The techno-culture is a youth movement that occurred during the 1990s developed years and describes the subculture to the genre Techno in the narrower and the electronic dance music in a broader sense.
Philosophy and ideology
In the foreground of the techno scene is electronic music, which is reminiscent of old tribal rituals due to its rhythmic, monotonous structure or its spherical sound. Dance and ecstasy are also important components here. The largely text-free, sometimes also melody-free music opens up different possibilities of interpretation in its abstractness. From the very beginning, the techno scene viewed itself as a peaceful movement, in which tolerance and acceptance, but also hedonism, were given great importance: many different people united by their enthusiasm for a common music. Many events took up themes from the hippie movement, such as the “ Summer of Love ” or the “ Woodstock Festival ”. Among other things, the Love Parade quickly gave rise to the motto Love, Peace & Unity . Others interpreted techno as pop avant-garde , as a further development of innovations prepared by the futurists , concrete music and the atonal festivals.
In the course of commercialization, there were also changes in attitudes towards music, which were controversially discussed within the club scene. The above-mentioned philosophies were increasingly replaced by an attitude of stimulated consumption, based on the motto “higher, faster, further”. Characteristic patterns quickly established themselves in techno culture, which were often summarized with the catchwords adventure or fun society (sometimes interpreted as a compensation for the modern performance society ). Their priorities are more on recreational consumption and entertainment. With flashy and colorful outfits, they stand out from the parents' generation and wanted to express the joy of life. Technology and energy were among the basic elements of movement.
While techno gained particularly strong popularity as a new youth culture in 1994, Jürgen Laarmann and DJ WestBam announced the controversial term “ Raving Society ” with the vision of being able to transfer techno culture to society as a whole through further growth.
Since the music was mostly presented by the DJ and mostly celebrated in the underground, the first records were mostly only available in small editions and were mostly only available on vinyl . By recording entire DJ sets on music cassettes , the so-called mixtape became a coveted object. With the increasing spread of the MP3 data format , the first net labels were created whose artists made their music available for free download . In addition to the tried and tested records, many DJs now also use programs like Final Scratch to mix MP3 files.
In the beginning, the scene was characterized by individual appearances and unusual clothing ideas. Popular topics were plastic aesthetics, various fetish styles, 1970s, second-hand looks, retro sportswear and science fiction . Protective suits or orange high-visibility vests and respirators were worn at early parties and combined with accessories such as vacuum cleaners and homemade glasses from kitchen sieves. The British band Altern 8 was influential here and always presented itself in the appropriate outfit during their live performances and videos. Soon, 1970s sports suits , second-hand bell-bottoms and other elements of the above themes were also featured in fashion . After 1992, the first commercial fashion trends developed from this , which were picked up by the clothing industry and offered under the term clubwear or streetwear . In clubwear is since more and more often to expensive branded products, combined with a full range of accessories. Accordingly, the standardization of the clothes worn increased more and more. In the mid-1990s, many partygoers at the big raves wore a uniform look of white gloves, pacifiers , whistles , long pointed caps , high hats and flared trousers . But even at smaller parties in the clubs, a uniform style of tight-fitting nylon shirts, tight nylon quilted vests, bell-bottoms, neoprene jackets and platform shoes as well as items of clothing made from flokati began to establish itself gradually and with a time delay , and more and more individual clothing styles to replace. Widespread accessories were bracelets and collars, rings and UV glow sticks (also known as “glow sticks”, were used when dancing to represent figures) and record pouches. Even the piercing has established itself as a fashion accessory, especially on the face, among supporters of the techno movement, Keith Flint, singers and dancers of the band The Prodigy , is likely to have played a key role.
Popular brands were, for example, Meucci, Amok, JP, Cordon, Freeman T.Porter, PsychoCowboy for clothing, S-Wear or Buffalo for shoes. However, this form of clothing caused some controversy within the scene regarding commerce, underground and individuality.
Different dress codes were also developed for the various sub-areas of the scene. For example, the typical gabber follower dressed significantly differently than the typical raver , but common basic features remained recognizable.
Nowadays, technoculture's dress style remains heterogeneous, just like its following. While in clubs like Berlin's Berghain a dark color style borrowed from Gothic is apparently favored - which can be seen not least in the famous bouncer Sven Marquardt - in some other clubs or at major events, colorful accessories such as bright bracelets and a lot of bare skin are often closed see - which may also depend on the weather. At festivals like Fusion , colorful elements from the Antifa movement mix with the hippie culture .
After techno culture initially took up a number of non-genre visual elements from older music scenes (the design of techno compilations and albums was often based on house and the “working class” aesthetics of the EBM scene), it developed from about In 1991, especially in graphic design, gradually developed its own visual language, which soon found its way into other cultural areas and forced the emergence of its own techno art .
