Justin Pierre James Trudeau ([ʒystɛ̃ trydo]; born December 25, 1971 in Ottawa , Ontario ) is a Canadian politician and since November 4, 2015 the 23rd Prime Minister of Canada . He is the eldest son of Pierre Trudeau , who was also Prime Minister of Canada from 1968 to 1984 (with a short interruption).
Since the 2008 election he has represented the Papineau constituency in Montreal in the Canadian House of Commons . On April 14, 2013 he was elected chairman of the Liberal Party of Canada . In the shadow cabinet he was responsible for youth and multiculturalism , citizenship and immigration, tertiary education, and youth and amateur sports. In the general election in 2015 Trudeau was the top candidate of the Liberals; the party received 39.47% of the vote (after 18.91% in the 2011 election) and an absolute majority of the lower house seats .
He filled his cabinet equally with women and men. In the general election on October 21, 2019 , the Liberals remained the strongest force, but lost their absolute majority in the lower house. Trudeau's second cabinet was sworn in on November 20, 2019.
Family and studies
Justin Trudeau was born on December 25, 1971 in Ottawa as the son of Pierre (1919-2000) and Margaret Trudeau (* 1948), née Sinclair, in the Ottawa Civic Hospital and baptized in Ottawa Cathedral. He has two younger brothers Alexandre ("Sacha", * 1973) and Michel (1975-1998). Michel was killed in an avalanche accident during a ski trip in November 1998, around two weeks before his 23rd birthday. Trudeau's paternal grandfather was the entrepreneur Charles-Émile Trudeau . Trudeau's maternal grandfather was Scottish- born politician James Sinclair , who served as Minister for Fisheries in St. Laurent's cabinet from 1940 to 1949 . Trudeau's parents separated in 1977. The divorce became legally binding in 1984, the year Pierre Trudeau retired from politics. Justin and his brothers then grew up with their father in Montreal.
Trudeau graduated from McGill University in Montreal literary studies and graduated in 1994 graduated with a Bachelor of Arts from. He also received a Bachelor of Education from the University of British Columbia in 1998 . After completing his studies, he taught social studies , math and French at the West Point Gray Academy and Sir Winston Churchill Secondary School high schools in Vancouver . From 2002 to 2003 he studied engineering at the Université de Montréal . He also began a Master of Arts degree in environmental geography at McGill University in 2005 , which he dropped out in 2006 to go into politics.
In October 2000, Trudeau (then 28 years old) became known to the general public through his funeral speech at the state funeral for his father. In 2007, Trudeau played a major role in the two-part CBC production The Great War on Canada's participation in the First World War . There he portrayed Major Talbot Mercer Papineau , who died on October 30, 1917 in the Battle of Passchendaele .
Trudeau has been married to Sophie Grégoire since May 28, 2005 . Trudeau and Grégoire had known each other since childhood when she was a classmate of Trudeau's brother Michel, but they hadn't met again until 2003. They have three children, two sons (* 2007, * 2014) and a daughter (* 2009).
In June 2013, two months after Trudeau became party chairman , he and his wife sold their home in Côte-des-Neiges , a suburb of Montreal, and moved to his former hometown, Ottawa. They live there in Rockcliffe Park . Justin Trudeau spent the first years of his childhood in neighboring New Edinburgh .
Social and humanitarian commitment
Trudeau used his public status and famous name for a variety of purposes. He and his family helped found the Kokanee Glacier Alpine Campaign for winter sports safety in 2000, two years after his brother Michel was killed in an avalanche accident . In 2002, Trudeau criticized the British Columbia's government decision to stop funding an avalanche warning system .
From 2002 to 2006 he was chairman of the Katimavik Youth Program , which was established during his father's reign. During the budget debate in 2012, he defended the project, whose financial support was cut by the Harper government.
Trudeau and his brother Alexandre opened the Trudeau Center for Peace and Conflict Studies at the University of Toronto in April 2004 . Today this center belongs to the Munk School of Global Affairs .
Trudeau has supported the Liberal Party since his youth. So he advertised z. B. At the age of seventeen in the Canadian general election of 1988 for the liberal candidate John Turner , who could not prevail against Brian Mulroney . Two years later, he defended Canadian federalism at a student event at the Collège Jean de Brébeuf , a prestigious Jesuit school in Montreal that his father had attended.
After the death of his father, Trudeau became more and more involved in the Liberal Party. Together with the Olympic athlete Charmaine Crooks , he hosted a tribute to the outgoing Prime Minister Jean Chrétien at the 2003 party congress . After losing the general election in 2006 , he was appointed chairman of a working group whose task it was to win back young voters.
