A party with no party (including a free MP or independent ) is someone who exercises or aspires to a political office or mandate but does not belong to a political party . A parliamentarian can often only become non-party after an election , by leaving or being expelled from his party . In Austria , the term wild MP is also used for such cases .
Members of parliament who are not members of any political group are called non-attached members . Independent MPs are not necessarily non-attached and vice versa. Free MPs often form electoral communities or their own faction of the independents .
In most modern democracies which are members of parliaments and members of the government preselected generally of parties and elected with their support, non-party governments are formed only in exceptional situations. Independent candidates are most important where there is majority voting or where party ties are not very strong. In order to be elected without the support of a party, it is usually necessary to be well known among the voters, especially when running against party candidates. As direct candidates in elections, non-party members are usually given fewer opportunities than party members. In federal elections , individual applicants were only able to win constituencies directly in 1949 and thus enter parliament.
Individual applicants can be nominated for local elections in Germany. Therefore, there are more successful non-party members who are often supported or tolerated by parties. Conversely, parties are not compelled to nominate only party members for an election; therefore, non-party members and members of other parties or electoral associations can also be nominated in so-called “ open lists ” . Non-party applicants as individual applicants need support signatures, the number of which are stipulated in the municipal regulations of the federal states, so that they appear on the voting slip.
In the USA and Great Britain there are always independent candidates who are successful. Bernie Sanders , for example, has been a member of the US State of Vermont since 1991 and has represented the state in the Senate since 2007 .
A high political office is rarely held by a non-party member. In most cases, it is then a person who is at least close to a party. Examples are some ministers like Ulrich Nussbaum (2009-2014 Senator for Finance in Berlin) or the eleventh German President Joachim Gauck .
Local political developments in Germany
In the Federal Republic, particularly in local politics, candidates for full-time mayors are increasingly being elected. In Hessen, for example, an association of non-party mayors has been formed. In 2006 and 2007 a federal meeting of independent mayors and district administrators took place in Crimmitschau (Saxony). In 2011, non-party mayors and district administrators meet in Dresden on the occasion of the “Mayors' Day” conference. The trend is particularly clear in the northern German federal states: around a third of the directly elected main administrative officials in Lower Saxony are non-party. In addition, quotas for non-party members are increasingly being set up in the top municipal bodies such as the German Association of Cities and the City Councils of the federal states.
Regardless of the legal definition, it is doubtful in the political science debate whether one should classify local political associations such as civic alliances as well as local electoral communities and their elected representatives in the spectrum of parties or whether they should be classified as party-like organs of local authority formation.
There are non-party mayors in the cities of Freiburg im Breisgau ( Martin Horn ), Hagen ( Erik O. Schulz ), Halle (Saale) ( Bernd Wiegand ), Heidelberg ( Eckart Würzner ), Cologne ( Henriette Reker ), Magdeburg ( Lutz Trümper ) and Rostock ( Claus Ruhe Madsen ).
Well-known politicians without a party
- Wilhelm Cuno , Reich Chancellor from 1922 to 1923
- Hans Luther , Chancellor from 1925 to 1926
- Franz von Papen , Reich Chancellor 1932 ( German Center Party until 1932 )
- Kurt von Schleicher , Reich Chancellor 1932 and 1933
- Paul von Hindenburg , Reich President from 1925 to 1934
- In the 1949 federal election , three non-party direct candidates entered the Bundestag: Eduard Edert ( Bundestag constituency Flensburg ), Richard Freudenberg ( Mannheim-Land ) and Franz Ott ( Esslingen ). Edert was supported by the CDU , FDP and DP , Freudenberg by the FDP / DVP and Ott by the displaced persons organization Notgemeinschaft Württemberg-Baden
- Ludwig Erhard , Federal Minister of Economics in the Adenauer I - Adenauer V cabinets , was admitted to the CDU retrospectively and retrospectively in 1968, according to the news magazine Spiegel, after taking over the chairmanship of the party in 1966.