The origin of this art form is u. a. in the development of the scene's own flyers , d. H. "Program notes", mostly in A6 format, which are used to announce techno events in the techno clubs . At the beginning these were printed with changing, unusual motifs, but soon a style of its own with its own fonts emerged. Initially, elaborate computer animations with typically synthetic colors (for example bright neon tones) were preferred, accompanied by fonts that had angular, also technical-“computer-like” shapes.
At the same time, a minimalist style developed in which the design elements were reduced to a minimum and in which black and white and only two or three-colored designs played a role; the fonts of this movement were as simple as those of earlier computers. There were also directions that developed their own design styles, such as the hardcore techno division, which was based on the design of horror film posters and horror comics , or the psytrance influenced by the " psychedelic " design of the 1960s - Move.
From around 1995, however, the styles of techno design multiplied significantly; more and more " retro " elements were built in, which are reminiscent of earlier epochs.
Which style of techno it is can therefore often already be recognized by the design. Minimalist, black-and-white designs mostly indicate acid techno or freetekno events, while elaborate and futuristic flyers, with the use of colors and science fiction- like design elements, and sometimes photos of models or DJs, mostly at hard techno events - or Schranz style. Indian motifs and psychedelic patterns are often used in the Goa scene.
Due to the importance of ecstasy and dance in techno culture, dance events (parties: parties in clubs, open air parties, spontaneous parties, raves, etc., see below) have become the most characteristic types of events in the techno scene. Compared to other youth music cultures, the form of the concert in the techno area hardly plays a role.
The origins of the techno movement are primarily associated with parties in barren rooms with a gloomy atmosphere, industrial character and few furnishings, such as dark cellars, empty warehouses and old factory premises. The locations are called techno clubs or simply "clubs". For the first time, different tracks were not played one after the other, but brought to the same speed by a DJ and mixed together. The clubs are often named after the former purpose of the premises, such as vaults (vaults of the Wertheim department store ), bunkers , raw material stores or electrical works . With their regular events, they are still an important institution of techno culture today.
Techno events have strong similarities with ethnic trance and dance rituals due to the monotonous music and drug consumption . The partying is longer and more excessive than in ordinary discos. So so-called after - hour events quickly developed , which begin and are attended after the actual party in order to end the night or to delay it even further.
With the very rapid growth of the scene, there were also more and more large individual events, so-called raves such as Mayday , Nature One on the Pydna rocket base near Kastellaun and the Timewarp in Mannheim.
When judging these events, opinions in the now very diverse techno scene diverge widely. For some, these are too commercial , but different raves are judged very differently. The so-called Ballermann mentality is also criticized at some raves. Critics often prefer small (“more underground”) clubs.
In contrast to the profit-oriented "rave events" are the festivals and parties of the Freetekno scene. Such Freetekno parties or festivals are organized by Freetekno sound systems and also differ in the music played from the other techno genres, although a reference to acid techno is recognizable. Most of these events are announced in a pyramid scheme to prevent access by the police, as they usually do not meet any security or other legal requirements and are therefore not officially approved. Relatively few Freetekno parties are known to a wider public, such as the large annual festivals CzechTek , SouthTek or FranceTek . Although this can attract significantly more visitors, a confrontation with state security authorities is usually predetermined.
Another type of event are techno parades , which take place in the form of a mass rally on the streets of large cities and are declared in many places as demonstrations (mostly for peace and tolerance). The origin and most prominent example was the Love Parade , which started in 1989 . The increasing commercialization of such events split the minds in the scene, and from the second half of the 1990s counter-movements arose such as the Fuckparade in Berlin, the Antiparade in Zurich or the FreeRePublic in Vienna.
After the personality cult in the rock scene, there were many musicians who wanted to move away from that star attitude. All your attention should be on the music, not the music producer . Many artists also used different names for different publications, thus preventing them from becoming significant as people.
Instead, the disc jockey became the hero of the dancing crowd. Striking personalities like Sven Väth quickly took center stage. Despite the original intention and the efforts of the forefathers, a scene quickly emerged with a personality cult that was in no way inferior to the earlier rock stars.
Underground and commercialization
Like most youth cultures, the techno movement emerged as an ideology . For a long time, however, the scene struggled with the commercialization of its culture. The music found increasing popularity. The commercial potential of the scene was quickly discovered and exploited. Major events were sponsored by well-known companies and took place in modern exhibition halls or on open-air areas. In addition to the dance floors or halls (so-called “floors”), large areas were used for merchandising or rented to sellers (DJ needs, fashion, etc.). Countless young entrepreneurs tried to gain a foothold as organizers in order to get “big money”. Competing raves lured away visitors from each other, and press releases about organizers who were using unfair means increased. Many companies copied music and clothing from the scene in order to market them in a mass-compatible manner. With the increase in the number of visitors to the Love Parade and the rising costs, the parade has turned into a folk festival over the years. With the association of techno and energy, energy drinks sold particularly well at raves, whereupon a variety of drinks enriched with guaraná , caffeine or taurine were developed.
