Crafoord Prize

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Crafoord Prize is awarded by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences . Its purpose is to honor and promote basic research in disciplines that the Nobel Prize does not cover. This includes mathematics , geosciences , biology (particularly in the direction of ecology and evolution ) and astronomy . Since 2000, prizes for polyarthritis research have also been awarded. The award is named after its founder, the industrialist Holger Crafoord .


The nomination of the award winners takes place in January of the award year by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.


The Crafoord Prize is only awarded once a year, but can be split between up to three winners. When it was first awarded in 1982, the prize money was 400,000 Swedish kronor, equivalent to around 60,000 US dollars . In 2013 the prize money was 4,000,000 Swedish kronor. Currently (as of 2019) the prize money is 6,000,000 Swedish kronor.

Award winners

year category Award winners Reason for awarding the prize
1982 mathematics Wladimir Arnold ( SU ) and
Louis Nirenberg ( CA / US )
"For exceptional achievements in the theory of nonlinear partial differential equations"
1983 earth sciences Edward N. Lorenz ( US ) and
Henry Stommel ( US )
"For fundamental contributions in the field of geophysical hydrodynamics, which have led in a unique way to a deeper understanding of the great movements of the atmosphere and the sea"
1984 Life sciences Daniel Hunt Janzen ( US ) "For his imaginative and interesting studies on coevolution, which have inspired many researchers to continue working in this field"
1985 astronomy Lyman Spitzer ( US ) "For fundamental, groundbreaking studies on almost every aspect of the interstellar medium, which culminated with the results obtained using the Copernicus Space Telescope"
1986 earth sciences Claude Allègre ( FR ) and
Gerald Joseph Wasserburg ( US )
"For their pioneering studies on geochemical relationships of isotopes and the geological interpretations that made these results possible"
1987 Life sciences Eugene P. Odum ( US ) and
Howard T. Odum ( US )
"For extraordinary contributions in the field of the ecology of ecosystems"
1988 mathematics Pierre Deligne ( BEL ) and
Alexander Grothendieck ( FR ) 1
"For fundamental research in algebraic geometry"
1989 earth sciences James Van Allen ( US ) "For his groundbreaking exploration of space, especially the discovery of the energetic particles trapped in the geomagnetic field that forms the radiation belts - the Van Allen Belts - around planet Earth"
1990 Life sciences Paul R. Ehrlich ( US ) "For his research on the dynamics and genetics of fragmentary populations and the importance of distribution patterns for their probability of survival"
Edward O. Wilson ( US ) "For the theory of island biography and other research on biodiversity and community dynamics on islands and in other habitats with varying degrees of isolation"
1991 astronomy Allan Rex Sandage ( US ) "For his important contributions to the study of galaxies, their star, star cluster and nebula populations, their evolution, the speed-distance relation (or Hubble relation) and their development over time"
1992 earth sciences Adolf Seilacher ( DE ) "For his innovative research, which concerns the evolution of life in interaction with the environment, as it is documented in geological records"
1993 Life sciences William D. Hamilton ( GB ) "For his theories regarding the selection of kin and genetic relationship as a basic requirement for the evolution of altruistic behavior"
Seymour Benzer ( US ) "For his groundbreaking genetic and neurophysiological studies on behavior mutants in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster"
1994 mathematics Simon Donaldson ( GB ) "For his fundamental investigations in four-dimensional geometry through the use of instantons, especially his new discovery of new differential invariants"
Shing-Tung Yau ( US ) "For his development of non-linear techniques in differential geometry, which led to the solution of various open problems"
1995 earth sciences Willi Dansgaard ( DK ) and
Nicholas Shackleton ( GB )
"For fundamental work on the development and application of isotopic geological analysis methods for the study of climatic variations during the Quaternary"
1996 Life sciences Robert May ( GB ) "For his pioneering ecological research on the theoretical analysis of the dynamics of populations, communities and ecosystems"
1997 astronomy Fred Hoyle ( GB ) and
Edwin Salpeter ( US )
"For groundbreaking contributions to the study of nuclear processes in stars and stellar evolution"
1998 earth sciences Don L. Anderson ( US ) and
Adam M. Dziewonski ( PL / US )
"For fundamental contributions to our knowledge of the structures and processes inside the earth"
1999 Life sciences Ernst Mayr ( US ),
John Maynard Smith ( GB ) and
George C. Williams ( US )
"For fundamental contributions to the conceptual development of evolutionary biology"