In October 2006, he criticized Québec nationalism by generally calling political nationalism an “old idea from the 19th century” that was based on small-mindedness and should not be relevant for a modern Québec. This was seen as a criticism of Michael Ignatieff , who was running for the presidency of the Liberals at the time and wanted to see Québec as a nation. Trudeau then wrote an open letter in which he described the idea of a Québec state as "against everything my father ever believed in". Under Pierre Trudeau, the equality of French and English had been enforced throughout Canada in order to create a balance between the two population groups and to better integrate the often discriminated French Canadians and at the same time to prevent unrest and aspirations for independence. Contrary to his son's criticism of Québec nationalism, the Québecians were officially recognized by the Canadian state as a “nation in a united Canada” in 2006, which symbolically gives them a special status, but at the same time confirms and consolidates the balance created in the 1960s and 70s : On the one hand, the Quebecers are a nation of their own, on the other hand they are part of a Canada that unites several provinces and population groups .
Shortly before the 2006 party conference, Trudeau announced that he would support Gerard Kennedy in his application for party leadership. After Kennedy was eliminated after the second ballot, Trudeau and Kennedy stood behind Stéphane Dion , who eventually won the election.
Trudeau was set up on April 29, 2007 for the next general election in the Papineau constituency in Montreal.
Member of the House of Commons
When Prime Minister Stephen Harper scheduled a new election for October 14, 2008 , Trudeau had been campaigning in Papineau for a year. In the election, Trudeau managed to win a narrow majority over the previous MP from Papineau, Vivian Barbot ( Bloc Québécois ). Overall, the Conservative Party of Canada under Harper was able to form a minority government, and the Liberals became the second largest party in the official opposition .
In October 2009 Trudeau was appointed shadow minister for youth and multiculturalism, and in September 2010 he was entrusted with citizenship and immigration. In this role, he criticized the government and its legislation to curb people smuggling, as he believed that the laws punished the victims of smuggling.
In the general election on May 2, 2011 , Trudeau was re-elected in his constituency. However, his party lost 43 seats and only achieved the status of the third largest party with 34 seats. The chairman Ignatieff drew the consequences and resigned. A few weeks later, Bob Rae , an MP from Toronto, was appointed interim party chairman. Rae named Trudeau shadow minister for tertiary education and youth and amateur sports.
Justin Trudeau has been featured in the media as a political “rock star ” and has appeared with many fundraisers for charities and the Liberal Party since his re-election. In March 2012, Trudeau took part in a boxing match against Conservative Senator Patrick Brazeau. The fight was hosted as a Fight for the Cure fundraiser to benefit cancer research. Trudeau surprisingly won the fight in the third round.
Chairman of the Liberal Party since 2013
Both after the resignation of Stéphane Dion and that of Michael Ignatieff, Trudeau was traded as a potential successor in the office of party chairman. After interim chairman Bob Rae announced that he was not interested in a party chairmanship, a "tsunami" of requests to stand for election struck Trudeau.
On October 2, 2012, Trudeau announced that he would run for chairmanship of the party.
After competitor Marc Garneau abandoned such plans, other liberal politicians stood behind Trudeau, who won the election on April 14, 2013 with 80.09% of the possible points. Joyce Murray came in second with 10.16%, ahead of Martha Hall Findlay with 5.71%.
Prime Minister of Canada since late 2015
Under Trudeau's leadership, the Liberal Party won an absolute majority of the seats in the 2015 general election, with a gain of 20 percentage points and 150 seats compared to the 2011 result. On November 4, 2015, Trudeau was sworn in as Prime Minister in the 29th Canadian Cabinet . He accepted as many men as women into his cabinet. Trudeau describes himself as a feminist and challenged his compatriots z. B. in June 2016 to deal with feminism . Trudeau is committed to full legalization of cannabis and has announced that it will take this step across Canada by 2017 at the latest.
In November 2016, Trudeau was criticized, in part sharply, for his remarks about the late Cuban communist head of government Fidel Castro . In a statement, he called Castro a "remarkable leader" and a "legendary revolutionary and orator", whose news of his death he noted with "deep sadness". The statements were condemned on social media, but also by Cubans in exile and the opposition.
