|Map of Maputo|
|Metropolitan area||2,717,437 (2017)|
|density||3,175.5 Ew. / km²|
|Telephone code||+258 21|
|Governadora da Cidade de Maputo||Lucília José Manuel Nota Hama|
|Presidente do Conselho Municipal : David Simango ( Frelimo )|
The Maputo skyline
Maputo [ maˈpuːto ] (until 1975 Lourenço Marques , 1975–1976 Cam Phumo ) is the capital of Mozambique . The city of Maputo forms its own administrative unit, Maputo Cidade , the surrounding province of Maputo has been administratively separated from the state capital since 1998 and has its own provincial capital, Matola .
The city of Maputo is located on the Maputo Bay on the Indian Ocean and, according to official figures, has 1,101,170 inhabitants and 2,717,437 in the agglomeration (2017 census); Since many people live in informal settlements and some are not recorded, estimates assume a much higher population.
The city is located on the west side of Maputo Bay, which is 95 km long and 30 km wide, in the extreme south of the country. In Maputo, the Tembe River flows into the Indian Ocean, while the Maputo River in the south of the bay also flows into the Indian Ocean.
The outstanding building is the old Portuguese fortress from 1787.
The city of Maputo ("Maputo Cidade") forms its own administrative unit at the provincial level and, like the other provinces of Mozambique, is divided into districts, which, however, are of a purely administrative and legal nature. Similar to other Mozambican districts , there is a further subdivision into districts ( bairros ) or localities ( localidades ). While the so-called Distritos Urbanos (Urban Districts) are all located on the north bank of Maputo Bay and thus subdivide the actual city of Maputo, the two so-called Distritos Municipais (Munizip Districts) comprise further areas: The Distrito Municipal de KaTembe comprises five localities the south side of Maputo Bay, the Distrito Municipal de KaNyaka, the island of Inhaca in Maputo Bay, including the uninhabited island Ilha dos Portugueses, just under two kilometers to the northwest .
The districts of the capital Maputo are as follows. The first five urban districts are sometimes numbered from 1 to 5 in the order mentioned.
|Name of the district||Districts / localities||Area
|Distrito Urbano de KaMpfumo||Alto-Maé A + B, Central A, B + C, COOP, Malhangalene A + B, Sommershield , Polana A + B||13.7||80,550|
|Distrito Urbano de Nlhamankulu||Chamanculo A, B, C + D, Aeroporto A + B, Minkadjuine, Munhuana, Xipamanine, Unidade 7, Malanga||10.2||129,306|
|Distrito Urbano de KaMaxaquene||Mafalala, Urbanização, Maxaquene A, B, C + D, Polana Caniço A + B||12.6||199,565|
|District Urbano de KaMavota||Albazine, Costa do Sol, FPLM, Ferroviário, Hulene A + B, Laulane, Mavota, 3 de Fevereiro, Mavalane A + B||79.8||331,968|
|Distrito Urbano de KaMubukwana||Luís Cabral, Jardim, Nsalene, Inhagóia A + B, 25 de Junho A + B, Bagamoio, George Dimitrov, Malhazine, Zimpeto, Magoanine A, B + C||60.9||321,438|
|Distrito Municipal de KaTembe||Incassane, Chamissava, Guachene, Inguide, Chali||122.0||32,248|
|Distrito Municipal de KaNyaka||Inguane (southeast), Ribzeni, Nhaquene||47.8||6,095|
In 1544 the Portuguese occupied Delagoa Bay ( Baía da Lagoa ), which they claimed and explored. However, there was no permanent occupation, so there was no settlement or fortification. In 1721 the Dutch founded Fort Lydsaamheid, a branch on Delagoa Bay at what is now Maputo. The area between Sabi and Limpopo had previously been outside the Portuguese zone of influence, apart from sporadic advances by some ivory traders or missionaries. In 1730 the Dutch gave up their settlement again.
In March 1777, Lieutenant Colonel William Bolts founded an Austrian trading post in Delagoa Bay. It consisted of a small harbor and two cannon forts ( Joseph and Theresia ), manned by ten men. The British had bought the land from the chiefs Mohaar Capell and Chibauraan Matola in the service of Austria . The trading post remained until the Portuguese returned in 1781. They founded a trading post that served as a base for the ivory trade and as an anchorage for whalers . Construction of the fortress began in 1787 and was largely destroyed by French troops in 1796. In 1869 a border treaty was signed with the Boer state Transvaal and the Delagoa Bay was added to the Portuguese colony of Mozambique.
