Northern England ( Engl. Northern England) includes the English administrative regions North West England , Yorkshire and the Humber and North East England . The area is roughly bounded to the south by the River Trent and to the north by the border with Scotland . About 14.5 million people live here on an area of 37,331 km². The region contains some major cities (including Leeds , Liverpool , Manchester , Newcastle-upon-Tyne and Sheffield ), but also five national parks ( Lake District , North York Moors , Northumberland , Peak District and Yorkshire Dales ). The industrial revolution began in northern England and was the industrial heart of Great Britain until the mid-20th century. Since de-industrialization , the north of England has been economically disadvantaged compared to the south of England . The north of England has also retained a certain degree of independence culturally, e.g. B. in music, regional cuisine and dialect ( Northern English ).