|Ville de Niamey
|density||4,026.9 Ew. / km²|
|Governor||Aïchatou Boulama Kané|
Satellite image of Niamey
Niamey [ njaˈmɛ ] is the capital of Niger . With over a million inhabitants, it is by far the most populous city in the country with around 21 million inhabitants. The megacity on the Niger River is the country's political, cultural and economic center.
Compared to other major cities in Niger such as Agadez and Zinder , Niamey is a young city that was only laid out in the 20th century by the colonial power of France in an area that previously only consisted of small villages . In 1926 Niamey became the capital of the French Niger colony in place of Zinder. Since Niger's independence in 1960, Niamey has been the capital of one of the poorest countries in the world and, with its better infrastructure than the rural regions of the country, continues to attract immigrants.
The city is located in the southwest of the country on both sides of the Niger River. The left and right banks of the river are connected by the Kennedy Bridge (Pont Kennedy) opened in 1970 and the Bridge of Friendship China-Niger (Pont de l'amitié Chine-Niger) opened in 2011 . The location on the river characterizes the city located in the semi-arid Sahel zone , whose area is criss-crossed by green belts. 2688 hectares of the urban area are green spaces, of which 255 hectares are forest reserves. Niamey is completely surrounded by the Tilláberi region and its Kollo department . The neighboring communities of Niameys are Karma in the northwest, Hamdallaye in the northeast, Liboré in the southeast and Bitinkodji in the southwest.
Niamey consists of five arrondissements : Niamey I , Niamey II , Niamey III and Niamey IV on the left bank of the Niger and Niamey V on the right bank of the Niger. The five arrondissements are divided into smaller administrative units: There are a total of 106 districts, 31 villages and 56 hamlets in Niamey .
The manageable city center of Niamey extends over parts of the arrondissements Niamey I, Niamey II and Niamey III on the left bank of the river. The ascent to the Kennedy Bridge continues in a street formed by the Rue de Gaweye, the Rue du Commerce and the Rue de Kalley, which runs almost at right angles to the river. The city center, which borders the river in the southwest, is on both sides of this street. The large districts of Plateau in the northwest and Terminus in the southeast form its foothills. The city center and the surrounding quarters are densely populated and at the same time form the city's commercial centers. As in all of Niamey, mud houses shape the cityscape in the center. The few western-style villas that are inhabited by the political and economic upper classes can be found in the outskirts of the city. The incorporated villages on the outskirts have retained their rural character. In addition, there is an increasing number of informal settlements , which, in addition to mud houses, are mainly characterized by straw huts.
Geology and climate
The city is located on the western edge of a geological area belonging to the Tertiary Age , which extends eastward into the Tahoua region. Niamey has a semi-arid climate. The highest amounts of precipitation occur in the months of May to September. The Niger River has the lowest water level in Niamey from April to June. Measured by monthly averages, when the tide in Niamey is low , between 22 and 99 cubic meters of water flow through the river bed per second. The highest monthly averages are reached with 1660 to 1880 cubic meters of water per second. In 2007 a minimum average temperature of 23.5 degrees Celsius and a maximum average temperature of 36.6 degrees Celsius were measured. In the same year there were 47 rainy days, the amount of precipitation was 523.3 mm. Niamey is affected by smog , which is created especially by burning garbage dumps and is favored by the city's basin location.
Monthly average temperatures and rainfall for Niamey
The city of Niamey emerged at the beginning of the 20th century. The status of the previous settlement is disputed between Goudel , Kalley , Maourey , Saga and Yantala . The original inhabitants of the region were Songhai , who mingled with Kallé , a subgroup of the Zarma , in the 18th century . European explorers and conquerors came relatively late to the area, which was not on any important trade route and remained untouched by the Africa explorers Heinrich Barth and Charles Monteil , who traveled to other parts of Niger.
Niamey as a topographical name first appeared around 1898 in reports from Mission Hourst, a hydrographic expedition headed by the French officer Émile Auguste Léon Hourst . There are various legends about the origin and meaning of the name Niamey. One says that an old woman took water at a certain point on the river, where the first settlement was then built: The name Niamey therefore comes from Nya-me , which means the mother's watering place. Another legend traces the name back to a head of the Kallé clan who is said to have said to his slaves: "Oua niammané" (Take this land).
Under French rule
The actual hour of birth of the city struck on May 15, 1902 with the establishment of the French military post Niamey under Captain Henri Salaman . In the race for Africa , the French met British territorial claims in this part of the Sahel . A period of drought in the Sahel region from 1901 to 1903 caused refugees from rural areas to settle in Niamey. In 1903 Niamey became the administrative seat of the Territoire Militaire du Niger . This French military territory initially stretched from Gao and Timbuktu in the west to N'Guigmi in the east. On January 1, 1911, the administrative seat of the military territory was relocated from Niamey to the old town of Zinder further east. The drought of 1913 and 1914 brought a second wave of migrants to Niamey. In 1920 the military territory received civil administration, and in 1922 it was converted into the French Niger colony.
