began in the 1990s have shown that the pyramid complex had been completed. Parts of the temple complex belonging to the pyramid complex were probably only completed after Radjedef's death, as they were built using time-saving brick.
The inner chamber system was again greatly simplified compared to the pyramids of Snefru and Cheops. As with the pyramids of the 3rd dynasty, the burial chamber was again laid out underground and no longer in the actual pyramid body.
The valley temple is located about 1.5 km northeast of the pyramid complex and is connected to it by an access path that ends on the north side of a surrounding wall. On the east side of the pyramid is the mortuary temple and to the south of it is a boat pit, which, however, was robbed and used as a dump of rubble by the stone robbers. The remains of several statues of the king were found there.
The tomb complex also includes two small side pyramids. The first is located on the southwest corner of the King's Pyramid and served as a so-called cult pyramid . The second, discovered at the southeast corner of the King's Pyramid, appears to be the tomb of a queen.
All known statues of Radjedef probably come from his pyramid complex in Abu Roasch. None of them are completely intact and only four of them show the king's portrait. The statues are now in the Louvre in Paris , in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo and in the State Museum of Egyptian Art in Munich . The pieces in Paris and Cairo were discovered by Émile Chassinat during his excavations between 1901 and 1924 in the boat pit of the Radjedef pyramid and its surroundings.
The largest and most famous find is a sandstone head of a Sphinx of Radjedef. It is 33.5 cm high, 28.8 cm wide and 26.5 cm long. The king is shown wearing a Nemes headscarf , his chin and nose are bumped. The remains of a black painting can still be seen on the eyes, which represented the iris . Another statue head, which is significantly smaller with a height of 12 cm, shows Radjedef with a crown. Since its upper part has been destroyed, it is unclear whether it is the white crown of Upper Egypt or the red crown of Lower Egypt. The Louvre also houses the lower part of a seated statue of Radjedef. It measures 28 × 19.5 × 23 cm and gives the king's real name and Horus name. To the left of the ruler, a kneeling queen is shown much smaller. The Louvre's collection also includes a few fragments of other seated statues of Radjedef and his wife Chentetenka.
The Egyptian Museum in Cairo has two statue heads depicting Radjedef. The first (JE 35138) is 14 cm high and shows him with a Nemes headscarf, the second (JE 35139) measures 19 cm and wears the white crown of Upper Egypt.
Finally, the State Museum of Egyptian Art in Munich owns 39 statue fragments that were acquired from a private collection, but originally perhaps also came from excavations in Abu Roasch.
|Sphinx head of Radjedef; Louvre, inv. No. E 12626||Lower part of a seated statue of Radjedef; Louvre, inv. No. E 12627||Head of a statue of Radjedef; Louvre, inv. No. E 11167|
In addition to the royal statues, several statues of his family members, some of them very well preserved, were found in Abu Roasch. These include a statue base of his son Baka (Cairo 126.96.36.199), two further bases of statues of Hornit (Cairo 188.8.131.52 and Louvre E 12630), a completely preserved scribe statue of Setka (Louvre E 12629 and E 12631), base and torso a statue of Princess Neferhetepes (Louvre E 12628 and E 12632), the lower part of a statue of Queen Hetepheres (Cairo, no number) and a sphinx (Cairo JE 35137), which also depicts Hetepheres II.
|Scribe statue of Prince Setka; Louvre, inv. No. E 12629 and E 12631||Torso of a statue of princess Neferhetepes; Louvre, inv. No. E 12628||Sphinx of Queen Hetepheres II .; Egyptian Museum, Cairo, (JE 35137)|
Radjedef in memory of ancient Egypt
Radjedef enjoyed a cult of the dead that lasted until the end of the Old Kingdom in the 6th Dynasty , but which was not as extensive as that of other pharaohs of the 4th Dynasty. For example, only eight priests of the dead and officials connected with the cult of the dead are recorded for him, 73 for his father Cheops and 32 for his brother and successor Chephren.
