VIVA Germany

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VIVA Germany
Station logo
VIVA logo
General information
Reception: analog: cable
digital: cable , satellite , IPTV
Seat: 1993–2005: Cologne
2005–2018: Berlin , Germany
Language: German
Owner: Viacom
Resolution: 576i ( SDTV )
1080i ( HDTV )
Executive Director: Mark Specht
Raffaele Annechinno
Thomas Göller
Till Weidemüller (deputy)
Start of broadcast: 1st December 1993
Closing date: December 31, 2018
Program type: Special program (entertainment, music)
Market share: 0.1% (2018)
List of TV channels

VIVA Germany (formerly abbreviation for Videoverwertungsanstalt ) was a German television broadcaster based in Berlin , which mainly broadcast music videos. According to its own account, the station was a "youth and music station for pop and fun". Since 2005, all VIVA channels in Europe have been owned by the American media group Viacom via VIVA Media GmbH . VIVA went on air as a music television station in Cologne in 1993 and was discontinued on December 31, 2018.


Start of broadcasting and the first few years

The idea for the transmitter concept went back to an initiator GmbH composed of Christoph Post , Jörg A. Hoppe , Helge Sasse and ex-MTV boss Michael Oplesch. Hoppe suggested “VIVA” as the working title. The name is an abbreviation of "Videoverwertungsanstalt". Although an RTL broadcast and a women's magazine at Gruner + Jahr had previously failed under the name, it was decided in favor of him.

VIVA went on the air as the second music broadcaster in Germany on December 1, 1993, after the first broadcaster Musicbox was converted into Tele 5 in 1988 and the initially still music-dominated broadcasting routes were gradually reduced. Viva pushed into this gap. The broadcast studio was located in the rented rooms of Bertelsmann's VOX studios in Cologne-Ossendorf . VIVA was originally started by media giant Time Warner to boost the German business of its Warner Music Group . The Bertelsmann Music Group (BMG) declined an invitation to take part in VIVA, as they feared possible reprisals from their competitor MTV Europe and were not convinced that a German-language music broadcaster could prevail against MTV. The Time Warner executives Tom McGrath and Peter Bogner did not let this irritate them and founded the producer Rudi Dolezal together with their competitors Sony, PolyGram and EMI Music , as well as the media manager Michael Oplesch (VIVA GF, MTV GF, MME GF) and Hannes Rossacher , the founders of the TV production company Me, Myself & Eye (MME), Christoph Post, Jörg A. Hoppe and Marcus O. Rosenmüller , and the media lawyer Helge Sasse founded Viva Medien GmbH. Among the first VJs were the moderators Stefan Raab and Heike Makatsch , who were still unknown at the time and who rose to become successful film and television personalities in Germany after their time at VIVA.

Logo from 1993 to 2001
Logo from 2002 to 2004

From the very beginning, VIVA was supposed to be a kind of antithesis to MTV Europe, which until then had mainly shown videos by English-speaking artists. "MTV is vulnerable because it only broadcasts in English, is not licensed in Germany, nor does it belong to anyone from Europe," said a Time Warner concept paper. “While MTV is on a diet of Anglo-American video clips, Viva should bring 40 percent and more German music,” analyzed Time Warner strategist Peter Bogner at the time. Right from the start, emphasis was placed on a German-language broadcasting concept that was to break MTV's monopoly with German artists . The first managing director of VIVA Medien GmbH Michael Oplesch was replaced shortly before the start by the trained teacher and ex-head of the Rockbüro NRW , as well as Popkomm manager Dieter Gorny , who ran the station until it was taken over by MTV (on January 14, 2005) led.

Logo of the planned radio station VIVAradio. It should be created in cooperation with Radio NRW .

On December 1, 1993, VIVA began broadcasting in Cologne. For most of the years the studios were in Cologne-Mülheim , in the same building as Brainpool. The first (and last in 2018) music video played was Too cool for this world of Fantastic Four . The profile of the station was largely defined by Rudi Dolezal and Hannes Rossacher ( DoRo Production ). In 1994 it was possible to achieve market leadership for the first time (according to the company itself) . After MTV re-entered free TV , VIVA temporarily lost the upper hand. From mid-2004, however, VIVA was again slightly ahead in terms of viewer numbers in the advertising-relevant target group .