Under Jules Brévié , who was the first governor of the new colony until 1929, the capital of the Niger colony was moved from Zinder to Niamey on December 28, 1926. There were several reasons for this: Niamey was more easily accessible from the French colonies of Upper Volta , Mali and Dahomey than Zinder. Conversely, Zinder was too close to the British colony of Nigeria . In addition, there was a water shortage in Zinder due to the increasing number of inhabitants. The European quarter of Niameys was on two plateaus around forty meters above the river. The residential areas of the African immigrants were grouped in a checkerboard pattern around the European quarter. A third wave of rural residents who had to flee the Niamey area due to crop failures reached the city in 1931 and 1932. Although many of the refugees returned to the rural areas, the third wave led to the formation of new urban districts. In 1931 Niamey received the rank of canton .
Niamey was not directly affected by the fighting in World War II . The whole of French West Africa was under the Vichy regime and in 1942 still fended off an attack by the Allies on the capital Dakar . Only after the establishment of the French Committee for National Liberation in 1943 did French West Africa switch to the Forces françaises libres . Niamey had continuous population growth until 1945, when the population was around 8,000. After the Second World War, the population skyrocketed. The French colonial administration in Niamey specifically recruited educated classes from the surrounding colonies. In addition, many Nigerians settled in the capital for economic reasons. An extensive construction program was implemented in the late 1940s and 1950s. In addition to residential buildings, a town hall, a hospital and several schools were built. The city expanded to the northeast and along the steep river bank.
1954 Niamey was raised to a Commune mixte de 1er degré (German about first degree urban and rural community ); this was the basis for a distinct, independent city administration. The French colonial administration reacted to the striving for more independence from the motherland by gradually introducing local self-government by Nigerians. Against this background, Djibo Bakary , who a year later became Niger's deputy head of government, became Niamey's first elected mayor in 1956 . In 1959 the Commune mixte de 1er degré was dissolved again. The administration of the city was transferred to a special commission headed by a president.
Since Niger's independence
With the independence of Niger in 1960, Niamey became the capital of an independent state. The apostolic prefecture Niamey was elevated to a diocese as early as 1961 , with Hippolyte Berlier as the first Roman Catholic bishop of Niamey. In 1963 an administrator and two deputies took over the administration of the capital. With the nationwide administrative reform of 1966, a mayor appointed by the President of the Republic was placed at the head of the city administration. Niamey's rapid population growth continued, not least due to famines in the 1960s and 1970s. The construction of the Kennedy Bridge over the Niger River from 1967 to 1970 favored greater settlement on the right bank of the river. Since the opening of the bridge, the Niger in the urban area no longer has to be crossed only by boats. In 1984 Niamey was divided into five districts with the administration of district heads, each of whom was provided with a Préfet-Maire (prefect mayor).
In 1989, the city was transformed into the Communauté Urbaine de Niamey (CUN), consisting of three municipalities: Niamey I, on the left bank of the Niger, emerged from the 1st and 2nd districts, and Niamey II, emerged from the 3rd and 4th district and on the right bank of the Niger Niamey III, the former 5th district. The management of the three municipalities was taken over by relatively powerless mayors, whose main task was to implement the resolutions of the prefect of the CUN. In 1996, the municipalities of the municipal association were reconstituted. The CUN now consisted of five, previously three municipalities. The suburb of Liboré was annexed to the capital in 2001 as the municipality Niamey VI . However, this was reversed the following year: Since 2002 Liboré has again been an independent municipality in the Tillabéri region. An appointed governor has headed Niamey's city council since 2002. In 2010 an ordinance regulated the transformation of the Niamey community into the city of Niamey ( ville de Niamey ) as a community with a special status ( commune à statut particulier ). The five arrondissements emerged from the five previous municipalities. Since then, in addition to the office of governor, there has been the office of mayor ( maire central ).
In August 2010, the Niger River in Niamey reached its highest level since 1929. Several districts were destroyed by flooding and around 20,000 people were left homeless . The governments of the People's Republic of China and Niger financed the construction of a second bridge over the river, the Pont de l'amitié Chine-Niger ("China-Niger Friendship Bridge"), which opened in 2011. The structure, the lane of which has a planned service life of thirty years, is located in the south of the city. Due to the lack of access roads, the bridge was initially little frequented. In 2012, investments were made in the surrounding transport infrastructure.
Two factors were decisive for Niamey's development into a megacity with a thousandfold increase in population within less than a hundred years. On the one hand, there was strong population growth in all of Niger, due to a high birth rate and falling child mortality . On the other hand, a rural exodus was and is to be observed, in which food shortages in rural regions - most recently during the famine in the Sahel zone in the 1970s and 1980s - as well as economic considerations - better job opportunities in the capital - played a role. The economic upswing from uranium mining in Arlit since the 1960s also indirectly promoted urbanization in the country.