In the lower house election campaign in 2015 Trudeau promised (in view of the widely read among the population images of a drowned refugee child) to loosen Harper and in the case of his victory (after security checks) alone to February 25000, the current restrictive immigration policies of conservative Prime Minister refugees from the Syrian civil war resume , preferably single women, families or people who are persecuted because of their political beliefs or sexual identity. Single men should be given less consideration for the time being. Airlifts have also been set up for the reception. By the end of 2016, a total of 35,000 to 50,000 asylum seekers should have found a new home in Canada. According to official information, 31,000 refugees, mainly from Syria and Afghanistan, had been admitted by the end of September 2016. So-called “Welcome Centers” are intended to help immigrants with economic and social integration. However, the Canadian Council for Refugees (CCR) criticized the fact that non-Syrian refugees had been “forgotten” (15,000 in 2016) and that more responsibility was “shifted” onto individuals and communities. For 2017, only 7,500 people are supposed to be admitted through the state resettlement program, but more than twice as many through private funding programs. According to the CCR, reasons are cost reasons and excessive demands when processing the application on the state side. In addition, in comparison to the government program, the privately and longer-funded refugees are "often better and faster integrated".
After President Donald Trump took office in neighboring USA, Trudeau was one of the first heads of state to make her inaugural visit to Washington in mid-February 2017. Trudeau, Trump and his daughter Ivanka Trump founded an initiative to enforce equality for women, especially with regard to equal pay for working men and women in similar positions.
On February 16, 2017, Trudeau spoke to the European Parliament in Strasbourg, in particular about the successful conclusion of the CETA trade agreement between the European Union and Canada. Trudeau met Chancellor Merkel on February 17, 2017 in Berlin on a state visit . Both emphasized the conclusion of the CETA treaty and the importance of the fight against climate change in front of the international press . They also underlined that the future of NATO had been the focus of their conversation. They also highlighted the similarities between Germany and Canada in refugee policy. Trudeau and Merkel emphasized the importance of the new administration of the United States under the leadership of President Donald Trump as a cooperation partner of the EU and Canada. "Openness, compassion (and) democracy" are their common values, according to Merkel and Trudeau.
Differences over bilateral trade between the US and Canada became apparent in late April 2017. Trump announced a 20% penalty tariff on imports of softwood from Canada to protect the domestic construction industry.
In December 2017, Canada's Ethics Officer Mary Dawson complained that Trudeau and his family had spent Christmas 2016 on a private island owned by Karim Aga Khan IV , billionaire and head of the Ismaili Nizarites . The prime minister got into a conflict of interest because the Aga Khan Foundation was subsidized by the state. Trudeau apologized publicly and agreed to coordinate with the ethics commissioner in advance. He called Aga Khan a friend on this occasion.
Since January 1, 2018, the Canadian Prime Minister has held the chairmanship of the G7 countries, which changes annually .
In early 2019, the two ministers Jody Wilson-Raybould and Jane Philpott resigned in quick succession . They accused Trudeau of trying to influence the investigation into the Canadian company SNC Lavalin for paying bribes to the family of former Libyan ruler Muammar al-Gaddafi . Following the allegations, members of Trudeau's government tried to dissuade Jody Wilson-Raybould, in her role as the then Attorney General of Canada, from bringing a lawsuit against SNC Lavalin over the company's involvement in Libya. A lawsuit would have excluded the group from government contracts for a year and thus endangered up to 9,000 jobs in Trudeau's own constituency. Wilson-Raybould was removed from her post as attorney general in early 2019 and resigned from the cabinet. Trudeau also had the two ex-ministers excluded from the Liberal parliamentary group and, with the help of the party leadership, prevented them from running again for the Liberals in a general election.
In September 2019, he faced blackfacing accusations in the parliamentary election campaign because he appeared as Aladin for a costume evening at the West Point Gray Academy in 2001 with a darkly made-up complexion , which was viewed as a racist derailment.
The Trans Mountain Pipeline in Western Canada
See main article: Burrard
Since 2017, the conflicting interests of the western provinces of Alberta and British Columbia regarding the expansion of the Trans Mountain Pipeline , the Trans Mountain Expansion Project, TMX, have developed into a domestic political problem for Trudeau's government . The aim is to transfer larger quantities of diluted bitumen from the inland province of Alberta to the coast of British Columbia, which are to be exported from there primarily to Asia for fuel production. Alberta wants the transport capacity to be tripled, but this would mean a sevenfold increase in the number of large tanker transports from Burnaby through difficult waters and thus an increased risk of accidents off the coast of British Columbia and directly near Vancouver . Despite violent protests from First Nations and ecologists, Trudeau has spoken out in favor of expanding the pipeline, but he makes it dependent on the condition that the ship passage between the many islands of British Columbia to the open sea is more strictly controlled and greater precautions to prevent accidents must be taken, both in terms of personnel and technology (Oceans Protection Plan). Negotiations with US authorities would also be necessary, as certain danger points concern the border with the USA. The protests against TMX ran under the motto: Justin Trudeau: Climate savers don't build pipelines!