Since 1995 the station has awarded the Comet music prize . In the same year, the VIVA Zwei offshoot was launched on March 21st . The main focus of VIVA Zwei was on a more alternative style of music, primarily alternative rock and metal , but also alternative hip-hop and electronic music . However, since it did not succeed in operating VIVA Zwei profitably and the station kept making losses, it was replaced on January 7, 2002 by VIVA Plus .

From the year 2000 VIVA relied heavily on European expansion with its subsidiary channels in Switzerland , Austria and Poland . There were also various holdings in other broadcasters.

In 2003, VIVA came under fire when it became known that during the rotation of the music videos, places were secretly reserved for the record company Universal , which wanted to position its titles better.

Takeover by Viacom

There were already plans for a takeover in 2002, and the US media group Viacom was among the bidders. AOL Time Warner eventually became a shareholder.

After it became known that AOL Time Warner had sold its Warner Music division, the sale of VIVA was also up for grabs. Viacom, ProSiebenSat.1 and the RTL Group were among the bidders .

On June 24, 2004 it was finally announced that VIVA had been taken over by the American media group Viacom, which also includes the international MTV Group. The purchase price was a good 310 million euros.

Viacom has been the sole shareholder since January 2005 and took over the complete management of VIVA. In the following years, the proportion of in-house production in the program was thinned out in favor of purchased goods and mass layoffs. The VIVA Live! was the last regular live program on air until 2011, before this also disappeared.

Also in 2005, the broadcaster was warned by the responsible state media authority, because instead of the maximum permitted 12 minutes of advertising per hour, more than 18 minutes of advertising was shown.

In March 2005, VIVA moved its headquarters from Cologne-Butzweilerhof to Berlin.

On January 14, 2007, VIVA Plus ceased broadcasting and the slot was replaced by Comedy Central . The main format of VIVA Plus, Get the Clip , was broadcast on VIVA and broadcast several times a day from January 15, 2007 until the program was discontinued there on February 19, 2014. There were also special editions of the program, and some of the call-in programs that were broadcast on VIVA Plus were also initially shown on VIVA.

VIVA logo 2004 to 2010

Since January 1, 2011 at 3:00 am, VIVA was shown with a new channel appearance, a new channel logo and a new design. This was due to the fact that the sister broadcaster MTV could only be received via pay TV and some MTV formats could now be seen - mostly as repeats - on VIVA. This time, too, the first music video played was Too cool for this world of the Fantastischen Vier . VIVA was positioned as the sender window for all Viacom content. Programs that were originally only on Nick, Comedy Central or previously MTV were also shown.

Since January 1st, 2011, VIVA has been using various songs by national and international artists for commercial separators and self-promotion. These were changed irregularly, but the images shown were appropriate for the respective season.

Since March 22, 2011, VIVA has only broadcast in 16: 9 format. All 4: 3 broadcasts were stretched in order to reduce the amount of black at the margins and to avoid having to change the positioning of the logos. Music videos were partly broadcast in 16: 9, upscaled in 16: 9 or 14: 9. VIVA has also been broadcasting via the satellite signal in full PAL resolution since May 23, 2011.

On January 1, 2012, the station ended its analogue broadcast via Astra 19.2 ° East.

Slot sharing

From September 8, 2014 to September 30, 2015, VIVA only broadcast eleven hours a day, between 5:00 p.m. and 6:00 a.m. Comedy Central broadcast its program. This gave up its previous frequencies with Nick after a changeover phase for cable network operators that ended on September 30, 2014 . On October 1, 2014, VIVA had completely discontinued its anime program. On February 6, 2015, Viacom announced that it would cut the music program further from mid-February 2015 and broadcast comedy programs from 12 noon. This shortened the music track by a further three hours.

One year after the channel split on October 1, 2015, Viacom changed the transmission time again, so that VIVA could now be seen from 2:00 a.m. to 2:00 p.m. and received an additional hour. This also added another five hours to the music track. The rest of the time between 2:00 p.m. and 2:00 a.m., Comedy Central continued to be shown on the same slot.

Since December 30, 2015, VIVA has not broadcast reality programs, so that since then almost only music formats have been broadcast. The Night Sounds format, which was broadcast from 2:00 to 6:00 a.m., initially contained extensive erotic tracks supplied by third-party providers. From May to October 2016, the program MTV's Bugging Out , which was broadcast on Tuesdays at 1:30 p.m., was once again a reality format.