Rapid population growth created massive housing problems, compounded by widespread poverty, overburdened urban management and a dysfunctional private housing market. More than half of the apartments are not of a permanent nature and more than four fifths are poorly equipped. The most important types of construction for residential houses are clay houses, concrete houses and straw huts. The mud houses, usually inhabited by several households, shape the cityscape. They can be found in all parts of the city, from the city center to the informal settlements. Residential houses made of concrete blocks and with tin roofs are mainly found in the suburbs. They are often a little larger than the mud houses and have their own electricity meters. The conical straw huts are inhabited by the poorest sections of the population. They are mainly found in the green belts and urban open spaces, where they are being erected illegally. The straw huts can easily be dismantled and rebuilt elsewhere within a few hours if their residents are evicted.
The Niamey agglomeration is predicted to grow to 6.7 million inhabitants by 2050. A population of 56.1 million is forecast for the year 2100. The growth forecast is based on the country's rapidly growing population in connection with advancing urbanization. Due to the country's limited resources, such growth is currently difficult to imagine.
|Population development in numbers|
Ethnic groups and languages
The largest ethnic groups in the city are the Songhai and Zarma with a combined 51.1% of the total population, followed by the Hausa with 34.4%. Nationwide, the Hausa make up the majority of the population. Since the independence of Niger, the capital's location in the traditional Songhai-Zarma area has repeatedly led to competitive situations between the Hausa on the one hand and the Songhai and Zarma on the other. Even in colonial times, France often preferred the Songhai and Zarma when it came to assigning key political positions to Nigerians. This imbalance continued in the independent republic. The first three presidents of Niger were all Zarma, it was not until 1993 that Mahamane Ousmane, a Hausa, was elected president. The third largest ethnic group in Niamey is the Fulbe with 7.5% , who live mainly in the southern regions of the country. The Tuareg make up 4.4% of the city's population. Their main settlement area in Niger is the Agadez region in the north of the country. There are also Arabs with 0.5%, Gourmantché with 0.4% and Tubu with 0.1% of the city's population. The remaining 0.3% of the population belong to other ethnic groups, including naturalized people.
The city is located in a traditional Zarma language area. In the middle of the 20th century Niamey developed into a bilingual city, on whose streets and markets Zarma Hausa is used as a vehicle language . Passive bilingualism is practiced, in which Hausa and Zarma speak and understand each other in their own language. After the increased influx of Fulfulde- speaking Wodaabe and Tamascheq (and often Hausa)-speaking Tuareg, a disruption of the system of passive bilingualism was observed in the early 1990s. This was often remedied by a third party who mediated the communication using Hausa or French .
The majority of the population is of Islamic faith. The city's most important mosque is the Great Mosque in the Niamey II district. Niamey is also the seat of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Niamey, which was established in 2007 (founded in 1942 as an Apostolic Prefecture, since 1961 diocese). Other religious minorities in the city include Baha'i , Baptists and New Apostolic believers.
The city of Niamey has the rank of a region and is therefore equal to the seven Nigerian regions Agadez, Diffa , Dosso , Maradi , Tahoua, Tillabéri and Zinder . At the head of the city administration are the governor, who represents the entire state, and the mayor, who chairs the city council. The governor is appointed by decree by the Council of Ministers of the Nigerien government for a four-year term. Aïchatou Boulama Kané has been governor of Niamey since 2011 . The mayor is elected by the city council. The city council has 58 members, 45 of whom are elected and 13 of whom are representatives of the traditional local chiefs ( chefferie traditionnelle ). There are elected mayors and district councils in the arrondissements.
Numerous state administration institutions are housed in the capital. When presidential palace is the government district, to the west the embassy district Ambassades . The German embassy is located on Avenue du Général de Gaulle. Austria is diplomatically represented by an honorary consulate and Switzerland by a consular agency. Residential areas between the stadium and the racecourse are reserved for Nigerien executives. Niamey is also the seat of the intergovernmental development organization Niger Basin Authority and the Nigerien human rights organization Timidria .
Cultural institutions and events
The Nigerien National Museum, founded in 1959 in the city center, is dedicated to the culture and history of the country and its ethnic groups. Among the most famous exhibits in the museum, which also includes a zoo, are the remains of the Arbre du Ténéré , a tree that serves as a landmark in the sandy Ténéré desert . Several multifunctional cultural centers play an important role in the city's cultural life. The Center Culturel Franco-Nigérien (CCFN) near the National Museum offers, among other things, theater and film screenings, concerts, changing exhibitions, language courses and a library. Which is bundled with CCFN amphitheater holds 400 seats. The Center Culturel Oumarou Ganda , which was built in 1980 and named after the Nigerien film director Oumarou Ganda , has a 5000-seat amphitheater that is used for concerts, film and theater performances. A third important cultural center is the Center culturel américain, which has a library with 3,000 books in English and French. Due to the spread of television and video, Niamey began to die out in cinemas. From around a dozen cinemas earlier, only the Cinéma Jangorzo , which specializes in Hindi films , still exists today .