The disappearance of earlier, revolutionary ideals with the increasing commercial sell-off of youth culture and the associated loss of quality of music and events is often criticized. Today the boundaries between the commercial scene and the underground are clearer. While successful, commercial labels and organizers rely on proven sales concepts and a very specific target group, an alternative scene has established itself, especially in large cities, which both retains the original elements and continues to act as an innovative motor of movement.
For a long time the question was discussed to what extent the techno movement conveyed political content or was just a fun movement. The main reason for this was the Love Parade , which was approved as a registered demonstration for eleven years and whose demonstration status was revoked in 2001 because of an alleged lack of political content. This status was then revoked from the Fuckparade as it had adopted the concept with the musically sounded car. Their political motivation, however, was not controversial, at least within the techno scene, in contrast to the Love Parade, and the political demands were clearly formulated. While the Love Parade subsequently developed officially as a commercial event, the Fuck Parade was fully accepted as a political demonstration at the latest after a judgment of 16 May 2007, which is primarily committed to maintaining subcultural freedom and also to demonstrations against, among other things, right-wing extremism , precarization and mobilized state repression. Dance also increasingly established itself as a form of expression of subcultural movements to draw attention to political grievances.
Since 2006, the Hedonist International network has often appeared at political events, both as a left-wing political activist network and connected to the techno and party scene, in order to emphasize the joy of protest.
While the subcultural music culture gabber , like the entire techno scene, does not represent a political movement, it has increasingly found supporters from the right-wing extremist scene as well as left -wing radicals and autonomous people . Gabber is also the central musical expression of the Fuckparade. Well-known representatives of gabba, hardcore techno and breakcores from the radical left spectrum include, for example, the members of the band Atari Teenage Riot .
In 2015 there was another techno parade in Berlin with the Zug der Liebe , which was registered as a demonstration and actually renounced sponsorship or other commercial content. According to the makers, protests should be made for more compassion, more charity and social commitment . Concrete demands were u. a. " A human solution to the Europe-wide refugee problem, a culture-oriented Senate policy, the preservation of green spaces, life without poverty and gentrification , more youth support, sustainable urban development and tolerant coexistence without Pegida ". The second parade followed in 2016.
Critics say drugs like ecstasy and amphetamines are often associated with the techno scene. The amount of illegal substances that authorities seized from raids on techno parties in the early 1990s sparked heated debate in the media. As a result, associations such as Eve & Rave and organizers began campaigns to raise awareness of the risks and dangers of these drugs, set up information stands at major events and distributed leaflets through drug scouts (see Drug Checking ). However, with the increasing popularity and chart presence of techno releases, the topic became less and less of a focus; H. music and culture were no longer associated exclusively with drug use in the public perception.
According to surveys, the proportion of the population who listens to techno at all is stagnating. For the years 2012 to 2015, around 15 million people in the German population aged 14 and over are expected to be almost unchanged every year who “like” or “very much like” the music styles “techno and house”. However, it is unclear whether these people also feel they belong to the “techno culture” or a “scene”, or whether there is a development here.
In the Sinus-Milieus , the subgroup Sinus C2 (experimentalists) is explicitly assigned to like to participate in “techno events”. This group makes up about 6.3 percent of the German population and has very progressive values, but is more likely to be assigned to the lower to middle middle class. On the one hand, however, this milieu group expressly does not identify itself exclusively through this style of music; on the other hand, it is obvious that members of other strata are sometimes involved in the techno scene , so that an overall heterogeneous composition can be expected. This also explains why house DJs like David Guetta, under the buzzword Electronic Dance Music (EDM), on the one hand attract an audience of millions, on the other hand are strictly rejected by parts of the audience.
Local techno scenes
Berlin has significantly shaped the development of techno culture in Germany and is still doing so today - be it due to the early development in Frankfurt (Main) or the variety of clubs, DJs and not least the audience due to the size of the city. Legal peculiarities such as the non-existent curfew and the free space created by the fall of the wall in the early 1990s did the rest.
