|coat of arms||Germany map|
|State :||Lower Saxony|
|Height :||63 m above sea level NHN|
|Area :||68.84 km 2|
|Residents:||19,330 (Dec. 31, 2019)|
|Population density :||281 inhabitants per km 2|
|Postal code :||31675|
|Primaries :||05722, 0571|
|License plate :||SHG, RI|
|Community key :||03 2 57 009|
|LOCODE :||DE BCB|
|City structure:||13 districts|
City administration address :
|Mayor :||Reiner Brombach ( SPD )|
|Location of the city of Bückeburg in the Schaumburg district|
Bückeburg is a town in the Schaumburg district of Lower Saxony with around 19,000 inhabitants. From 1640/47 it was the capital of the county of Schaumburg-Lippe , from 1807 of the principality and from 1919 to 1946 the capital of the republican Free State . Bückeburg is about 50 kilometers west of Hanover and 10 kilometers east of Minden on the Harrl ridge and borders directly on the state of North Rhine-Westphalia to the west, south and north . The city is the seat of the Lower Saxony State Court .
Bückeburg is located immediately north of the Weserbergland on the edge of the North German Plain . The lowest point in the city is 45 meters above sea level. NN in the district of Cammer, the highest point is at 211 meters above sea level. NN the Harrl, on which the Idaturm stands.
The city has 8 districts: Achum , Bergdorf , Cammer , Evesen , Meinsen-Warber , Müsingen , Rusbend and Scheie . The Knatensen community was incorporated into the municipality in 1939. Berenbusch , Nordholz , Petzen and Röcke were merged with Evesen in 1939 to form a large community. In the town of Bückeburg, the previously independent places Jetenburg and Kornmasch have also risen.
To the east of Bückeburg, the following cities and municipalities, all of which belong to the Schaumburg district, are: Samtgemeinde Niedernwöhren , Samtgemeinde Nienstädt , Stadt Obernkirchen , Samtgemeinde Eilsen . Otherwise, the city borders on cities in North Rhine-Westphalia in three directions : south to Porta Westfalica , west to Minden and north to Petershagen .
Bückeburg is crossed by the Mittelland Canal north of the city center, above the districts of Rusbend and Berenbusch . Furthermore, the Bückeburger Aue flows through the urban area of the former royal seat, more precisely through the districts of Achum, Meinsen, Warber and Cammer. The Schlossbach, which crosses the city center and flows into the Schlossgraft, and the Rennriehe are tributaries of the Bückeburger Aue. Other streams within the city limits are the Harrler Trift, the Schölbeeke, the Schermbeeke, the Maulbeeke, the Schöpe, the Rothe and the Deppenbach. Standing waters within the city limits are the Gevattersee , the Hofwiesenteiche and the Wietser Teiche.
The climate in Bückeburg is considered to be moderately warm and there is a comparatively high amount of rainfall throughout the year. The average is 739 mm per year. The driest month is February, the wettest July. The warmest month is July, the coldest January. The average temperature for a year is 10.8 ° C.
Average monthly temperatures and precipitation for Bückeburg
The traces of the first settlement point to the time around 4000 BC. BC back. In the local history museum, spherical mill runners (hand millstones) as well as the numerous stone axes found in the Bückeburg area testify to the people of the Neolithic Age . They lived in the then sparse forests and, in a mild climate, practiced arable farming that was more comparable to horticulture; when the soil was exhausted, people moved on. (P. 18)
When the Bronze Age began around 2000 BC BC the climate had become drier and warmer, people in the Bückeburg area also lived mainly from the forest pastures. With the onset of the Iron Age around 800 BC BC the climate became noticeably more humid, the forests became thicker and more swampy. Scientists consider the small number of finds from the Bronze and Iron Ages to be an indication that the natural conditions no longer allowed for a longer settlement period. It is also known that the resident Germanic tribe of the Cherusci gave up this area around 200 AD without a fight. (P. 19)
In the Middle Ages, the swampy, boggy forest landscape around Bückeburg was called Bukkigau , which stretched as far as the Leine . The place name of Bückeburg is derived from this. He passed on the faded word buk , which means mold, moor, swamp. (P. 63) A name derivation from the beeches (red beeches) that often grew in the forests of that time is not available at Bückeburg.
The Bukkigau was first mentioned in documents during the time of the Saxons. Charlemagne moved back to the Rhine in 775 after a campaign against the Ostfalen on the Hellweg military road leading through this area before the Santforde . At that time and in the centuries that followed, several noblemen ruled the area. The Arnheimer controlled by their lowland castle Hus arene in North wood in today's space Biickeburg particular the old Saxon development nuclei in Petzen, skirts, Jetenburg, Müsingen, Scheie, and Warber Achum. These are living places that were already inhabited in the Neolithic Age. The Schaumburg counts ruled over large stretches of land to the right and left of the Weser near Rinteln. Ultimately, the noble family of the Schaumburgs also prevailed in the Bückeburg area. (P. 12, 18f.) (P. 120 f., 212 f.)
