Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
The Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory ( LBNL , formerly Berkeley Radiation Laboratory ; common abbreviation Berkeley Lab or LBL ) is a research facility of the United States Department of Energy in Berkeley , California , where non-secret scientific research is carried out becomes. It is directed by the University of California, Berkeley (UCB). Until 1971 it was called Lawrence Radiation Laboratory , together with what is now the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory , named after its founder Ernest Lawrence.
The institute consists of 76 buildings on an area of 0.7 km² on the hills above the UCB campus. A total of around 4,000 employees work there, including around 800 students. In addition, more than 2,000 guest researchers work at the institute every year.
The facility comprises 15 departments, divided into the areas of Computer Science , Energy , Biology , General Sciences, and Resources and Operations. There are also various computer and technical support departments.
- 1931 to 1958 Ernest Orlando Lawrence
- 1958 to 1972 Edwin McMillan
- 1973 to 1980 Andrew Sessler
- 1980 to 1989 David Shirley
- 1989 to 2003 Charles Shank
- 2004 to 2008 Steven Chu
- 2009 to 2015 A. Paul Alivisatos
- since 2016 Michael Witherell
Discoveries and Nobel Prizes
The chemical elements Astat , Neptunium , Plutonium , Curium , Americium , Berkelium *, Californium *, Einsteinium , Fermium , Mendelevium , Nobelium , Lawrencium *, Dubnium and Seaborgium * were discovered at the Berkeley Lab. Items marked with an asterisk (*) are named after the Berkeley Lab, state, or scientists who work there.
Since its inception, the Berkeley Lab has awarded the Nobel Prize to twelve scientists : Ernest Lawrence , Glenn T. Seaborg , Edwin McMillan , Owen Chamberlain , Emilio Segrè , Donald A. Glaser , Melvin Calvin , Luis Walter Alvarez , Yuan T. Lee , Steven Chu , George F. Smoot and Saul Mother of Pearl .
The Berkeley Lab hit the headlines for the fake alleged discovery of the Livermorium and the Oganesson . A report on this was published in the journal Physical Review Letters in 1999. However, this was declared incorrect one year after publication, as the results described therein could not be reproduced by other scientists. The director of Berkeley Labs announced in June 2002 that the original publication insisted on the most likely fake data, as scientist Victor Ninov was suspected of manipulating decay series. Ninov then declared the measuring equipment to be faulty and protested his innocence.
In the 1990s, the FOSS (Full Options Science System) program was developed at the Lawrence Berkeley Lab, a curriculum with which science can be taught experiment-based and with the simplest means in elementary and secondary schools. FOSS was then implemented in schools in many states.
- John L. Heilbron, Robert W. Seidel: Lawrence and His Laboratory. A History of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory . Volume 1. University of California Press, Berkeley CA et al. 1989, ISBN 0-520-06426-7 .
- Official Homepage (English)
- What is FOSS? Retrieved March 5, 2018 .