The first acid house clubs to be opened were the UFO in 1988 and the Rosenheim turbine in 1989 in West Berlin . At the same time the radio program was SFBeat at the former station SFB 2 of Monika Dietl as an important medium of the scene, in addition to the coded acid house plates outings by given for illegal underground parties were. After the fall of the Wall, many houses and industrial halls in the eastern part of the city were empty, had no clear ownership structure and thus offered a lot of space for new ideas, which is why the first clubs were usually established here. The optimism of many new and East Berliners strongly promoted the development of the new music genre and its infrastructure. Early techno clubs that emerged shortly after the fall of the Berlin Wall and influenced the scene nationwide were the Planet , the E-Werk , the Tresor and the Bunker . Due to the lack of curfew , the events can go longer than in other regions. The first pure after- hour clubs quickly developed, such as the Walfisch and later the EXIT . The first techno clubs opened early on, whose concept was based on sexual permissiveness and fetishism (see KitKatClub ). In 1989, the Love Parade first moved across Kurfürstendamm , which later contributed significantly to Berlin's reputation as the techno capital. With the Fuckparade there was and is a counter-movement since 1997. The Hard Wax is one of the first sorted record stores with electronic music and central meeting point of the scene and became known worldwide. The typical Berlin techno sound moves between minimal techno and minimal house . The BPitch Control label by Ellen Allien is often mentioned in this context . Compared to other cities, alternative subcultures of the techno scene are particularly pronounced here. Larger and more commercial events usually attract ravers from the surrounding area. The Monday evenings of the Electric Ballroom in SO36 , which took place weekly from 1995 to 2005 and also occasionally later under a different name, were a particularly constant event .
In the course of the 2000s, a party mile developed around Mühlenstraße along the banks of the Spree and in the adjacent districts of Friedrichshain and Kreuzberg , which attracts rave tourists from Europe every weekend . This international influx, as it previously only took place on the weekends of the Love Parade, now shapes the scene and the concepts of the various clubs.
The currently popular venues include clubs such as Berghain , Tresor , Watergate , Sisyphos , Golden Gate , /// about / blank , Club der Visionär , Wilde Renate , Ritter Butzke , Kater Blau or the KitKat . Many of the clubs mentioned are known for their very strict so-called door policy . This means that even in smaller or apparently poorly attended clubs, a significant proportion of the guests are turned away by the doormen , despite waiting for hours at times , without any apparent reason for outsiders. The question of alleged dress codes is always the subject of online and offline discussions, with the clubs mostly keeping silent and failing to explain their exact admission policy. Apparently, besides clothing, many other factors play a role. In 2015, for example, an anonymous person's advertisement on Craigslist attracted international media attention, allegedly offering 100 euros for safe entry into Berghain and Kater Blau. Although the background and authenticity of the ad remained unclear, the report sparked extensive discussions in social networks and a remarkable amount of reporting.
Reimund Spitzer, one of the owners of the Golden Gate , explained in an interview with the taz that the difference in the Berlin scene is that going out is not about “ seeing and being seen ”: “ You go to party to get to yourself . To get an idea. To think about. This is totally alien to many people in other countries ”. The journalist Tobias Rapp , who wrote a highly regarded book about the Berlin techno scene in 2009 (see literature ), estimates the size of the active scene in Berlin today at " around 10,000 people ".
In recent times there has been repeated talk of alleged club deaths . On the one hand, this is due to the fact that internationally known clubs like Bar 25 are disappearing (even if they are being replaced by other clubs ). On the other hand, the discussion was fueled from 2014 onwards by articles in the New York Times or Rolling Stone claiming that the best days of Berlin techno culture were over. This was also contradicted in the media.
- Joachim Haupt: Techno City - A weekend in the Berlin scene , SFB 1993
- Party on the Death Strip - Soundtrack of the Wende , arte 2014
- Berlin '90 - The Sound of Wende , ZDF 2015
The city of Halle attracted nationwide media attention in 2013 after the newly elected mayor Bernd Wiegand redeemed an election promise and gave so-called spontaneous parties in the open air a legal framework - an institution that was probably unique in Germany until then. There had been illegal open airs in the city since the 2000s, often under the label tanztag , for example in the Galgenberg Gorge , but they were occasionally broken up by the police. According to the new regulation, around a dozen open spaces were released for such events in the city, organizers only had to fill out a form 24 hours in advance, provided the limit of more than 500 expected guests and 103 dB volume was not exceeded. In the 1990s, a party collective called Chilllabeats had formed that organized electronic parties in empty apartments or factories. This later resulted in the chaise lounge that still exists today . Other active techno clubs are Charles Bronson or Station Endlos . Individual techno events also take place in Hühnermanhattan or in Plan 3 / LaBim . Former techno clubs were named 3 & 20 , Orange Club , Dry Dock or Basserie . The city's scene produced several well-known and commercially successful artists, such as the collective Super Flu or Monkey Safari .
In 1993 the Tunnel Club opened in Hamburg's Grosse Freiheit , the last club from this period that still exists today, although after various moves it is now in Seilerstraße near Reeperbahn. With Tunnel Records there was a label from the beginning that is still active today. The temporary closure of the tunnel in 2000 after the club was considered a meeting place for drug trafficking by the authorities made headlines.