In 1875, the Lourenço Marques settlement was founded in Delagoa Bay. The city bears the name of a Portuguese trader who explored the region in 1544 as the first representative of the later colonial power Portugal. In 1887 Lourenço Marques got city rights? In 1895 a railway line was built from Pretoria in the South African Republic to Lourenço Marques in order to be able to use the local port. The resulting growth led to Lourenço Marques receiving city rights in 1897? and in 1898 replaced Ilha de Moçambique as the capital of Portuguese East Africa ( Moçambique ). From 1904 to 1936 an electric tram ( Eléctricos de Lourenço Marques ) operated in the city .
After Mozambique gained independence from Portugal in 1975, the city was renamed Cam Phumo and then Maputo on February 3, 1976 . Since the end of the Mozambican Civil War in 1992, Maputo has seen steady economic growth, with a business center built with several modern high-rise buildings. On March 22, 2007, 96 people lost their lives in the explosion of an arms store on the outskirts of the city. In 2010, there was serious unrest in Maputo due to food shortages .
The population of the city of Maputo grew from just 92,000 in 1950 to 1.1 million in 2017. In the meantime, the population of the suburbs in particular is increasing rapidly. The suburb of Matola grew from 9,000 to 1.6 million over the same period. In a ranking of cities according to their quality of life, Maputo ranked 182nd out of 231 cities worldwide in 2018.
A population of over 5.5 million people in the agglomeration is expected for 2050.
Population development according to the UN
Average monthly temperatures and rainfall for Maputo
Economy and transport infrastructure
Maputo has a modern ocean-going port through which coal , ferrochrome , iron ore , aluminum , mineral oil , sisal , fruit , sugar , hardwood and industrial products are exported in containers. For South Africa, the port of Maputo is of great economic and political importance due to its geographical proximity to the metropolitan areas in the provinces of Gauteng and Mpumalanga , which results in mutual influences with the Mozambican economy.
The town itself produces cement , pottery , furniture, shoes and rubber . It also has a large aluminum plant ( Mozal ) and there is an oil refinery in neighboring Matola . The city's fine sandy beaches attract numerous tourists .
Efficient transport links by rail ( Pretoria – Maputo line ) and the EN4 trunk road lead from the neighboring country to the city and its port area. Important domestic transport links originate from Maputo, such as the EN1 and EN2 highways . The traffic in the inner city area is mainly accessed via Avenida Eduardo Mondlane , Avenida 24 de Julho and Avenida Julius Nyerere .
With MetroBus Maputo , a suburban railway system with bus connections was opened in February 2018.
Urban transport in Maputo is mainly organized by minibuses, which are called chapas here. The city's three main bus stations are Baixa in the city center, Museu (museum) and Junta (for regional and national buses). One of the first trams on the African continent existed in Maputo as early as 1904. However, with the advent of cars and buses, it lost its importance until it was completely discontinued in 1975. The tram tracks are still visible in some places in the streets of Maputo.
The Maputo Airport is the main airport of the country. With the opening of the new terminal in 2010, the capacity was increased to the current 900,000 passengers per year.
In addition to the Museu de História Natural de Moçambique on the history of the country, there is a military museum in the city . The on-site in Maputo Theater Teatro Avenida worked Henning Mankell as director and occasionally as director .
One of Maputo's cultural institutions is the Associação Núcleo de Arte . The association is located in an old villa in the center of the city, where exhibitions are regularly held. He has had a major impact on the cultural life of Mozambique over the past few decades. Two well-known contemporary artists in the country, Malangatana Ngwenya and Alberto Chissano , started their careers here. The Associação Núcleo de Arte became known beyond the borders of Mozambique for the project Transforming Arms into Art , in which artists made sculptures from weapons that came from the civil war.
Cityscape and architecture
Maputo's city center, the "cement city" that was until independence inhabited predominantly by white Portuguese, makes a high proportion of historical buildings with its mix of style elements of historicism , of Art Deco -Baukunst and emerged after the Second World War architecture of tropical modernism gives the impression of a traditional European, largely Portuguese-influenced city.
Today the center is surrounded by the residential quarters ( bairros ) of the small employees and workers. Despite the seemingly irregular network of roads, the makeshift construction of the houses on tiny plots and a supply from the predominantly informal economy , the infrastructure in this zone has been functioning well since independence (electricity, water pumps, minibus traffic, schools).
The city center still shows the checkerboard pattern defined in the second half of the 19th century with its wide avenidas . Its oldest district, the Baixa , is located between today's train station and Avenida Samoa Machel on a formerly narrow strip between the beach and the once marshy hinterland. The oldest existing building was erected here around 1860, the Casa Amarela , which has since been heavily modified . In the decades before the First World War, the then Lourenço Marques experienced an initial boom due to the gold rush in the Transvaal and the capital initially invested by the British and Indians. In 1910, the station , from which one had reached South Africa since 1895, was replaced by a new building; With its mighty central dome, the elegant side wings and the well-preserved iron platform roof, it is considered one of the most beautiful in Africa. At the turn of the 20th century, iron structures played an important role, not only for public buildings. In 1898, the Casa de Ferro, imported entirely from Belgium, was built entirely of iron as the residence for the governor , and in the same year the open veranda structure of the Hotel Clube was built by English architects with steel from Scotland . The main post office from 1905–1907 and the National Library from 1904, which has an identical front, show a scheme often used in Portuguese colonial architecture: an arcade-like series of round arches opens onto a vestibule on the ground floor, above which slender columns support the horizontal roof line of a high loggia.
