Standesherrschaft ( free class rule in Silesia ) was the name given to some territorial administrative units in the kingdoms of Saxony and Prussia , as well as the Austrian Empire from the 18th to the 20th century. They had emerged from dominions and belonged to a gentleman .
Since around the 13th century, individual rulers became visible in Niederlausitz , with their own jurisdiction and feudal rights, but which belonged to the margraviate. In 1669 the rulers in the state parliament were: Neuzelle , Dobrilugk , Friedland and Schenkendorf , as well as Forst-Pförten , Sorau , Spremberg , Leuthen , Sonnewalde , Drehna , Straupitz , Lieberose , Lübbenau and Amtitz . This classification was formally in place until the early 19th century.
After 1815 of these remained in the Kingdom of Prussia, now referred to as civil lords :
- Jurisdiction Amtitz
- Dominion Drehna
- Jurisdiction Forst-Pförten (see Herrschaft Forst and Herrschaft Pförten )
- Leuthen rulership
- Dominion Lieberose
- Lübbenau civil status
- Dominion Sonnewalde
- Dominion Straupitz .
Their rights have been limited since 1823, and in 1849 the independent jurisdiction was abolished. The registrars remained members in the provincial estates and in the Prussian mansion (except for the office). The estates existed partially until 1945.
In Upper Lusatia there had existed as privileged lordships under Wettin, Luxembourg and Bohemian feudal sovereignty from around the 14th century
Together they formed one of the three states of Upper Lusatia
- In 1562 the rule of Königsbrück was formed.
All four lords became Saxon in 1635 . After 1815, Königsbrück and Reibersdorf remained with Saxony.
Kingdom of Bohemia
- from 1452 Pless from the Duchy of Pless , from 1462 secondary education for Bohemian princes, from 1765 secondary education for the princes of Anhalt-Köthen , then counts of Hochberg , later elevated to princes of Pless .
- from 1489 Groß-Wartenberg first the lords of Haugwitz , then the barons of Maltzan , then the counts of Dohna , the lords of Braun, and finally the princes Biron of Curland ,
- from 1492 Trachenberg (first the Kurzbach , then the Schaffgotsch , finally belonging to the Hatzfeldt ),
- from 1494 Militsch (first the Kurzbach, then until 1945 the Count of Maltzan ). These were all removed from the Duchy of Oels and survived until 1945.
On November 14, 1697, Emperor Leopold I created two registrations that existed until 1945:
- Beuthen on the Oder (Prince Schoenaich-Carolath ), laterelevatedto the Principality of Beuthen
- (Upper) Beuthen in Upper Silesia (Count Henckel von Donnersmarck ).
Kingdom of Prussia
After the conquest of Silesia, the kings of Prussia also established new free class lords .
- The largest of them was Goschütz (8245 ha) in the Groß-Wartenberg district and belonged to the Counts of Reichenbach until 1945 .
- In 1815 the already existing rulers of Muskau in Upper Lusatia became part of Silesia
Since the 16th century the status was minority rule ( status minor ) mentioned in Silesia. Since the 18th century these have been referred to as minor class rule , or rarely also free minor class rule .
- Loslau , 1515 from Duchy Loslau formed
- Bielitz ,spun offfrom the Duchy of Teschen in1572, in 1752 in free class rule , in 1754 again raised to the Duchy of Bielitz .
- Friedek , spun off from the Duchy of Teschen in 1573
- Sulau bei Militsch, formed in 1654 (3730 ha), Count of Schweinitz .
- Freyhan bei Militsch , formed in 1660 (2432 ha), Count von Pückler ;
- Neuschloss (today: Nowy Zamek ) near Militsch (5237 ha), the Count of Reichenbach- Neuschloß, later the Count of Hochberg by inheritance ;
- Miinsterberg , by 1742 from Duchy Miinsterberg formed
- Olbersdorf in Austrian Silesia, formed in 1772
Status and rights
The free noblemen had a seat and vote on the Silesian Princely Congress since the early 16th century in the first curia with the princes (Militsch, Trachenberg and Wartenberg one vote together), and stood under the King of Bohemia (later: Prussia) as liege lords. They had the right of direct and indirect jurisdiction , church patronage and supervision of the school system in their areas. Their dwarf states had their own judicial and government agencies with bombastic titles such as "Chancellor" and "Government Chancellor".
Around 1830 these privileges of the free class lords were abolished by the Prussian state, but the institution and the rank of the free class lords remained nominally until the time after the First World War and was only abolished in the Weimar Republic .
Kingdom of Saxony
The Counts of Solms-Baruth had the following estates in the 19th century
- Baruth rulership , rulership since the 13th century, first Ascanic, then Electoral Saxon, since 1815 as rulership of Prussia
- Dominion of Sonnewalde (see Niederlausitz) 1815 to Prussia
- Dominion Wildenfels
- Jurisdiction Glauchau
- Hartenstein rulership
- Lichtenstein rulership
- Neighborhood stone
- Dominion Waldenburg
- Silesian Goods Address Book , Breslau 1937
- Freye rulers. In: Johann Heinrich Zedler : Large complete universal lexicon of all sciences and arts . Volume 9, Leipzig 1735, column 1865.