Such a cult of the dead was always of great economic importance, as numerous agricultural goods ( domains ) were set up for the supply of offerings . But the number of these domains is also significantly lower at Radjedef than, for example, Cheops and Chephren, at just four. Only one domain is attested from the 4th dynasty. As with Cheops, the economic importance of the cult of the dead only lasted until the 5th dynasty, and no domains are documented for the 6th dynasty.
An important document from the 12th dynasty is a rock inscription in Wadi Hammamat . Here the names of Radjedef, his father Cheops and his brothers Chephren, Hordjedef and Bauefre are mentioned next to each other. All of these names are written in cartouches, leading to the suggestion that Hordjedef and Bauefre might once have ruled as kings. However, there is no contemporary evidence for this.
A more likely motivation for the application of the inscription can be assumed that Radjedef, his brothers and his father were venerated as the patron saints of Wadi Hammamat. This thesis is supported by the fact that an alabaster vessel with the name of Cheops was found in Koptos , at the starting point for expeditions to the wadi, and it can therefore be assumed that he once enjoyed cultic veneration there.
A relief block in the Egyptian Museum in Berlin comes from the New Kingdom and is said to come from a grave in Saqqara . It depicts five enthroned kings of the Old Kingdom: The name of the first is no longer preserved, but can probably be reconstructed to Snefru on the basis of old photographs; it is followed by Radjedef, Mykerinos , Menkauhor and Pepi II. (Neferkare). The image section preserved on this block can be reconstructed as a worship scene in which the grave owner stands in front of the kings.
The mortuary temple of the queens pyramid GIc, which belongs to the Cheops complex, probably served as a sanctuary of Isis as early as the 18th dynasty . In the 21st dynasty , during the reign of the pharaohs Psusennes I and Amenemope , this temple was greatly expanded. In the course of the cult of Isis, a priesthood was again established for Cheops. In addition to Cheops, other kings were also occasionally worshiped. There are three priests attested to Radjedef from the 26th and 27th dynasties , but only one of them only bore the title “Priest of Radjedef”, while the other two were also priests of Cheops. A veneration of Radjedef beyond the borders of Giza, for example in his own burial place Abu Roasch, cannot be proven.
In 1974 Herta von Auer published the novel König Dedefré. The stranger from the north , in whom a northern European prince's son averts a famine during Cheops' rule, is adopted by him and ruled after him under the name of Djedefre. The French writer and archaeologist Guy Rachet published five novels about the pyramid builders of the 4th Dynasty in 1997 and 1998. The books are published in German as paperbacks by Heyne Verlag. The third volume, The Unfinished Pyramid , is set during Radjedef's reign.
- Peter A. Clayton: The Pharaohs. Bechtermünz, Augsburg 1994, ISBN 3-8289-0661-3 , pp. 50-51.
- Thomas Schneider : Lexicon of the Pharaohs. Albatros, Düsseldorf 2002, ISBN 3-491-96053-3 , pp. 112-113.
About the name
- Jürgen von Beckerath : Handbook of the Egyptian king names. 2nd Edition. von Zabern, Mainz 1999, ISBN 3-8053-2591-6 , pp. 52-53, 178.
- Eugène Piot Foundation: Monuments et Mémoires. Missing volume , Académie des inscriptions et belles-lettres, Paris 1894-, pp. 25, 59.
- Jean-Claude Goyon: New inscrpitions rupestres du Wadi Hammamat. Imprimerie nationale, Paris 1957, no.23s.
To the pyramid
- Zahi Hawass (Ed.): The Treasures of the Pyramids . Weltbild, Augsburg 2003, ISBN 3-8289-0809-8 , pp. 224-230.
- Mark Lehner : Secret of the Pyramids. Orbis, Munich 1999, ISBN 3-572-01039-X , pp. 120-121.