In addition to this tropical-colonial variant of European Beaux-Arts architecture , which also determined the town hall from 1941/47, there was the influence of Art Deco in the 1930s and 1940s. In fact, it did not correspond to the ideology of the Estado Novo and the nationalist regime of the dictator Salazar . This contradiction, which still determined architecture up to the revolution, was explained by the fact that in the colonies, far from the motherland, there lived a cosmopolitan white society, for which racism and modernity were not a contradiction in terms. In addition, the new construction method accommodated the use of concrete that had become common practice as well as the local climatic conditions through the typical emphasis of the time on horizontal lines that were designed as shady roofs. The Teatro Gil Vicente (1933), the gothic cathedral of the capital (1944), the buildings of Radio Mozambique (1949–1951), the Cine África (1948) and the early works of the architect Pancho Guedes , such as his Edifício Prometheus (1951 –1953), the Millenium Bim Bank from 1954 or the Restaurante Zambi from 1954–1956 belong to this series.
The typical Mozambican (and Angolan) variation of the international style with its gridded facades is characterized by the slats (brisé soleil) and cantilevered frames of the windows, which reduce the heating of the interior by reducing the amount of sunlight. They often determine office and rental apartment architecture. There are also examples that make more reference to African traditions by sculpting the building through three-dimensional form ( Casa das Três Girafas , 1953, by Pancho Guedes, or the house of the laughing lion , which the same architect built himself in 1958). Like this building, public buildings in particular are fully furnished with large, independent African murals ( Prédio TAP , 1960). The most important are from Malangatana .
Other things stand outside the above-mentioned style and building traditions: The Maputo mosque is the largest in Mozambique, built in the years 1902 and 2001–2005; the Museu de História Natural de Moçambique , one of the few buildings with Neo-Manueline ornamentation, was built in 1930, a sign of national recollection at the beginning of the Estado Novo . The church of Santo António da Polana has the shape of a tent-like, folded concrete central building (1960/1962). The Torres Vermelhas ("Red Towers") in Polana were built in 1974.
Construction activity has accelerated again since the end of the civil war in 1992. It is characterized by a largely uniform architecture and thus stands in contrast to the diversity of the historically evolved cityscape.
sons and daughters of the town
A number of famous people were born in Maputo. The following is a selection sorted chronologically:
- Al Bowlly (1898-1941), South African pop and jazz singer
- Rui de Noronha (1909-1943), poet
- Demetrios Tsafendas (1918–1999), South African parliament clerk, murderer of Prime Minister Verwoerd
- Duarte Manuel Bello (1921–1994), Portuguese sailor, medalist Olympic Games 1948
- José Craveirinha (1922–2003), poet
- Fernando Bello (1924–1995), Portuguese sailor, medalist Olympic Games 1948
- Bertina Lopes (1924–2012), Mozambican-Italian painter and sculptor
- Ricardo Rangel (1924–2009), photographer and photojournalist
- João Dias (1926–1949), writer
- Alberto de Lacerda (1928–2007), Portuguese poet, university professor, art collector, art critic, eccentric
- Júlio Cernadas Pereira (1929–2007), Portuguese football player and coach
- Orlando da Costa (1929-2006), Indo-Portuguese writer and communist politician
- Mário Wilson (1929-2016), Mozambican-Portuguese football player and coach
- Acúrsio Carrelo (1931-2010), Portuguese national roller hockey and soccer player
- Ruy Guerra (* 1931), Brazilian film director
- Guilherme de Melo (1931–2013), Portuguese journalist and writer, Portugal's first prominent gay activist
- Eduardo Naya Marques (* 1935), Portuguese architect
- Rui Nogar (1935-1993), writer
- Otelo Saraiva de Carvalho (* 1936), Portuguese general and revolutionary
- António Calvário (* 1938), Portuguese singer and actor, first representative of Portugal at the Grand Prix Eurovision de la Chanson
