County of Holzappel

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Coat of arms of the County of Holzappel

The county of Holzappel (also: Holzapfel ) was an imperial county at the time of the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation , which was founded in 1643 by Count Peter Melander von Holzappel . The county belonged to the Lower Rhine-Westphalian Empire and came to the Duchy of Nassau in 1806 as a civil status .


The Esterau ( Praedia Astine ) was a small manor with twelve villages around what is now Holzappel in the Rhein-Lahn district in Rhineland-Palatinate . Peter Melander von Holzappel , born Peter Eppelmann, was promoted to field marshal of the imperial army in Germany during the Thirty Years' War . In 1641 he was appointed Count von Holzappel. With the fortune that he brought together during the war years, he acquired Esterau with the Vogtei Isselbach and Eppenrode in 1643. Emperor Ferdinand III. soon afterwards raised the small lordship to the "Free Imperial Immediate County of Holzappel".

After his death in the battle of Zusmarshausen near Augsburg (May 1648), Count Holzappel was buried in the princely crypt ("Melander crypt") of the Protestant Johanneskirche of the then Estonian (today's Holzappel). His widow, née Countess Agnes von Effern († 1656), expanded the area of ​​the county in 1656 by purchasing the castle and lordship of Schaumburg near Balduinstein , which means that the county was now called Holzappel-Schaumburg. Countess Agnes bequeathed the county to her only child, Elisabeth Charlotte (1640–1701), who had married Prince Adolf von Nassau-Dillenburg in 1653 and thus became Princess of Nassau-Schaumburg. In 1688 they elevated the village of Esten to the town of Holzappel and allowed refugees from France ( Huguenots and Waldensians ) to settle. In 1699 she founded the Waldensian village of Charlottenberg, named after her, not far from Holzappel .

The Nassau-Schaumburg line died out in the male line as early as 1676 with its founder Adolf, and the county began due to the marriage of his daughter Charlotte von Nassau-Schaumburg (1672–1700) with Lebrecht von Anhalt-Bernburg (1669–1727) the house of Anhalt-Bernburg . Thus the branch line Anhalt-Bernburg-Schaumburg-Hoym was established. As part of the Rhine Federation Act in 1806, the county of Holzappel was incorporated into the Duchy of Nassau and part of the Diez office there . The old rulers still had civil status privileges.

The branch line Anhalt-Bernburg-Schaumburg-Hoym extinct in the male line on 24 December 1812 the Prince Victor II. Were the civil gorgeous rights to the county Holzappel-Schaumburg and the ownership of the located there goods across his eldest daughter Hermione to their Husband, Archduke Joseph Anton of Austria († 1847) and then passed on to her son, Archduke Stefan . In the course of the revolution in 1848, Stefan had to leave his homeland Hungary and subsequently called himself Prince von Schaumburg. From 1850 to 1855 he lavishly rebuilt the Schaumburg in a neo-Gothic form into today 's Schaumburg Castle . After his childless death in 1867, the county fell to his nephew, Prince Georg Ludwig von Oldenburg (1855–1939). Georg Viktor (Waldeck-Pyrmont) raised an objection and litigated up to the Imperial Court , which in 1887 gave him the right of last resort and awarded him the county. The county was dissolved in 1918.

From 1643 to 1806 Anhalt-Bernburg , previously Count von Holzappel, had a seat in the Westphalian Imperial Counts College .


In the 17th century, the County of Holzappel included:

See also



  • Meyers Konversationslexikon, pp. 411-412
  • Martin Brück: Politics in the 'Duodezformat' - Origin and development of the imperial county Holzappel-Schaumburg in the second half of the 17th century. State examination thesis, Department of Modern History, Eberhard Karls University Tübingen, 2007

Individual evidence

  1. ^ H. Grote : Stammtafeln , Leipzig 1877
  2. ^ Martin Brück: Politics in Duodec format. In: Nassau Annals. 121. 2010. p. 47
  3. a b Wilhelm von der Nahmer: Handbuch des Rheinischen Particular-Rechts: Development of the territorial and constitutional conditions of the German states on both banks of the Rhine: from the first beginning of the French Revolution up to the most recent times . tape 3 . Sauerländer, Frankfurt am Main 1832, p. 576 ( online at Google Books ).