- Michel Valloggia: Au coeur d'une pyramide. Une mission archéologique en Egypt. InFolio, Gollion 2001, ISBN 2-88474-100-3 .
- Miroslav Verner : The pyramids (= rororo non-fiction book. Volume 60890). Rowohlt, Reinbek bei Hamburg 1999, ISBN 3-499-60890-1 , pp. 247-253.
For further literature on the pyramid see under Radjedef pyramid .
Questions of detail
- Jürgen von Beckerath: Chronology of the pharaonic Egypt. von Zabern, Mainz 1997, ISBN 3-8053-2310-7 , pp. 26, 38f., 154, 156-159, 175, 188.
- Aidan Dodson , Dyan Hilton: The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. The American University in Cairo Press, London 2004, ISBN 977-424-878-3 , pp. 52-61.
- Klaus-Peter Kuhlmann: The "water mountain of Djedefre" (Chufu 01/1). A storage place with expedition inscriptions of the 4th Dynasty in the room of the Oasis Dachla. In: Communications from the German Archaeological Institute, Cairo Department. (MDAIK) Vol. 61, von Zabern, Mainz 2005, ISBN 3-8053-3496-6 , pp. 243-289.
- Miroslav Verner: Archaeological Remarks on the 4th and 5th Dynasty Chronology. In: Archives Orientální. Vol. 69, Prague 2001, pp. 363-418 ( PDF; 31 MB ).
- Dietrich Wildung : The role of Egyptian kings in the consciousness of their posterity. Part I. Posthumous sources on the kings of the first four dynasties (= Munich Egyptological Studies. (MÄS) Vol. 17). Deutscher Kunstverlag, Munich / Berlin 1969, pp. 193–199.
- Otto Heinrich Muck : Cheops and the great pyramid. The heyday of the ancient Egyptian empire. Walter-Verlag, Olten 1958.
- government 25 years.
- Alan H. Gardiner: The royal canon of Turin . Image panel 2; The representation of the entry in the Turin papyrus, which deviates from the otherwise usual syntax for hieroboxes, is based on the fact that open cartouches were used in the hieratic . The alternating time-missing-time-presence of certain name elements is due to material damage in the papyrus.
- Kim Ryholt: The political situation in Egypt during the second intermediate period: c. 1800 - 1550 BC Museum Tusculanum Press, Copenhagen 1997, ISBN 87-7289-421-0 , p. 17; William Gillian Waddell: Manetho (The Loeb classical Library 350) . Pp. 44–45, with reference to George Reisner.
- Alan B. Lloyd: Herodotus, book II (= Etudes préliminaires aux religions orientales dans l'Empire romain. Volume 43). Brill, Leiden 1975-1988, ISBN 90-04-04179-6 , pp. 77ff.
- Year numbers according to T. Schneider: Lexikon der Pharaonen. Düsseldorf 2002.
- Rainer Stadelmann : The great pyramids of Giza (= world of wonder-wonders of the world. ). Akademische Druck- und Verlagsanstalt, Graz 1990, ISBN 3-201-01480-X , p. 105.
- T. Schneider: Lexicon of the Pharaohs. Düsseldorf 2002, p. 100.
- A. Dodson, D. Hilton: The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. London 2004, pp. 56, 60.
- A. Dodson, D. Hilton: The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. London 2004, p. 56.
- Rainer Stadelmann: Khaefkhufu = Chephren. Contributions to the history of the 4th dynasty . In: Studies on ancient Egyptian culture. Volume 11, 1984, pp. 165-172.
- Roman Gundacker: A contribution to the genealogy of the 4th dynasty . In: Sokar. No. 16, 2008, pp. 22-51.
- A. Dodson, D. Hilton: The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. London 2004, pp. 60, 69.
- Jürgen von Beckerath: Chronology of Pharaonic Egypt. Mainz 1997, p. 158.