- Teresa Heinz (* 1938), American philanthropist
- Kok Nam (1939–2012), photographer and journalist
- Lina Magaia (1940–2011), Mozambican writer, journalist and resistance fighter
- Jorge Rebelo (* 1940), poet and politician
- Óscar Monteiro (* 1941), politician
- Eusébio (1942-2014), Portuguese football player
- Luís Bernardo Honwana (* 1942), journalist and writer
- Ricardo Chibanga (1942–2019), bullfighter
- Alexandre Quintanilha (* 1945), Portuguese scientist, politician and LGBT activist
- José Bento (* 1946), Portuguese badminton player
- Alice Mabota (* 1949), Mozambican human rights activist
- Eduardo Pitta (* 1949), Portuguese writer, columnist and literary critic
- Stélio Craveirinha (1950–2020), Olympic track and field athlete and trainer
- Aldino Muianga (* 1950), writer and surgeon
- Glória Muianga (* 1951), presenter of Rádio Moçambique
- Amélia Muge (* 1952), Portuguese musician and composer
- Luís Carlos Patraquim (* 1953), poet, journalist and author
- António Feio (1954-2010), Portuguese actor and theater director
- Lucio Andrice Muandula (* 1959), bishop
- Carlos Nuno Castel-Branco (* 1960), political and economic scientist, university lecturer, publicist and human rights activist
- Rui Abreu (1961–1982), Portuguese Olympic swimmer
- Francisco José Villas-Boas Senra de Faria Coelho (* 1961), Bishop
- Paulo Teixeira (* 1962), Portuguese poet
- Ana Paula Vitorino (* 1962), Portuguese politician, from 2015 Minister in the Costa I cabinet
- Isabel Noronha (* 1964), Mozambican director
- Esperança Mangaze (* 1965), Mozambican entrepreneur
- Manuela Rebelo (* 1966), Mozambican lawyer and politician
- Lucrécia Paco (* 1969), Mozambican actress
- Luís de Matos (* 1970), Portuguese magician
- Sónia Sultuane (* 1971), Mozambican poet and visual artist
- Letícia da Silva Klemens (* 1972), Mozambican entrepreneur and politician
- Maria de Lurdes Mutola (* 1972), Mozambican athlete
- Mariza (* 1973), Portuguese fado singer
- Dama do Bling (* 1979), hip-hop musician and entrepreneur
- Neyma (* 1979), singer and entrepreneur
- Tânia Tomé (* 1981), singer
- Lizha James (* 1982), singer and model
- Marinho Martins Mocana (* 1982), Portuguese-Mozambican soccer player
- Kurt Couto (* 1985), Mozambican athlete and hurdler
- Hirondina Joshua (* 1987), writer
- Mexicans (* 1988), soccer player
- Maria Muchavo (* 1992), track and field athlete
- Juliano Máquina (* 1993), Olympic boxer
- Alberto Mamba (* 1994), track and field athlete
- Creve Armando Machava (* 1996), athlete
- Edmilsa Governo (* 1998), athlete
- João Loureiro: Memórias de Lourenço Marques. Editorial Notícias, Cruz Quebrada 2003, ISBN 972-98898-1-3 .
- Ana Paula Lemos: Recordações de Lourenço Marques. Editora Aletheia, Lisbon 2005, ISBN 989-622-022-0 .
- João Sousa Morais: Maputo. Caleidoscópio, Lisbon 2012, ISBN 978-989-658-162-6 (architecture)
- Margit Niederhuber, Eduardo Matlhombe, Mihai Baiculescu: Destino / Destination Maputo: Moçambique. Mandelbaum Verlag, Vienna 2013, ISBN 978-3-85476-423-6 .
- Philipp Schauer : Maputo. Architectural and Tourist Guide , Maputo 2015.
- Homepage of the City of Maputo (Portuguese)
- Photos from Maputo
- Rainer Grajek: Lourenço Marques - Maputo - Mozambique: From the history of a city
- Perfil Estatístico Do Município de Maputo. (PDF, 2.2 MB) CONSELHO MUNICIPAL DE MAPUTO, 2010, accessed on February 6, 2018 (Portuguese).
- Mozambique: Provinces, Cities, Urban Localities & Agglomeration - Population Statistics in Maps and Charts. Retrieved November 26, 2017 .
- ashore without fortune - How the Habsburgs tried to be colonial masters . In: Der Spiegel . 6/2009, November 24, 2009
- World Urbanization Prospects - Population Division - United Nations. Retrieved July 24, 2018 .
- Mercer's 2018 Quality of Living Rankings. Retrieved July 30, 2018 .
- World 101 largest Cities. Retrieved July 23, 2018 .
- Art from Landmines Report by Deutsche Welle about the art project. Retrieved October 10, 2012.
- Philipp Schauer : Maputo , Maputo 2015, pp. 12-13.
- The presentation in this chapter is largely based on the latest architectural-historical overview by Philipp Schauer : Maputo. Architectural and Tourist Guide , Maputo 2015.