- Hans Leussink , Federal Minister for Education and Science in the Brandt I cabinet
- Werner Müller , Federal Minister for Economics and Technology in the Schröder I cabinet
- Joachim Gauck , German Federal President from 2012 to 2017 (member of Alliance 90 in the 90s )
- Helmut Palmer was a candidate in at least 289 mayoral elections and 13 regional and federal elections in Baden-Württemberg . He became known as the "Rems Valley Rebel". In the federal election in 1983, Helmut Palmer received 19.8% of the first votes in the Göppingen constituency, and 19.2% in the Waiblingen constituency in 1987 . To this day, Helmut Palmer is the most successful non-party individual candidate in Bundestag elections in the history of the Federal Republic of Germany who had not previously been in a party or was significantly supported by it.
- Wolfgang Nešković was elected to the Bundestag in 2005 as a non-party member of the Left Party's state list in Brandenburg. In 2009 he won the constituency of Cottbus - Spree-Neisse as a non-party direct candidate of the Left Party. In December 2012, he resigned from the Left parliamentary group with immediate effect and announced that he would run as an independent candidate for the 2013 federal election.
- Frank Horch , Hamburg Senator for Economic Affairs since 2011.
- Rudolf Petersen , was First Mayor of Hamburg from 1945 to 1946 ( CDU from 1946 )
- Loukas Papadimos , former Vice-President of the European Central Bank and Prime Minister in 2011 and 2012
- Yanis Varoufakis , Greek Finance Minister from January 27th to July 6th, 2015
- Panagiotis Pikrammenos , Greek Prime Minister from May 16, 2012 to June 20, 2012
- Nikos Kotzias , Greek Foreign Minister since 2015
- Panagiotis Nikoloudis , Greek Minister of State for Anti-Corruption since 2015
- Nikos Paraskevopoulos , Greek Minister of Justice since 2015
- Carlo Azeglio Ciampi , Italian Prime Minister from 1993 to 1994, President of the Italian Republic from 1999 to 2006
- Lamberto Dini , Italian Prime Minister from 1995 to 1996, Minister of Finance from 1994 to 1996, Foreign Minister from 1996 to 2001,
- Giuliano Amato , Italian Prime Minister from 2000 to 2001, Minister of Finance from 1987 to 1989 and 1999 to 2000, Minister of the Interior from 2006 to 2008
- Mario Monti , Italian Prime Minister from 2011 to 2013
- Giuseppe Conte , Italian Prime Minister since 2018
- Vladimir Putin , president from 1999 to 2008 and since 2012, was chairman of the United Russia party from 2008 to 2012 , but never a member
- Karl-Heinz Grasser , Austrian Federal Minister of Finance from 2000 to 2007 (until 2002 FPÖ )
- Michael Hainisch , Austrian Federal President from 1920 to 1928
- Rudolf Kirchschläger , Austrian Federal President from 1974 to 1986
- Brigitte Bierlein , Austrian Chancellor from June 3, 2019 to January 7, 2020
United States of America
- George Washington , first President of the United States
- Bill Walker , Governor of Alaska since 2014 ( Republican Party until 2014 )
- Michael Bloomberg , New York Mayor 2002 to 2013 ( Republican Party until 2007 )
- William Few , Senator from Georgia 1789 to 1793
- Lincoln Chafee , Senator from Rhode Island 2011 to 2015 ( Republican Party until 2007 , Democratic Party from 2013 )
- Thomas Mifflin , Governor of Pennsylvania 1782 to 1799
- Charlie Crist , Florida Governor, 2007 to 2011 ( Republican Party until 2010 , Democratic Party from 2012 )
- Bernie Sanders , Member of Parliament from Vermont 1991-2007, Senator from Vermont since 2007 (2015-2016 Democratic Party )
- Independent mayors of Hesse
- Federal meeting of independent mayors and district administrators
- Uwe Andersen: The municipal constitution and decision-making system
- Jan Knauer: Citizen engagement and protest policy. The political work of the "Remstal rebel" Helmut Palmer and the reactions of his fellow men (dissertation). Tübingen 2012; online on TOBIAS-lib; P. 69 and 152f.
- Homepage:  Accessed June 17, 2013
- Russian Agency for International Information (RIA Novosti): Is Putin planning a major purge in the Kremlin party? Retrieved January 20, 2009.