The fashion event Festival International de la Mode en Afrique (FIMA) was founded by the fashion designer Alphadi . It took place for the first time in 1998 in Tiguidit in the Sahara desert and from 2000 several times in Niamey. The film festival Festival international du film d'environnement de Niamey (FIFEN), dedicated to environmental issues, was held for the third time in 2008. In 2005 the 5th Francophonie Games took place in Niamey.
The most important concert venues in Niamey include the Center Culturel Franco-Nigérien and Center Culturel Oumarou Ganda as well as the General Seyni Kountché Stadium and the Congress Palace. In addition to traditional music, rap plays a major role in the city's cultural life. A popular meeting place where rap is heard is the bar La Galaxie at the Hôtel Sahel in the south of Niamey III, near the river. Well-known modern musicians and music groups from Niamey are Lakal Kane, Black Daps, Wass-Wong, Djoro g, Kaidan Gaskia and Kamikaze.
The General Seyni Kountché Stadium was opened in 1989 and holds 35,000 spectators. It is the home stadium of the Nigerien national soccer team and other soccer clubs. The martial art lutte traditionnelle , which is popular all over Niger , is pursued in its own arena. At the city exit in the direction of Dosso is the Hippodrome , Niamey's large horse racing track.
education and Science
There are 419 primary schools in Niamey, 116 of which are private schools (as of 2013). The gross enrollment rate in the 2012/2013 school year was 122.4% (nationwide 82.0%), for girls 122.5% (nationwide 74.7%). The primary school graduation rate was 96.7% (nationwide 56.4%), among girls 98.6% (nationwide 49.1%). Primary school in Niger lasts six years. Classes are held in French and the national languages of Niger . The Koran schools in the city are very popular .
The state Abdou Moumouni University Niamey on the right bank of the Niger has existed since 1971. It has five faculties, an École normal supérieure and three research institutes, including one for radionuclides . Niamey is also home to the Pasteur Institute , the basic research center for biology and medicine headquartered in Paris . The Comité permanent Inter-Etats de Lutte contre la Sécheresse dans le Sahel operates the agro-hydrometric center AGRHYMET in Niamey on the right bank of the river . The Center d'études linguistiques et historiques par tradition orale (CELHTO-OUA) collects and publishes oral traditions .
Economy and Infrastructure
Economy and utilities
Like other capitals in the western Sahel zone, Niamey also has little economic impact beyond the country's borders. There are no major department stores, major industrial companies and international corporate headquarters in the city. Niamey's economic cornerstones are trade and handicrafts.
There are numerous markets all over the city. The Grand Marché , which was destroyed in a fire in 1982 and rebuilt, offers a wide range of goods, including clothing, fabrics and tableware. It is located in Niamey III on the edge of the city center and marks the end of the straight line of streets from Rue de Gaweye, Rue du Commerce and Rue de Kalley that starts at the Kennedy Bridge. The Petit Marché (small market) is particularly important for the trade in fruit, vegetables and spices. An extensive commercial district stretches between the Grand Marché, Petit Marché and the airport. The Nouvelle Imprimerie du Niger, one of the largest printing works in West Africa, is located near the Petit Marché .
There are several centers for traditional handicrafts such as leatherworking, pottery and weaving in Niamey. This is where the products are both manufactured and sold. The Salon International de l'Artisanat pour la Femme is an international trade fair for handicrafts made by women held every two years in Niamey . The suburb of Saga is known for its Zarma pottery. Tannery is operated on Niger near the flower market . The river is also used for fishing. The big fish, known as capitaines , can each weigh between 40 and 50 kilograms and are smoked and a specialty in Niamey restaurants. Gold has been mined in the Sirba Valley west of Niamey since the 1980s.
Compared to the poor medical care in large parts of Niger, the health facilities in the capital are in good shape. 60% of the doctors, 40% of the obstetricians and 30% of the nurses in the country work in Niamey. There are two national hospitals in the city ( Niamey National Hospital and Lamordé National Hospital ), a regional hospital and several health centers. One of the most reputable private clinics is Clinique Gamkalley, which was originally France's hospital in the Niger Colony. Pharmacies are spread all over the city. Niamey has to import a large part of the firewood it needs from neighboring Benin , as the natural tree population in the wider area of the city has declined sharply. Access to drinking water is largely via private wells and water sellers ( ga ruwa ), not through connection to drinking water reservoirs. Traditional latrines far outweigh the modern water toilets , which are mainly found in the villas of the wealthy class of the population. In the informal settlements and the incorporated villages, only bush land is used instead of latrines. Due to a lack of electricity supply, kerosene lamps are often used for lighting. However, petroleum products are much cheaper in southern Niger on the border with Nigeria than in the capital due to informal trade and smuggling.