In June 2018, Viacom announced that VIVA will be discontinued on December 31, 2018. The broadcasting slot was taken over by Comedy Central, so that it now broadcasts 24 hours again. Viacom boss Mark Specht said in an interview with Horizont that the broadcaster was profitable, but Viacom wanted to concentrate on its three core brands MTV, Comedy Central and Nickelodeon and saw stronger growth opportunities with them. According to some, another reason for the discontinuation was the recently unfavorable transmission times, with which the target group was barely reached.

From December 2018, VIVA once again broadcast numerous specials with music series that primarily looked back on the station's heyday in the 1990s . The specials included a show called Los 90s , which ran between December 15 and 16 and only played songs from the 90s. In addition, a final program called VIVA - The Final Countdown was introduced , which was broadcast from December 1, 2018, Mondays to Saturdays, mostly from 12 to 1 p.m. The best songs from 25 years were shown there, counting back, starting with 2018 and ending on the last day of broadcast with songs from 1993.

On December 31, 2018, VIVA broadcast VIVA Forever for the last time. In this special program, numerous prominent musicians and entertainers as well as former presenters (including DJ Bobo , Mola Adebisi , Samy Deluxe , Udo Lindenberg , Alex Christensen , Oliver Pocher , Matthias Opdenhövel and the Lochis ) gave farewell greetings to the camera, backed by the song Viva Forever of the Spice Girls , before the moderators and guests said goodbye with the greeting "See you vivas". The last video was then too horny for this world of Fantastischen Vier , which was the first video on the station 25 years ago. In the last few minutes of the broadcast, the current station logo was replaced by the original, blue-yellow one. Then a black screen was shown on which the blue and yellow logo could be seen, as well as in the style of a tombstone “Viva Rest in Peace 1993 - 2018”. Punctually at 2:00 p.m. they switched to Comedy Central.

Songs used in advertising and program separators (selection)

date Duration Interpreter title
April 1, 2013 94 days Wankelmut feat. Emma Louise My Head Is a Jungle
June 6, 2014 104 days Lilly Wood & the Prick & Robin Schulz Prayer in C (Robin Schulz Remix)
June 6, 2017 95 days Felix Jaehn , Hight & Alex Aiono Hot2Touch
December 2017 VONA Because you are my home
April 2018 Glass bead game Royals & Kings
July 2018 Mark Forster feat. gentleman Like a lion
until November 30, 2018 Lotte Timpani
1st December 2018 30 days Ariana Grande Santa tell me

Broadcast times

6:00 a.m. 14:00 clock 17:00 o'clock 02:00 am
December 1, 1993 to September 7, 2014 VIVA
September 8, 2014 to September 30, 2015 VIVA Comedy Central Germany
October 1, 2015 to December 30, 2018 VIVA Comedy Central Germany VIVA
December 31, 2018 VIVA Comedy Central Germany

VIVA international

In addition to VIVA in Germany, MTV Networks Europe operated other channels under the name VIVA: VIVA Switzerland (launched September 6, 2000 as VIVA Swizz , previously Swizz ) and VIVA Austria in Austria (since June 1, 2006, from January 1, 2001 to December 31 , 2000 ) . December 2003 as VIVAaustria ). Until January 2018, VIVA UK & Ireland was operated as an offshoot in the United Kingdom and Ireland (start October 26, 2009, discontinued January 31, 2018 and replaced by MTV OMG), until October 2017 VIVA Polska was operated in Poland (start June 1 2000 as VIVApolska ! , discontinued on October 17, 2017 and replaced by MTV Music Polska ) and in Hungary VIVA Magyarország (started in February 2001 as VIVA +, previously Z + , discontinued on October 3, 2017 and replaced by MTV Music Europe and Comedy Central Family ) and also operated an offshoot of VIVA's The Box in the Netherlands until November 30, 2006 . 2001 to 2002 VIVAitaly existed for Italy (in collaboration with Rete A ). In addition, a weekly program was produced for Lithuania ( LTV ) and China under the name VIVA-Show. In June 2006 a VIVA program window started again for Austria, which shared the frequency with Nickelodeon Austria . From January 1, 2011 to September 7, 2014, VIVA Austria could be seen 24 hours a day. On May 16, 2011, the Swiss version was replaced by Comedy Central . On October 1, 2012, VIVA Switzerland went on air again. From September 8, 2014 to September 30, 2015, VIVA Austria and VIVA Switzerland, like VIVA Germany, only broadcast eleven hours a day from 6 a.m. to 5 p.m. From October 1, 2015, VIVA Austria and VIVA Switzerland broadcast just like VIVA Germany from 2 a.m. to 2 p.m.