A new situation has arisen due to a supreme court decision on August 30, 2018. The Federal Court of Appeals ultimately revoked all previous permits for TMX. The work, especially deforestation, has been suspended since then, and numerous ongoing court cases have been canceled. Trudeau then said that now TMX would be reorganized "in the right way", in the correct way.
Canada still suffers from consequences related to centuries of oppression of the indigenous people, the First Nations . Trudeau had already promised during the election campaign and took steps immediately after taking office to mitigate historical injustices and eliminate them in the long term. First of all, he appointed a materially and personally well-equipped commission, which will work until the end of 2018 on the criminal and legal issue of women and girls who have disappeared from the First Nations . Its purpose is to ascertain the deadly mistakes of the past and propose solutions for the future in order to address this significant social problem. In addition to the work of the commission, whose interim report has been available since November 2017, the Trudeau cabinet provided considerable funds for direct mourning and remembrance work with the bereaved.
As a consequence of the interim report, among other things, Trudeau asked the country's autochthons to forgive the state oppressors. In this November 2017 speech in Newfoundland and Labrador, he also referred to the decades of bondage of autochthonous children in the residential schools that existed until 1996.
In November 2017, Trudeau in the Canadian Parliament criticized the state's decades of professional and social discrimination against lesbians, gays, bisexuals and transsexuals, i.e. LGBT people. He was visibly moved. He was addressing Canadian officials, soldiers and employees of the Mounties who had been degraded, criminalized and partially dismissed from service between the 1950s and 1990s because of their sexual orientation.
“We were wrong. We apologize. I'm so sorry. We're sorry ... you are skilled workers. You are patriots. And above all, you are innocent. For all your suffering you deserve justice and peace "
As compensation, Canada will pay the victims 145 million CAD , that's 96 million euros. A law has already been passed that makes it possible for those affected to have previous sentences removed from the state criminal record, for example for homosexual acts.
Another pending problem for minorities in Canada is the disproportionately high rate of suicide among youth and older children from First Nations or Inuit families, again mostly girls, especially in the remote areas of the north. This problem is difficult to tackle because internal family dynamics also play a role that are difficult to influence by the state. To the extent that schools are a (co-) cause, the school system is also a matter for the individual states or the self-administration of the indigenous peoples, over which the Federal Cabinet has little influence.
On October 6, 2017, the Trudeau cabinet made a legally binding promise of damages to the surviving victims of the "Sixties Scoop", the forced, mostly violent, removal of children of the autochthons in the amount of Can $ 750 million. The sum applies to the approx. 20,000 First Nation people still living who were torn away from their families by government orders and taken to foster or adoptive families, sometimes abroad. The Trudeau government has assured additional, separate compensation payments for the 150,000 or so former children who are still living.
In 2016, 74 years after the expropriation, the Trudeau government enforced in a specific case that expropriated land in Ontario was returned to a first nation as a result of the Ipperwash crisis of 1995. A total of 95 million Can $ will be provided; 20 million are intended directly for the 16 families affected, the rest is used for the economic development of the area. The federal government is clearing the site of all military remains, especially unexploded ammunition, and will meet other environmental requirements. The contract, negotiated by both sides in September 2015, was signed on April 14, 2016 for the federal government by Defense Minister Harjit Sajjan and Minister for Autochthonous and Northern Affairs Carolyn Benett, and for those affected by the Chief of the Tribe , Tom Bressette, signed publicly on site.
Zero tolerance policy and allegations of sexual assault
In July 2018, it became known that Trudeau, when he was not yet active in politics, allegedly sexually molested a journalist. Although he apologized to her the next day, he later defended himself as head of government that he did not feel that he had behaved in any way inappropriately, but that he respected the fact that "someone may have taken it differently." In such cases, “don't just count one page”.
Trudeau's government has a policy of zero tolerance for sexual assault, and at the World Economic Forum in Davos he stressed that sexual harassment was unacceptable. Trudeau describes himself as a feminist, calls for a gender-neutral language and has equal numbers of men and women in his cabinet. In 2018, Trudeau caused a sensation when, at a discussion event, a young participant who used the word “mankind” interrupted: “We prefer to say 'peoplekind', that is more integrative.” Trudeau received criticism and ridicule for this instruction. He himself described the statement as a joke, which he ironically expressed in the context of the previous question. Journalist Piers Morgan said Trudeau came out as a vicious, intimidating, pseudo-feminist know-it-all without a backbone.
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|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Trudeau, Justin Pierre James (full name)|
|BRIEF DESCRIPTION||Canadian politician|
|DATE OF BIRTH||December 25, 1971|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Ottawa , Ontario , Canada|