Local public transport in the city is hardly developed and is limited to a few bus routes. It is common for the taxi drivers to decide their own routes and take turns picking up and dropping off passengers on a trip. There are only a few fixed taxi ranks in Niamey. The wide, spacious boulevards are unusual for a West African city. The Boulevard Mali Béro was asphalted in 2005 and has since developed into an important axis for road traffic. Another larger street is named after the former German President Heinrich Lübke . The avenue François Mitterrand, which continues on avenue de la République, is also of outstanding importance for road traffic.
Long-distance traffic to and from Niamey is mainly by road. The four large Nigerien bus companies Aïr Transport, Maissagé, Rimbo Transport and SNTV connect Niamey with Agadez and Arlit in the north and with Diffa , Maradi and Zinder in the east and south of the country. The city is located on the Dakar-N'Djamena Highway . Buses run from Niamey to the neighboring countries of Benin, Burkina Faso and Mali . The Niamey International Airport is Diori Hamani Niamey Airport . It is located around twelve kilometers southeast of the city. There are no scheduled domestic flights. Nigeravia SA airline offers domestic charter flights , which are mainly used by bankers and employees of the uranium mine in Arlit. Niamey is not connected to any rail network. The originally planned extension of the Abidjan-Niger Railway to Niamey, which was laid out in 1904, was never realized. Also, despite the city's location on the river, there is no regular passenger traffic on the Niger. Occasionally pirogues ply upriver and downstream. The nearest sea port is 1035 kilometers away in Cotonou in the neighboring country of Benin. In Niamey there are currently two bridges, the Kennedy Bridge and the Pont de l'amitié Chine-Niger , which cross the Niger. In addition, a third bridge has been in planning since 2013, which is to be financed by the Chinese government.
Most of the country's print media is published in Niamey. State newspapers are Sahel Dimanche and Le Sahel . Niamey's private newspapers include La Hache, Le Canard Déchaîne, Liberation, Le Républicain, La Roue de l'Histoire, L'Evénement, La Griffe, Alternative and Le Témoin . However, these newspapers usually arrive late in large parts of the country, and the widespread illiteracy reduces the influence of the print media. The city's radio stations have a greater range. The state shortwave station Voix du Sahel can also be received in many other places in Niger. There are also ten private radio stations in Niamey, the largest being Saraounia, Anfani, Ténéré and REM . The state television broadcaster Télé Sahel is also based in the capital . The programs of foreign, especially French-speaking television channels such as TV5 Monde are also often seen . With regard to their political orientation, the domestic media can usually be clearly identified either with the respective government or the opposition . In 2013, Niger was ranked 43rd out of 179 countries on the global press freedom ranking published by Reporters Without Borders .
sons and daughters of the town
- Ismaël Alassane (* 1984), football player
- Barkiré Alidou (1925 – 20th or 21st century), politician
- Hassana Alidou (* 1963), educator and diplomat
- Ousseina Alidou (* 1963), linguist
- Bala Arabé (1925–1991), officer and politician
- Idrissa Arouna (* 1926), officer, politician and diplomat
- Hamidou Arouna Sidikou (1946–2015), geographer and politician
- Abdoulaye Badié (* 1963), officer
- Olivier Bonnes (* 1990), football player
- Issoufou Boubacar (* 1990), football player
- Amadou Boubacar Cissé (* 1948), politician, Prime Minister of Niger
- Lucien Bouchardeau (1961–2018), football referee
- Souleymane Dela Sacko (* 1984), football player
- Amadou Diallo (* 1963), officer and politician, Prefect-President of the Niamey Municipal Association (1999–2000)
- Boubacar Diallo (1906–1965), politician
- Hamadou Djibo Issaka (* 1977), rower
- Alfred Dogbé (1962–2012), novelist and playwright
- Oumarou Ganda (1935–1981), film director, screenwriter and actor
- Abdou Hamani (* 1942), linguist and politician
- Djibrilla Hima Hamidou (* 1965), officer
- Mariama Hima (* 1951), anthropologist, film director, diplomat and politician
- Moustapha Hima (* 1992), boxer
- Adamou Idé (* 1951), writer
- Amadou Kader (* 1989), soccer player
- Hélène Kaziendé (* 1967), writer
- Mariama Keïta (1946–2018), journalist
- Rahmatou Keïta (* 1957), film director, journalist and author
- Karim Konaté (* 1987), football player
- Issiakou Koudizé (* 1987), football player
- Abdoulaye Diori Kadidiatou Ly (* 1952), judge
- Moussa Maâzou (* 1988), football player
- Aïchatou Maïnassara (1971–2020), politician
- Djibo Mayaki (* 1939), writer
- Ibrahim Hassane Mayaki (* 1951), politician, Prime Minister of Niger
- Lambert Messan (1940-2013), diplomat
- Hadiza Moussa Gros (* 1960), politician and President of the Supreme Court
- Hamadou Moussa Gros (* 1953), officer and politician
- N'Gadé Nana Hadiza Noma Kaka (* 1956), politician and diplomat
- Bibata Niandou Barry (* 1955), lawyer and politician
- Harouna Niandou (* 1946), journalist and politician
- Saïdou Sidibé (1952–2018), politician
- Sani Souna Sido (1931–1977), officer and politician
- Mamane Souley (* 1965), officer
- Zalika Souley (born 1947), actress
- Mohamed Soumaïla (* 1994), football player
- Boubacar Talatou (* 1987), football player
- Ibrahim Tankary (born 1972), football player
- Moussa Tondi (* 1928), officer and politician
- Aminatou Maïga Touré (* 1955), diplomat and politician
- André Joseph Wright (1936-2010), diplomat
- François-Robert Wright (* 1945), officer and politician
- Damouré Zika (1924–2009), film actor
- Abdoulaye Adamou: Parcours migratoire des citadins et problemème du logement à Niamey . Diploma thesis, Abdou Moumouni University Niamey 2005.
