Shanghai ranking

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The Shanghai ranking is a global university ranking , which the Jiaotong University in Shanghai performs since the year of 2003. Thousands of universities around the world are audited annually, and the first five hundred are listed.


The universities are compared on the basis of six indicators. The focus of the evaluation is research. The following are taken into account: the number of scientific publications and the number of citations, whereby two statistics from the American media group Thomson Reuters are used as sources , which only evaluate the journals Nature and Science and the Web of Science of the Institute for Scientific Information , as well as in the natural sciences the Nobel Prizes awarded and the Fields Medal in mathematics . The size of the respective institution is taken into account as an indicator of performance in general.

For each indicator, the best university is assigned a value of 100 and the following universities receive a percentage of this.


Area indicator weighting
Quality of training Alumni who have won a Nobel Prize or the Fields Medal 10%
Quality of staff Scientists with Nobel Prize or Fields Medal
Frequently cited researchers in 21 subjects
Research performance Articles
published in Nature & Science Articles in the Web of Science
Size of institutions Academic achievement with a view to size 10%


The top 20 universities in 2013 included only three non-US universities: Cambridge (5th place), Oxford (10th place) and the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich (20th place). This is also the first German-speaking university; the first German university ( Technical University of Munich ) is in 50th place. As the first Austrian university, the University of Vienna ranks ex aequo 151 to 200. A total of 53 German, seven Swiss and five Austrian universities are in the ranking.

Top Ten (2013)

rank university country Alumni awards
Citations Article in
Nature & Science
Article on the
Web of Science
per person
1. Harvard University United States 100 100 100 100 100 72.5 100
2. Stanford University United States 40 80.7 88.9 68.7 69.4 50.4 72.6
3. University of California, Berkeley United States 67.8 79 69.7 68.5 68.1 54.7 71.3
4th Massachusetts Institute of Technology United States 68 81.3 68.2 69.7 60.1 65 71.1
5. Cambridge University UK 79.1 97.3 68.2 54 66.2 53.3 69.6
6th California Institute of Technology United States 47.8 67.2 57.4 62 45.2 100 62.9
7th Princeton University United States 52.9 89.2 62.2 45.8 44 66.9 61.9
8th. Columbia University United States 66.1 66.4 57.4 49.8 68 31.9 59.8
9. University of Chicago United States 60.9 83.4 52.2 41.9 49.8 39.5 57.1
10. University of Oxford UK 51.8 55.3 48.9 51.3 69.9 41.2 55.9


Criticisms raised by the Center for University Development , a competitor in the field of university rankings, concern the following aspects:

  • Due to the long observation periods, historical and current research achievements are mixed. Nobel Prizes are taken into account up to 1911. As a result, efficient start-ups in particular are disadvantaged.
  • The high weight of journal articles in the Web of Science has resulted in a bias in favor of universities with a scientific orientation in English-speaking countries. Publications in other media and other languages ​​are not taken into account, which excludes top performance in the humanities from the evaluation.
  • Special features of the national higher education systems are hardly taken into account. For example, non-university research in Germany with its Max Planck Institutes or the Fraunhofer Society is not taken into account. A particularly extreme example is the Italian elite university Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa , which only admits a small number of students (57 new admissions in the 2011/12 academic year) on the basis of a strict admission competition and, due to its small size, only ranks 301–400 finds, far surpassed by other Italian universities.
  • In Scientometrics magazine , Razvan V. Florian was unable to reproduce the results of the Shanghai ranking using the methodology given by Liu and Cheng.

Web links

Individual evidence

  1. Academic Ranking of World Universities 2013 Press Release. Retrieved October 5, 2013 .
  2. Academic Ranking of World Universities 2013. Accessed October 5, 2013 (English).
  3. a b c Shanghai ranking at a glance. Center for University Development , accessed on August 21, 2011 .
  4. ^ Razvan V. Florian: Irreproducibility of the results of the Shanghai academic ranking of world universities . In: Scientometrics . 72, No. 1, June 2007, pp. 25-32. doi : 10.1007 / s11192-007-1712-1 .