With Generation Move , an annual techno parade took place in Hamburg from 1995 onwards , which was held continuously on Whitsunday until 2004. After the number of participants declined, the event was canceled in 2005, and was held in Kiel in 2006 and 2007 .
Düsseldorf and Neuss
In the Düsseldorf area , the Club Poison , later Rheingold in the Rheingoldsaal at Düsseldorf Central Station , Tor 3 with its acid parties and the Club Tribehouse in Neuss were considered established places of techno culture. The latter was best placed at the 2004 Dance Music Awards , but both are now closed. On September 25, 2010 the Tribehouse was reopened under the name 102 Club (named after the house number). Other locations are the Neuss gravel pit , the Salon des Amateurs and the Baka Gajin and art sibling events. In summer, there are free open-air parties at the Kunst im Tunnel .
Frankfurt am Main
In addition to Berlin, Frankfurt am Main developed into an important metropolis of the movement from the end of the 1980s and was considered together with Berlin as the techno capital, especially during the early 90s. Later, however, some labels, musicians and magazine editors moved their headquarters to Berlin. For several years there was also strong competition between individual protagonists of the two cities.
In 1984, Talla 2XLC opened the techno club as the first discotheque in Germany to concentrate exclusively on electronic music. From the club's flyer, the Frontpage emerged as the most important magazine of the movement. Important clubs in the early days were the Omen operated by Sven Väth and known for its excessive nights , the Dorian Gray , which made a name for itself especially through its after-hours events, and the XS (later Box ), which was primarily a platform for house and Drum and Bass bot. When the scene was not yet so strongly divided by its subcultures, there was often a tendency to play harder techno in the clubs on Fridays and to go for softer house sounds on Saturdays. The third stage of the Sound of Frankfurt developed from labels such as Harthouse and Eye Q Records . Influential DJs and representatives of this sound were Sven Väth, Mark Spoon and DJ Dag . In addition, Marc Acardipane , who has been responsible for a three-digit number of techno productions under various pseudonyms and project names since 1989, was also one of the most important representatives of a harder techno sound in Frankfurt. Acardipanes and Don Demons label Planet Core Productions (PCP) was a melting pot of different techno styles and connected the German hardcore techno scene with actors in the Netherlands, Belgium and the USA at an early stage.
Important Frankfurt clubs were the U60311 until January 2013 and the Cocoon Club until November 2012 . The leading scene store since 1991 has been Delirium , which specializes in the distribution of records and clubwear. Today Frankfurt is also characterized by Schranz and hard techno by the DJs Chris Liebing and Felix Kröcher (both in the U60311). In the meantime (as of 2016) there are only two purely electronic clubs: the renowned Robert Johnson in Offenbach, which despite its small capacity of approx. 250 people regularly has international scene greats such as Ricardo Villalobos or Dixon in its program, and Tanzhaus West in one former paint factory. Therefore, organizers are increasingly looking for off-locations such as artist studios, cellars or old bunkers and are hosting parties there. Well-known series of events in off-locations are Vanishing Point, Madame Renarde, Bad Boys Club or morning exercise.
- Roberto Cappelluti, Broka Herrmann: Im Technorausch - 60 hour long party , Hessischer Rundfunk, 1996
In Kassel still than in the early years was 1994-2002 upswing East called Stammheim . The club became known throughout Germany in the 1990s, including through advertising with the comic figure Ravelinde by the artist duo Bringmann & Kopetzki .
Cologne and Bonn
Cologne was popular for acid techno at the beginning of the 90s , later minimal techno and minimal house are often mentioned as characteristic sound for Cologne. The label Kompakt by Wolfgang Voigt has a great influence here .
In May 1988 the Rave Club opened its doors on the Hohenzollernring in Cologne , which was one of the first house clubs in Germany under the resident DJs Claus Bachor and Roland Casper , ahead of the Ufo (Club, Berlin) and the Omen (Frankfurt am Main). and techno clubs made a name for themselves.
In 1990 the Spaceclub opened u. a. with Roland Casper , Claus Bachor and Oliver Bondzio as residents. In 1991 the warehouse finally followed , which was able to develop into one of the most influential techno clubs, but had to temporarily cease operations after a raid in July 1994.
In November 1991 Claus Bachor founded the “Psycho Thrill” in Bonn's “Ballhaus”, under the motto “True Techno Underground - There are no rules, fear is unknown and sleep is out of question” as an alternative to the commercial techno scene with a strict one Operates underground concept. In 1992 Roland Casper becomes a partner of Claus Bachor's "Psycho Thrill", which also has numerous national and international top DJs such as Oliver Bondzio , Jeff Mills , Dave Clarke , DJ Hell , Triple R , Claude Young , Steve Bug , Hans Nieswandt , DJ Misjah , and much more, as regular guest DJs. After the “Ballhaus” was closed, “Psycho Thrill” moved to a larger club in Cologne in June 1995, to the 42 dp on Hohenstaufenring.