- Nolwenn Barbier-Alassane, Mohamed Alassane: Niamey, le monde des petits métiers . Un livre, des livres, Vannes 2003, ISBN 2-9520208-0-9 .
- Suzanne Bernus: Particularismes ethniques en milieu urbain: L'exemple de Niamey . Dissertation, Université de Paris, Faculté des lettres et des sciences humaines 1969.
- Cécile Clément: Espaces de vie, espaces en ville: parcours migratoires, représentations et pratiques de l'espace urbain à Niamey . Dissertation, Université Lumière Lyon 2 2000.
- Kokou Henri Motcho: La réforme communale de la communauté urbaine de Niamey . In: Revue de geographie alpine . No. 92, 2004. pp. 111-124 ( online version ).
- Ndèye Fatou Diop Guèye, Salimata Seck Wone, Moussa Sy: Agriculteurs dans les villes ouest-africaines. Enjeux fonciers et accès à l'eau . IAGU, Dakar 2009, ISBN 978-2-8111-0179-4 , p. 109.
- Annuaire statistique 2003–2007 . Institut National de la Statistique, Niamey 2008 ( online version (PDF file; 1.19 MB)), p. 208.
- Répertoire National des localites (ReNaLoc). (RAR) Institut National de la Statistique de la République du Niger, July 2014, pp. 715–719 , accessed on August 7, 2015 (French).
- Dominique Auzias, Jean-Paul Labourdette: Niger 2009 . Nouvelle édition de l'Université, Paris 2009, ISBN 2-7469-1640-1 , p. 87.
- Abdoulaye Adamou: course migratoire of citadins et du logement problème à Niamey . Mémoire. Université Abdou Moumouni de Niamey, Niamey 2005, p. 93–94 ( web.archive.org [PDF; 1.6 MB ; accessed on October 24, 2019]).
- Thomas Krings: Sahel countries . WBG, Darmstadt 2006, ISBN 3-534-11860-X , p. 106.
- Annuaire statistique 2003–2007 . Institut National de la Statistique, Niamey 2008 ( online version (PDF file; 1.19 MB)), pp. 34–35, 58 a. 72.
- Thomas Krings: Sahel countries . WBG, Darmstadt 2006, ISBN 3-534-11860-X , p. 88.
- Jolijn Geels: Niger . Bradt, Chalfont St Peter 2006, ISBN 1-84162-152-8 , p. 93.
- Gabriella Körling: In Search of the State. An Ethnography of Public Service Provision in Urban Niger (= Uppsala Studies in Cultural Anthropology . No. 51 ). Uppsala University, Uppsala 2011, ISBN 978-91-554-8127-8 , pp. 106 ( uu.diva-portal.org [PDF; accessed on May 8, 2019]).
- Thomas Krings: Sahelländer . WBG, Darmstadt 2006, ISBN 3-534-11860-X , p. 101.
- Abdourahmane Idrissa, Samuel Decalo: Historical Dictionary of Niger . 4th edition. Scarecrow, Plymouth 2012, ISBN 978-0-8108-6094-0 , pp. xxvii .
- Abdoulaye Adamou: Parcours migratoire des citadins etproblemème du logement à Niamey . Mémoire. Université Abdou Moumouni de Niamey, Niamey 2005, p. 30 ( web.archive.org [PDF; 1.6 MB ; accessed on October 24, 2019]).
- Thomas Krings: Sahel countries . WBG, Darmstadt 2006, ISBN 3-534-11860-X , p. 100.