The VIVA logos in an international comparison



Former presenters of the VIVA programs
VJ at VIVA Broadcasts) VJ at VIVA Broadcasts)
Mola Adebisi 1993-2004 Interactive; VIVA Top 100 ; Club R'n'B; Album charts Bibiana Ballbè Serra 2001-2003 Planet VIVA; Chart surfer; What's up?; Ritmo; Inside
Aleksandra Bechtel 1993-1999 What's up?; Interactive; Amica TV Romina Becks 2011-2015 VIVA Top 100; VIVApedia
Nilz Bokelberg 1993-1998 What's up? Uli Brase 2018 MTV Top 100
Ricky Latvian 2000 Interactive special Annemarie Carpendale 2004-2005 Ringtone charts; VIVA Club rotation
Sabine Christ 1994-1999 Housewife Rocco Clein
(Stefan Bickerich)
1993-2001 news
Phil Daub 1994-2001 Metalla; Planet VIVA Daisy Dee
(Daisy Rollocks)
1996-2003 VIVA Club Rotation ; Ritmo
Isabel Dziobek 1993-1996 Friends of the night as "VIVA TWINS" Natalie Dziobek 1993-1996 Friends of the night as "VIVA TWINS"
Milka Loff Fernandes 1999-2004 Inside; Interactive; What's up?; Face it !; Start the film! Mate Galic 1994-1997 Housewife; VIVA trance
Daniel Hartwig 1998-1999 Interactive Klaas Heufer-Umlauf 2004-2009 Klaas' weekly show ; VIVA Live! ; Retro charts; New; Interactive; VIVA News
Gülcan Kamps 2003-2010 Interactive; 17; VIVA News; New; Shibuya ; VIVA Live !; VIVA Top 100 Markus Kavka 1997 Metalla
Johanna Klum 2005–2012 VIVA Top 20; VIVA Top 100; Retro charts; VIVA Live !; New; 17; Young, sexy, looking! Lukas Koch 2001-2002 Full VIVA; What's up?; Chart surfer; New at VIVA
Sebastian König 2006-2009 Ringtone charts; Street charts; Mixery Massive Music; New; VIVA Top 20; Special charts; VIVA Live! Jan Köppen 2006-2018 Ringtone charts; VIVA Top 100; New; VIVA Live !; Retro charts; VIVApedia; MTV Top 100
Joel Korenzecher 1999 World of Bits Steffi Krause 1999-2000 VIVA alarm clock
Ralph Michael Krieger 1993-1994 Jam; Metalla; New at VIVA Nadine Kruger 1997-1999 Film off; Interactive; Jam
Sarah Kuttner 2001-2005 Interactive; Sarah Kuttner - The Show ; Album charts; VIVA News Frank Lämmermann 1998-1999 Lämmermann Live
Melissa Lee 2015-2018 VIVA Top 100; MTV Top 100 Nela Lee 2004-2005 VIVA Club Rotation; New at VIVA, interactive
Liza Li 2007-2008 Street charts; VIVA Top 20; VIVA Top 100 Heike Makatsch 1993-1997 Interactive; Heike's house calls
MC Rene
(René El Khazraje)
1999-2002 Mixery Raw Deluxe Nova Meierhenrich 2000-2001 Inside
Enie van de Meiklokjes
(Doreen Grochowski)
1996-2000 Chart surfer; What's up?; New at VIVA Markus Meske 2002 news
Matthias Opdenhövel 1993-1997 Interactive; news Minh-Khai Phan-Thi 1995-1998 Interactive; Minh-Khai & Friends
Oliver Pocher 1999-2005 Everything Pocher; Interactive; Trash Top 100; What's up?; Planet VIVA; Chart surfer Jenny Posch 2014-2015 VIVA Top 100
Stefan Raab 1993-1998 Ma 'kuck'n ; Vivasion René le Riche 1994-1996 News; Jam
Tyron Ricketts 1996-2000 Word Cup Charlotte Roche 1998-2005 Fast forward
Palina Rojinski 2011-2015 VIVA Top 100; VIVApedia Niel's reputation 1998-2001 kamikaze
Falk "Hawkeye" shaft 2001-2004 Supreme; Mixery Raw Deluxe Tobias Schlegl 1995-2004 Interactive; Kewl; Schlegl; The Last Judgement; What's up?
Hanna Scholz 2017-2018 VIVA Top 100; MTV Top 100 Jessica Black 2000-2003 Film off; Interactive
Katharina Schwarz 1999-2000 Start film Sami Slimani 2014-2016 VIVA Top 100
(Christoph Thesen)
2016-2018 VIVA Top 100 Axel Terporten 1993-1997 news
Martin Tietjen 2006 Ringtone charts; VIVA Top 20 Janin Ullmann 2001-2005 Film off; Inside; Interactive; 17th
Collien Elmen-Fernandes 2003-2015 Mixery Massive Music; New; Ringtone charts; Special charts; Street charts; VIVA Live !; VIVA Top 20; VIVA Top 100 Shirin Valentine 1995-1999 VIVA alarm clock
Nadine Vasta 2009-2011 VASTA ; VIVA Live !; VIVA Top 100; New Jessica Wahls 2003-2005 17; Interactive; Your Stars for X-Mas
Daniel Ziolkowski 1995-1999 VIVA Niteclub
Former presenters of MTV programs
Moderator at VIVA Broadcasts)
Daniel Budiman 2011-2014 game one
Simon Krätschmer 2011-2014 game one
Nils Bomhoff 2011-2014 game one
Etienne Gardé 2011-2014 game one