The Distillery (also known as "Tille"), the oldest active techno club in East Germany outside of Berlin, is located in Leipzig . In addition to the Distillery, there are other clubs such as So & So (closed since January 28, 2019), Elipamanoke or the Institute for the Future (IFZ) . The first techno club in Leipzig was BASIS, which opened seven months before the Tille in February 1992 and ceased operations in 1998 - there is now a street crossing at the site of the former club. In June 1998, the 10/40 (read ten forty ) behind the main train station on the Deutsche Bahn site began operations on the third floor and achieved notoriety in January 2004 when a 16-year-old female guest was under the influence of drugs by an S- Bahn was recorded and died at the scene of the accident. This ultimately led to the club having to close in December 2004 - under the crew of 1040booking , the active members at the time continued to exert influence on the scene. A hardware store was built on the former club site in 2011.
The city's most influential label is Moon Harbor Recordings with its sub- labels Cargo Edition and Curl Curl. The founder and boss of Moon Harbor is Matthias Tanzmann . The artists Sven Tasnadi and Daniel Stefanik also come from the Moon Harbor environment and publish on labels such as Poker Flat Recordings , Cocoon Recordings and Freude am Tanzen . Two festivals have also established themselves around Leipzig. On the one hand, this is the Th! Nk? from the environment of the Distillery and the Nachtdigital , which is organized by Leipzig's Steffen Bennemann, among others. There is also a very agile drum and bass scene in Leipzig around the Ulan Bator crew and an agile psytrance scene around the dream driver guild crew.
Due to its proximity to Berlin, Leipzig is often compared with the capital, so the phrase “ Leipzig is the new Berlin ” is occasionally heard in relation to techno culture . This attitude was fueled in 2012 by an article from Die Zeit , which praised the high number of illegal parties in Leipzig, whereas Berlin is now thoroughly commercialized. Allegedly because of this, parts of the scene “migrated” to Leipzig.
During the acid house wave at the end of the 1980s, the Eta-Halle opened on Munich's Dachauer Strasse as one of the first underground clubs for electronic dance music. In the dance hall megalomania hosted DJ Hell from 1990 first techno parties. The after-hour concept was first implemented in the Babalu Club at this time . Here, the series of events created Technomania and Technodrome and the record store of Tom Novy and Woody . In 1993 the former departure halls Zeppelin Hall (Hit FM Hall), charter hall , Terminal 1 and Wappensaal , where large raves such as the Rave City events or Universe Rave - Tribal Gathering took place, opened as part of Munich's “hall culture” with the subsequent use of Munich-Riem Airport .
As an influential label for electronic dance music, Disko B was founded in 1993 by Peter Wacha , who opened the Ultraschall in the former large kitchen of the airport as the first pure techno club in Munich a year later . Important communication points of the techno scene in the 1990s were lifestyle and record stores such as Optimal Records , which had been in existence since 1982 , the Munich branch of Delirium , which opened in 1993, Container Records (later Parasound ) and Neutronic . After the closure of the Babalu , the Sunday after hours moved to the Hallelujah Hall , which later became the temple . The Powder Tower was also a popular meeting place and venue during this period .
In 1994 the Techno- and House-Fanzine Partysan was founded in Munich . Sven Väth's ritual of life events were also legendary at this time . Since the 1990s, underground projects have also played a role in Munich's techno culture, benefiting from numerous shutdowns of power plants, factories, department stores and publishing houses, high and underground bunkers, barracks and tank training areas.
In 1996, DJ Hell founded the record label International Deejay Gigolos in Munich , and Richard Bartz's label Kurb Records a year earlier . While Gigolo the electroclash brought into Munich clubs and labels like Disko B and crank for the specific Munich Techno were even more influenced Munich label as Compost Records , Kosmo Records or music from current techno culture of the Nineties.
In 1996, the Ultrasound II was reopened on the site of the former Pfanni works in the Kunstpark Ost . Other techno clubs known throughout Europe during this period were KW - Das Heizkraftwerk and Natraj Temple , a psychedelic club that became an international center of the Goa scene.
In 2003, the ultrasound operators opened the Harry Klein, first on the premises of the Optimolwerke and from 2010 on in Sonnenstrasse, as well as the Rote Sonne on Maximiliansplatz. Other well-known techno clubs were the Nachtwerk Club , The Garden , Die Registratur , the Bullitt Club , the Kong , the Bob Beaman and the MMA Club (Mixed Munich Arts). The most popular active event locations include the long-standing Harry Klein and Rote Sonne clubs, the Blitz Club , Bahnwärter Thiel , Cheshire Cat , Pimpernel , Palais , Charlie and Pacha . Well-known electronic music festivals in and around Munich are Isle of Summer , Utopia Island , Greenfields , Traumfänger , Back to the Woods , Schall im Schilf and the Echelon Festival .