- Jolijn Geels: Niger . Bradt, Chalfont St Peter 2006, ISBN 1-84162-152-8 , p. 94.
- Pierre Montagnon: La France coloniale. La gloire de l'Empire. You temps des croisades à la seconde guerre mondiale . Vol. 2, Pygmalion / Watelet, Paris 1990, pp. 60-63.
- Dominique Auzias, Jean-Paul Labourdette: Niger 2009 . Nouvelle édition de l'Université, Paris 2009, ISBN 2-7469-1640-1 , p. 90.
- Alison Behnke: Niger in Pictures . Twenty-First Century Books, Minneapolis 2008, ISBN 978-0-8225-7147-6 , p. 28.
- Kokou Henri Motcho: La réforme communale de la communauté urbaine de Niamey . In: Revue de geographie alpine . No. 92, 2004. pp. 111-124 ( online version ), pp. 111-113.
- Kokou Henri Motcho: La réforme communale de la communauté urbaine de Niamey . In: Revue de geographie alpine . No. 92, 2004. pp. 111-124 ( online version ), p. 120.
- Program d'orientation de la politique de développement de la Ville de Niamey: le Maire central Oumarou Moumouni Dogari face aux défis communaux. (No longer available online.) Le Sahel, 2012, archived from the original on November 25, 2015 ; Retrieved April 26, 2013 (French). Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Floods and bad harvests plague Niger . NZZ Online website , accessed on November 21, 2010.
- Siradji Sanda: Inauguration of voies d'accès au 2ème pont sur le fleuve Niger, Niamey à: pour une operationnalité effective du Pont de l'amitié Chine-Niger. Embassy of the People's Republic of Niger in the Republic of Niger, December 11, 2012, accessed April 26, 2013 (French).
- Abdoulaye Adamou: course migratoire of citadins et du logement problème à Niamey . Mémoire. Université Abdou Moumouni de Niamey, Niamey 2005, p. 9 ( web.archive.org [PDF; 1.6 MB ; accessed on October 24, 2019]).
- Abdoulaye Adamou: course migratoire of citadins et du logement problème à Niamey . Mémoire. Université Abdou Moumouni de Niamey, Niamey 2005, p. 67–71 ( web.archive.org [PDF; 1.6 MB ; accessed on October 24, 2019]).
- City Population 2100 | Sustainability Today. Retrieved July 24, 2018 .
- Demography ( Memento of the original from February 1, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. . Institut National de la Statistique website, accessed November 11, 2010.
- Presentation of the results globaux définitifs du Quatrième (4ème) Recensement Général de la Population et de l'Habitat (RGP / H) de 2012. (PDF file) Institut National de la Statistique, 2014, accessed on April 18, 2014 (French ).
- Dieter Nohlen (Ed.): Lexicon Third World. Countries, organizations, theories, concepts, people . Rowohlt, Reinbek bei Hamburg 2000, ISBN 3-499-60684-4 , p. 560.
- Annuaire statistique 2003–2007 . Institut National de la Statistique, Niamey 2008 ( online version (PDF file; 1.19 MB)), p. 84.
- Pierre-Francis Lacroix: Report on the transcription of national languages for literacy for adults in Niger . Organization des Nations Unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture, Paris 1966, p. 8 ( PDF file; 3.3 MB [accessed April 25, 2013]).
- Fiona Mc Laughlin: Introduction to the languages of urban Africa . In: Fiona Mc Laughlin (Ed.): The languages of urban Africa . Continuum International, London 2009, ISBN 978-1-84706-116-4 , pp. 12 .
- Dominique Auzias, Jean-Paul Labourdette: Niger 2009 . Nouvelle édition de l'Université, Paris 2009, ISBN 2-7469-1640-1 , p. 52.
- République du Niger: Loi n ° 2002-015 on 11 June 2002. Portant création de la Communauté Urbaine de Niamey .
- République du Niger: Loi n ° 2002-012 du 11 June 2002. Déterminant les principes fondamentaux de la libre administration des régions, des départements et des communes ainsi que leurs compétences et leurs ressources .
- Nomination de gouverneurs des régions . SousLeManguier, published November 5, 2011, accessed January 10, 2012.
- Niger: German representations . Federal Foreign Office website , accessed on November 24, 2010.
- Austrian representations ( Memento of the original dated May 23, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. . Website of the Federal Ministry for Europe, Integration and Foreign Affairs , accessed on November 24, 2010.
- Swiss representation: Niger . Website of the Federal Department of Foreign Affairs , accessed on November 24, 2010.
- Jolijn Geels: Niger . Bradt, Chalfont St Peter 2006, ISBN 1-84162-152-8 , pp. 108-109.
- Dominique Auzias, Jean-Paul Labourdette: Niger 2009 . Nouvelle édition de l'Université, Paris 2009, ISBN 2-7469-1640-1 , p. 77.