Market share

Market share from 3 years, 2004 to 2013
year from 3 years
2004 0.4%
2005 0.5%
2006 0.6%
2007 0.6%
2008 0.6%
2009 0.6%
2010 0.5%
2011 0.5%
2012 0.5%
2013 0.4%
2014 0.2%
2015 0.2%
2016 0.1%
2017 0.1%
2018 0.1%
average 00.4%

Since VIVA has belonged to Viacom, the station has reported its audience ratings. This started a year after the former competitor MTV, which had been showing its quotas since 2003.

In the overall group of its own viewers, the station's ratings fluctuated between 0.1% and 0.6%. VIVA achieved its strongest years from 2006 to 2009, in which it achieved a consistently 0.6 percent overall market share.


The VIVA HD logo (no longer on air in this version since September 2014)

Since May 16, 2011, VIVA HD Germany has been available as an HD simulcast version in the IPTV service Telekom Entertain . Since January 14, 2014, VIVA HD has been receivable via the Unitymedia cable network . VIVA HD could also be seen at Pÿur and KabelKiosk . Since November 25, 2014, VIVA HD has also been available on Kabel Deutschland, and since January 15, 2015 also on Zattoo in the HiQ package. Since February 10, 2018, VIVA HD has also been available at in Hamburg and Schleswig-Holstein.

In contrast to the other German HD channels from Viacom, VIVA HD broadcast in the 1920 × 1080i format .

Influence and importance

From its foundation to the establishment of MTV Deutschland in 1997, VIVA was the only German-language music broadcaster and, especially in its early days in the 1990s, had a strong musical and cultural influence on the young people of that time, which was reflected in the media obituaries following the announcement the setting were published. In the Berliner Woche it was said : “Like no other broadcaster, VIVA shaped an entire generation. At that time, MTV was still available in English and was only fed into certain cable networks. VIVA was available nationwide in the same way for most households. ”Thomas Lückerath wrote in an article on :“ The station, started as a German alternative to MTV, shaped the youth of the 90s and 2000s. VIVA was the YouTube and Spotify of a generation of young people who still paid internet access by the minute. The success was enormous and MTV was beaten successfully. VIVAzwei (later VIVAplus) and international offshoots followed. In the stock market euphoria at the turn of the millennium, VIVA Media AG rose to become a proud media group. The highlight of the expansion was the takeover of Brainpool AG, which was also listed on the stock exchange in November 2001. "