Mannheim / Heidelberg / Ludwigshafen
In Mannheim / Heidelberg the techno scene is relatively homogeneous. From the middle of the 90s there was a small but groundbreaking, progressive electronic music scene around the HD800 club and labels like Shitkatapult, Source Records, Mole Listening Pearls, Workshop and HD800. At the same time, there is a distinct jungle and drum and bass scene that was oriented towards English hardcore very early on and made a significant contribution to the development in Germany.
Due to the curfew and restrictive drug policy in Baden-Württemberg, techno events and clubs often only have limited options here. Early clubs and venues were the milk! in Mannheim , the normal in Heidelberg and next to it in the neighboring Rhineland-Palatinate the loft and the roller mill (Ludwigshafen) . As an influential record store, Humpty comes from this region, as does Goa Records, which later became Delirium Mannheim, Freebase Mannheim and Monotone Recordstore. DJs like Move D , Groover Klein, D-Man and Bassface Sascha played a key role in the musical development of the scene .
- Claudia Barthold, Katja Batzler, René Hamann, Daniel Herbert, Bastian Thomanek: Jungle68 , 2002
After the DJane Marusha and a friend had already organized various events in the 1980s, they opened Nuremberg's first techno club in 1989 with the One . In addition to Sven Väth , DJs mainly from England played in the club at that time, which held around 1,500 people and was located in a former cinema.
This was followed in 1990 as the second techno club in the city, the so-called tru $ t on the Klingenhof area in the north of Nuremberg and the Club Viper in the old town district of St. Lorenz, which were further points of contact for the local scene. Mach 1 (formerly Charlie M ), which is also located in St. Lorenz, also became more popular at this point and was considered a leader in the field of progressive house music for years . Furthermore, in the late 1980s and 1990s, more events took place in larger, vacant buildings, including the Volksbad , which was closed in 1994 .
In 2001 a large techno club opened with the Zoom in the Z building of the former SS barracks , which became widely known through national and international booking and a pioneer for the local tech house and minimal techno scene . After the renovation-related closure of the zoom in 2010, the club Die Rakete , which is also located in the south of the city, developed into a well-known destination for the techno scene. In 2014 it was voted into the top 10 best clubs worldwide by readers of Groove magazine and has been one of the best techno clubs in Germany ever since.
Another well-known institution with various event formats, such as the Techno-Train , which has also received international reports, is House 33 in the Nuremberg red light district at the Frauentormauer . In recent years, however, increased raids and complaints to the public order office have resulted in the closure of clubs such as the Viper successors Nano and 4hertz, as well as the laundromat in the north of the city. Furthermore , several techno festivals take place in Nuremberg in the summer months with dancing in the green , summer love and container love . The middle soundbar and the Schimanski (formerly 360 degrees and bathtub ) are further starting points for the local scene and are both located in the southern old town.
- Hannah Wolny: Afterhour - Electronic Music in Nuremberg , Medienwerkstatt Franken , 2019
In Austria developed in the Greater Linz to 1994 around a first local techno scene. In addition to Linz, among other things in the city workshop , the former factory hall of the Kamig kaolin works in Schwertberg, which became known as the event location under the name “ Canal ”, played an important role. A number of Upper Austrian techno collectives emerged, which today would be called Freetekno sound systems. These sound systems such as Uran-C , Chemotaxis and Teamtrash were also represented at techno parties in neighboring countries. Well-known techno parades in Austria were the Love Parade and the Freeparade in Vienna, as well as the Unite Parade in Salzburg. Well-known permanent venues for techno music in Vienna are the Pratersauna and musically broader clubs such as the Grelle Forelle , the Flex or the Auslage . Well-known Austrian techno DJs include Christopher Just from Ilsa Gold , Patrick Pulsinger and Electric Indigo , but also musicians who are primarily known for downbeat such as Peter Kruder .
Switzerland is best known for its numerous techno parades . In 1992 the first Zurich Street Parade took place, which has been the largest techno party in the world since the end of the Love Parade . The Lake Parade took place in Geneva from 1997 , the Jungle Street Groove in Basel since 1995 and the Beat on the Street since 2005 , and in Bern since 2011 the Tanz Dich frei . With the anti Parade also an anti-commercial counter-parade street parade took place in 1996 similar to the Berlin Fuckparade. Important techno clubs in Switzerland in Zurich were the Oxa with the tarot after hours from 1991, the first permanent techno club Grodoonia (1994–1996), the Sensor Club (1996–1999), the raw materials warehouse (1997–2010), the roof canteen (2003–2006) and the future (since 2005).