- Jolijn Geels: Niger . Bradt, Chalfont St Peter 2006, ISBN 1-84162-152-8 , p. 104.
- Editions précédentes. Festival International de la Mode en Afrique, accessed on April 30, 2019 (French).
- Festival International du Film d'Environnement de Niamey (FIFEN) 2008 africultures.com
- Dominique Auzias, Jean-Paul Labourdette: Niger 2009 . Nouvelle édition de l'Université, Paris 2009, ISBN 2-7469-1640-1 , p. 109.
- Dominique Auzias, Jean-Paul Labourdette: Niger 2009 . Nouvelle édition de l'Université, Paris 2009, ISBN 2-7469-1640-1 , p. 70.
- Statistiques de l'éducation de base. Annuaire 2012–2013 Statistics of the Nigerien Ministry of Education (PDF file; 5.12 MB), see pp. 51, 113 f., 24.
- Maman Mallam Garba: Education bilingue au Niger: entre convivialité et conflits linguistiques . In: Penser la francophonie: concepts, actions et outils linguistiques. Actes des Premières Journées scientifiques communes des Réseaux de Chercheurs concernant la langue . Éditions des Archives Contemporaines, Paris 2004, ISBN 2-914610-25-4 , pp. 464-465 .
- Dominique Auzias, Jean-Paul Labourdette: Niger 2009 . Nouvelle édition de l'Université, Paris 2009, ISBN 2-7469-1640-1 , p. 53.
- Dominique Auzias, Jean-Paul Labourdette: Niger 2009 . Nouvelle édition de l'Université, Paris 2009, ISBN 2-7469-1640-1 , p. 66.
- Thomas Krings: Sahel countries . WBG, Darmstadt 2006, ISBN 3-534-11860-X , p. 86.
- Jolijn Geels: Niger . Bradt, Chalfont St Peter 2006, ISBN 1-84162-152-8 , p. 109.
- Dominique Auzias, Jean-Paul Labourdette: Niger 2009 . Nouvelle édition de l'Université, Paris 2009, ISBN 2-7469-1640-1 , p. 98.
- Jolijn Geels: Niger . Bradt, Chalfont St Peter 2006, ISBN 1-84162-152-8 , p. 110.
- Dominique Auzias, Jean-Paul Labourdette: Niger 2009 . Nouvelle édition de l'Université, Paris 2009, ISBN 2-7469-1640-1 , p. 62.
- Dominique Auzias, Jean-Paul Labourdette: Niger 2009 . Nouvelle édition de l'Université, Paris 2009, ISBN 2-7469-1640-1 , p. 59.
- Dominique Auzias, Jean-Paul Labourdette: Niger 2009 . Nouvelle édition de l'Université, Paris 2009, ISBN 2-7469-1640-1 , p. 73.
- Dominique Auzias, Jean-Paul Labourdette: Niger 2009 . Nouvelle édition de l'Université, Paris 2009, ISBN 2-7469-1640-1 , p. 43.
- Dominique Auzias, Jean-Paul Labourdette: Niger 2009 . Nouvelle édition de l'Université, Paris 2009, ISBN 2-7469-1640-1 , p. 56.
- Annuaire statistique 2003–2007 . Institut National de la Statistique, Niamey 2008 ( online version (PDF file; 1.19 MB)), p. 108.
- Dominique Auzias, Jean-Paul Labourdette: Niger 2009 . Nouvelle édition de l'Université, Paris 2009, ISBN 2-7469-1640-1 , p. 97.
- Thomas Krings: Sahel countries . WBG, Darmstadt 2006, ISBN 3-534-11860-X , p. 73.
- Abdoulaye Adamou: course migratoire of citadins et du logement problème à Niamey . Mémoire. Université Abdou Moumouni de Niamey, Niamey 2005, p. 105-108 ( web.archive.org [PDF; 1.6 MB ; accessed on October 24, 2019]).
- Thomas Krings : Sahel countries . WBG, Darmstadt 2006, ISBN 3-534-11860-X , p. 183.
- Jolijn Geels: Niger . Bradt, Chalfont St Peter 2006, ISBN 1-84162-152-8 , p. 97.
- Jolijn Geels: Niger . Bradt, Chalfont St Peter 2006, ISBN 1-84162-152-8 , pp. 95-96.
- Annuaire statistique 2003–2007 . Institut National de la Statistique, Niamey 2008 ( online version (PDF file; 1.19 MB)), p. 22.
- China to fund 3rd bridge in Nigeria capital. In: Global Times. December 20, 2013, accessed September 6, 2015 .
- Jolijn Geels: Niger . Bradt, Chalfont St Peter 2006, ISBN 1-84162-152-8 , pp. 82-83.
- Ranking list of press freedom 2013. (PDF file; 90 kB) Reporters Without Borders, accessed on April 26, 2013 .