2000 Polyarthritis Research Marc Feldmann ( GB ) and
Ravinder N. Maini ( GB )
"For the identification of TNF blockade as an effective therapeutic principle in rheumatoid arthritis"
2001 mathematics Alain Connes ( FR ) "For penetrating work on the theory of operator algebras and for being a founder of non-commutative geometry"
2002 earth sciences Dan P. McKenzie ( GB ) "For fundamental contributions to the understanding of the dynamics of the lithosphere, especially plate tectonics, the formations of the sedimentary basins and the mantle melt"
2003 Life sciences Carl Woese ( US ) "For his discovery of a third domain of life"
2004 Polyarthritis Research Eugene Butcher ( US ) and
Timothy A. Springer ( US )
"For her studies of the molecular mechanisms involved in white blood cell migration in health and disease"
2005 astronomy James E. Gunn ( US ),
James Peebles ( US ) and
Martin Rees ( GB )
"For contributions to the understanding of the large-scale structure of the universe"
2006 earth sciences Wallace S. Broecker ( US ) "For his innovative and groundbreaking research on the effect of the global carbon cycle within the ocean-atmosphere-biosphere system and its interaction with the climate"
2007 Life sciences Robert Trivers ( US ) "For his fundamental analysis of social evolution, conflict and cooperation"
2008 astronomy Raschid Sunjaev ( RU ) "For his significant contributions to high-energy astrophysics and cosmology, in particular to the processes and forces around black holes and neutron stars and for demonstrating the diagnostic power of structures in the background radiation"
mathematics Maxim Konzewitsch ( RU / FR ) and
Edward Witten ( US )
"For their important contributions to mathematics, inspired by modern theoretical physics"
2009 Polyarthritis Research Charles A. Dinarello ( US ),
Tadamitsu Kishimoto ( J ) and
Toshio Hirano ( J )
"For their pioneering work on the isolation of interleukins, the determination of their properties and the research into their role in the development of inflammation"
2010 earth sciences Walter Munk ( US ) "For his pioneering work and fundamental contributions to our understanding of ocean currents, tides and waves and their role in earth dynamics"
2011 Life sciences Ilkka Hanski ( FIN ) "For his fundamental studies on the influence of spatial variations on the dynamics of animal and plant populations"
2012 astronomy Reinhard Genzel ( DE ) and
Andrea Ghez ( US )
"For their observation of the stars as they orbit the galactic center and thereby indicate the presence of a supermassive black hole"
mathematics Jean Bourgain ( BEL ) and
Terence Tao ( AUS / US )
"For her brilliant and fundamental work in harmonic analysis, on partial differential equations, in ergodic theory , number theory, combinatorics, functional analysis and in theoretical computer science"
2013 Polyarthritis Research Peter K. Gregersen ( US ),
Lars Klareskog ( SE ) and
Robert J. Winchester ( US )
"For their discoveries regarding the role of various genetic factors and their interactions with environmental factors in the pathogenesis, diagnosis and clinical management of rheumatoid arthritis"
2014 earth sciences Peter Molnar ( US ) "For fundamental contributions to the understanding of tectonics, especially the deformation of the continents, the structure and development of the mountains and the influence of tectonic processes on oceanic-atmospheric circulation and climate"
2015 Life sciences Richard Lewontin ( US ) and
Tomoko Ohta ( Japan )
"For their groundbreaking analyzes and fundamental contributions to the understanding of genetic polymorphism"
2016 astronomy Roy Kerr ( NZ ) and
Roger Blandford ( US )
"For the fundamental work on rotating black holes and their astrophysical consequences"
mathematics Yakov Eliashberg ( US ) "For the development of the contact topology and the symplectic topology as well as for pioneering discoveries of phenomena of stability and flexibility"
2017 Polyarthritis Research Shimon Sakaguchi ( Japan ),
Fred Ramsdell ( US ) and
Alexander Rudensky ( US )
"For their discoveries regarding regulatory T cells that counteract harmful immune responses in arthritis and other autoimmune diseases"
2018 earth sciences Syukuro Manabe (US) and
Susan Solomon (US)
"For fundamental contributions to the understanding of the role of trace gases in the earth's climate system"
2019 Life sciences Sallie W. Chisholm (US) "For the discovery and groundbreaking research of the most common photosynthetic organism on earth, Prochlorococcus "
2020 astronomy Eugene N. Parker ( US ) "For groundbreaking and fundamental studies of solar wind and magnetic fields from the star to the galactic scale."
mathematics Enrico Bombieri ( US ) "For outstanding and influential contributions in all important areas of mathematics, especially number theory, analysis and algebraic geometry."

1 acceptance rejected


Web links

Commons : Crafoord Prize  - collection of images, videos and audio files