As a German music broadcaster, VIVA was also important for the establishment of German-language music as well as musicians from German-speaking countries whose videos were not played on MTV, which was exclusively English-speaking until 1997. In addition, VIVA was an important point of contact for talented new presenters for years and produced numerous well-known presenters, actors and entertainers. Well-known examples of this are Stefan Raab , Heike Makatsch , Jessica Schwarz , Matthias Opdenhövel , Klaas Heufer-Umlauf , Oliver Pocher , Nilz Bokelberg , Sarah Kuttner , Enie van de Meiklokjes and Charlotte Roche . Tobias Schlegl , who also started his career on VIVA, said: “Viva was 100 percent authentic, very different from the rest of German television.” On the occasion of the 10th anniversary in 2003, Der Spiegel wrote: “Viva. Germany's cult music channel of the nineties. A generation grew up with him. A new type of presenter grew up with him. Schlegl, Makatsch, Bechtel , Bokelberg and Adebisi were all extremely young and extremely inexperienced when they started at Viva. They were closer to the feeling of a generation than almost any other. They interviewed stars and became stars themselves in the process. "

Web links

Individual evidence

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  2. audience shares 2018 . Retrieved May 26, 2019.
  3. Happy Birthday: 15 years of the video recycling company
  4. ... an appointment sweaty - brand eins online. Retrieved May 3, 2020 .
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  6. A short history of the music channel Viva . In: MedienCity, January 10, 2005. Retrieved May 2, 2012.
  7. Hans-Jürgen Jakobs: The V-factor . In: Süddeutsche Zeitung of January 10, 2005. Retrieved on April 26, 2012.
  8. Little brother . In: Der Spiegel, August 23, 1993. Retrieved May 4, 2012.
  9. Santiago Campillo-Lundbeck: Totally out of time . In: Focus Magazin, October 24, 1993. Retrieved May 4, 2012.
  10. A short history of the music channel Viva . In: MedienCity, January 10, 2005. Retrieved May 2, 2012.
  11. Marcel Rosenbach : Road to nowhere . In: Der Spiegel of October 13, 2003. Retrieved on May 4, 2012.
  12. US corporations play poker for the music channel Viva - In: Retrieved August 28, 2018 .
  13. Viacom looks at VIVA Media AG in Cologne. In: Retrieved August 28, 2018 .
  14. Viacom (MTV) takes over VIVA Media AG from Cologne. In: Retrieved August 28, 2018 .
  15. a b Viacom takes over Viva Media AG from Cologne. In: Retrieved August 28, 2018 .
  16. Happy Birthday: 15 years of Videoverwertungsanstalt - In: Retrieved August 28, 2018 .
  17. MTV and Viva discontinue several formats - In: Retrieved August 28, 2018 .
  18. New positioning: "MTV Home" is discontinued. In: Retrieved August 28, 2018 .
  19. ↑ New start in January 2011: What will happen to Viva & MTV? In: Retrieved August 28, 2018 .
  20. Surrender or trendsetter? MTV becomes PayTV. In: Retrieved August 28, 2018 .
  21. Viacom shrinks VIVA in September
  22. VIVA is already shrinking on September 8th
  23. Kastner evaporates Viva, expands Nickelodeon
  24. VIVA discontinues anime program in October 2014
  25. Viva abbreviates its music program announcement on, accessed on February 6, 2015
  26. Daniel Sallhoff: Another change in strategy at Viacom: VIVA will be on the air again at night from October . In : . August 12, 2015. Retrieved August 12, 2015.
  27. Bye bye Viva: We say goodbye to the coolest music station after 25 years., archived from the original ; accessed on January 9, 2019 .
  28. Music television: Viacom discontinues Viva. In: Retrieved October 19, 2018 .
  29. a b Out after 25 years: VIVA music station will be discontinued! In: Berlin Week. Retrieved October 19, 2018 .
  30. Your Viva Playlist: Program information VIVA - The Final Countdown. Retrieved January 28, 2019 .
  31. TVClipsGermany: VIVA HD broadcast deadline and transition to ComedyCentral HD. Retrieved January 4, 2019 .
  32. Your Viva Playlist: VIVA Germany Ident July 2018 (long version). Retrieved January 25, 2019 .
  33. twizz: VIVA CH - Corner logo change ( December 1st, 2018 - 6:00 a.m.). Retrieved January 25, 2019 .
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  45. Sonja Hartwig: Cult music station: Viva loved you! In: Spiegel Online . November 28, 2013 ( [accessed August 22, 2019]).