- A. Dodson, D. Hilton: The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. London 2004, p. 61.
- Turin Kinglist ( Memento from January 12, 2007 in the web archive archive.today ) On: ancient-egypt.org from October 6, 2014; last accessed on October 2, 2015.
- Peter Jánosi: Giza in the 4th dynasty. The building history and occupancy of a necropolis in the Old Kingdom. Volume I: The mastabas of the core cemeteries and the rock graves . Publishing house of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna 2005, ISBN 3-7001-3244-1 , pp. 71–73.
- see M. Verner: Archaeological Remarks on the 4th and 5th Dynasty Chronology. Prague 2001.
- T. Schneider: Lexicon of the Pharaohs. Düsseldorf 2002, p. 102.
- Klaus-Peter Kuhlmann: The "water mountain of Djedefre" (Chufu 01/1). A storage place with expedition inscriptions of the 4th Dynasty in the room of the Oasis Dachla. In: Communications from the German Archaeological Institute, Cairo Department. (MDAIK) Vol. 61, von Zabern, Mainz 2005, pp. 243-289.
- Reinhard Grieshammer: Son of God . In: Lexicon of Egyptology. Volume 2, Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden 1977, columns 820-821.
- Peter Jánosi: Giza in the 4th Dynasty. The building history and occupancy of a necropolis in the Old Kingdom. Volume I: The mastabas of the core cemeteries and the rock graves . Publishing house of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna 2005, ISBN 3-7001-3244-1 , pp. 63–64.
- (Louvre E 12626) Tete de sphinx du Roi Didoufri . On: louvre.fr ; last accessed on October 2, 2015.
- Christiane Ziegler (Ed.): Egyptian Art in the Age of the Pyramids . The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York 1999, pp. 248-249.
- (Louvre E 11167) Didoufri coiffé de la couronne de Basse-Egypte . On: louvre.fr ; last accessed on October 2, 2015.
- (Louvre E 12627) Pieds d'une statue du roi Didoufri . On: louvre.fr ; last accessed on October 2, 2015.
- Bertha Porter, Rosalind LB Moss: Topographical Bibliography of Ancient Egyptian Hieroglyphic Texts, Reliefs and Paintings. III. Memphis . 2nd Edition. Oxford University Press, Oxford 1974, pp. 2-3.
- Bertha Porter, Rosalind LB Moss: Topographical Bibliography of Ancient Egyptian Hieroglyphic Texts, Reliefs and Paintings. III. Memphis . 2nd Edition. Oxford University Press, Oxford 1974, p. 2; Christiane Ziegler (Ed.): Egyptian Art in the Age of the Pyramids . The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York 1999, p. 249
- D. Wildung: The role of Egyptian kings in the consciousness of their posterity. Part I. 1969, p. 193.
- Wildung: role of Egyptian kings . Pp. 152-156
- D. Wildung: The role of Egyptian kings in the consciousness of their posterity. Part I. 1969, pp. 200-202.
- D. Wildung: The role of Egyptian kings in the consciousness of their posterity. Part I. 1969, p. 194.
- Flinders Petrie , DG Hogarth: Koptos . Quaritc, London 1896, p. 4.23; Plate 21.3.
- D. Wildung: The role of Egyptian kings in the consciousness of their posterity. Part I. 1969, pp. 164-165, 174.
- D. Wildung: The role of Egyptian kings in the consciousness of their posterity. Part I. 1969, pp. 197-198.
- D. Wildung: The role of Egyptian kings in the consciousness of their posterity. Part I. 1969, pp. 198-199.
- Herta von Auer: King Dedefré. The stranger from the north. Grabert, Tübingen 1974.
King of Egypt
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Djedefre; Djedefra|
|BRIEF DESCRIPTION||ancient Egyptian king of the 4th dynasty|
|DATE OF BIRTH||26th century BC Chr.|
|DATE OF DEATH||26th century BC Chr.|