- Nicole Biermaier, Ravi Vaid, Dion Merz: Dachkantine - An electromentary film , 2009.
At the end of the 1980s and the beginning of the 1990s, the programs SFBeat on the then SFB 2 and later The Big Beat on Radio 4U , which were broadcast on Saturday evenings and hosted by Monika Dietl , had achieved cult status within the Berlin scene. On the one hand, interested listeners informed themselves about musical innovations in the developing techno scene, on the other hand, the dates of sometimes illegal parties, such as the UFO , were also announced in their broadcasts. In 1990 Marusha followed with Dancehall on DT64 . While Dietl later gave up her radio career, Marusha moderated the program Rave Satellite on Fritz until 2007 . Ellen Allien had her own show called Braincandy until 1997 on the radio station Kiss FM . The Hr3 Clubnight increasingly concentrated its program on DJ sets in the areas of house , techno and trance . The party service on 1Live, moderated by Piet Blank ( Blank & Jones ), was also well-known and was later moderated by Moguai . In June 1990, the RPR1 broadcaster started the program Maximal, always on Friday evenings from 9:00 p.m. to 12:00 a.m., moderated by Tillmann Uhrmacher. which later in 1997, Evosonic , operated by a team led by DJ Mike S. (Chris-Maico Schmidt) from Stuttgart and main shareholder Frank Heitmeyer, was the first satellite radio station that was exclusively dedicated to electronic music. Also in 1997, the techno-oriented music radio station sunshine live began broadcasting in Schwetzingen, which is still formally a local station for parts of northern Baden-Württemberg (where, in addition to Stuttgart, it only has terrestrial VHF frequencies) due to its large following and musical specialization has been striving for a nationwide distribution for years and has also achieved this in some cases via cable feed and satellite broadcasting. In addition, there are now a large number of web radios that specialize in very specific branches of electronic music.
By the mid-1990s, music culture was so well established that the first corresponding television formats emerged. Marusha moderated the youth magazine Feuerreiter , which was first broadcast on ORB and then on ARD . The youth broadcaster VIVA started the show Housefrau with the DJs Mate Galić and Sabine Christ and broadcast live regularly from Mayday . The Space Night on the BR became a popular night program in the techno scene due to the switch to chill-out and ambient music. Every year, the Love Parade was broadcast live on local channels and later also on private television .
Frontpage was the first magazine to focus exclusively on the music culture of techno. The 1000 Clubzine , which appeared for the first time in 1992, is also regarded as defining the style . This was followed by Groove and Raveline , which were initially all financed exclusively through advertising and were available free of charge at techno parties, in clubs or trendy shops.
Due to a weekly flood of flyers, the idea arose to collect them in a DIN A5 format and supplement them with information and articles. This is how the Flyer and Partysan magazines came into being , later also sub culture and mushroom especially for the Goa scene .
After Frontpage went bankrupt, part of the editorial team later founded the de: bug magazine .
The 1999 film Human Traffic by the director Justin Kerrigan depicts the British rave scene in a parodic way and is about an excessive weekend of a party cycle. The 2000 film Groove - 130 bpm , on the other hand, focuses on the US rave scene and is set at an illegal techno party in San Francisco.
In the episode film be.angeled with Mark Spoon , the experiences of several people before, during and after the Love Parade 2000 in Berlin are described. In 2008 the film Berlin Calling was released with music producer Paul Kalkbrenner in the lead role. This film focuses on the lifestyle of a single techno DJ and also delves into the scene's drug problem.
In the film Berlin Techno City in 1993 , the early techno scene in Berlin was documented with Marusha , Tanith and Mijk van Dijk, among others . The current scene was also covered in the tenth episode of the Pop 2000 program .
In 1996 the Hessischer Rundfunk produced the documentary Im Techno Rausch - 60 hours long party , with a party from the Frankfurt am Main area being accompanied and interviewed by a film team for a whole weekend. In the same year Arte produced the film Universal Techno .
The film Jungle68 deals with the jungle and drum-and-bass scene in the Mannheim area.
The English-language documentation Modulations - Cinema for the ear from 1998 deals with contemporary electronic music and shows numerous interviews with influential musicians from the techno scene, especially from the Detroit techno sector .
For the 2008 film We Call It Techno! old film material from the beginnings of the techno scene in Germany from 1988 to 1993 was collected.
In 2014, the TV broadcaster Arte dedicated two documentaries that were broadcast within a few days to a supposed 25th anniversary of techno culture. On the one hand, the documentary film Welcome to the Club - 25 Years of Techno , made by Dimitri Pailhe , was shown showing the development since the 1980s. On the other hand, the documentary film Party on the death strip, made by Rolf Lambert, was shown - the soundtrack of the turnaround , which particularly addresses the events around 1990 and is based on the book The Sound of the Family (see literature).
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