Adolf VI. Count von Schauenburg and Holstein-Pinneberg had a moated castle built near the long-standing, small settlements of Sutherem and Jetenburg around 1300 . The Bückeburg, first mentioned in 1304, as well as Sutherem and Jetenburg are the nucleus of today's city. Little by little farmers, craftsmen and feudal people of the Schaumburg counts settled around the castle. In 1365 Bückeburg was granted the right to stain . During this time four Burgmannshöfe were built: on Langen Straße (today: State Museum), on Sablé-Platz (today: Helicopter Museum), on Trompeterstraße (only one archway remains) and the fourth on the site of today's city church. The patch secured by ramparts and ditches grew slowly over the next three centuries. Count Johann IV. Had resided there since 1498, and had the Marienkirche built in 1510, which was not rebuilt after the fire of 1541. In the middle of the 16th century, Count Otto IV had the moated castle redesigned into a four-winged Bückeburg Palace . The spot in front of the castle had just about 300 inhabitants in 1561, 40 years later there were around 500. (p. 2) (p. 120f) (p. 2) (p. 59)
First growth spurt
The picture changed with Count Ernst zu Holstein-Schaumburg (later Prince Ernst), who made Bückeburg his permanent residence in 1607. Since then, the development of the city has been closely linked to that of the Schaumburg family. Under Ernst, the castle was rebuilt again and expanded with the court chamber building including the stables, ballroom and castle gate. Neue Straße, Sackstraße and the southern Bahnhofstraße were built, the streets were paved. The boys' school (today: city library) was built on Schulstrasse, not far from the castle gate the old town hall (predecessor of today's town hall) and the rent house opposite (today: town hall). At the time, gatehouses were built on the main connecting axis, which ran through the well-secured city fortress: in the west in the Mindener Strasse / Lange Strasse area the Untere Tor (also called Mindener Tor ), in the east the Obere Tor in the Obertorstrasse / Lange Strasse area.
Two dates mark the high point of Bückeburg's development during this time. In 1609 Ernst granted the town town charter. Between 1611 and 1615, the Bückeburg town church was built on arable land that was still free at that time . It is considered to be the second Protestant church ever built after the Reformation. (P. 62) (p. 121) (p. 2–12)
Thirty Years' War
During the Thirty Years War , mercenary troops were billeted in Bückeburg. The extent was less than in the neighboring town of Rinteln . Bückeburg survived the war halfway unscathed, for a time as a branch of the Minden fortress . One consequence of the war was that the previous county of Schaumburg was divided into two parts: its northern part became the county of Schaumburg-Lippe because, since Philip I, nobles from a branch line of the house of Lippe followed in the rule, who again chose the city as their residence. (P. 5 f.)
Baroque and Enlightenment
The architectural splendor as under Count Ernst was over, but intellectual life flourished in the following 150 years. The Enlightenment thinker, Voltaire , was a guest at the Bueckeburg court; the philosopher Thomas Abbt , the theologian and philosopher Johann Gottfried Herder and the musician and composer Johann Christoph Friedrich Bach lived in the city. Count Wilhelm was an important figure at this time . The military theorist had the Wilhelmstein fortress built in the Steinhuder Meer and the Baum hunting lodge and its mausoleum in the Schaumburg Forest as a step pyramid. The second wife of his successor Philip II , Countess Juliane , brought the Hessian physician Bernhard Christoph Faust to Bückeburg as personal physician and councilor, who made a contribution to the health of the rural population. The city benefited economically from this cultural bloom due to the presence of numerous well-to-do residents. (P. 7 ff.) In 1787 the Landgraviate of Hesse-Kassel occupied the state in the Bückeburg dispute , but was forced to retreat through intervention by the Electorate of Hanover and Prussia .
Second growth spurt
The small county of Schaumburg-Lippe emerged from the time of Napoleon and the Congress of Vienna under Count Georg Wilhelm without any territorial expansion. His economic dexterity laid the foundation for the previously financially weak house Schaumburg-Lippe to become a “very rich company” under his successors. (P. 11) Georg Wilhelm contributed one million Reichstaler (financed through a loan) to the construction of the Minden – Hanover railway line , which was then led past the outskirts of Bückeburg. The reception building of the station in the round arch style (of Julius Ruhl ) and the palace complex were joined by the grand wide Bahnhofstrasse. The former city wall had lost its function, the city had grown beyond it. Under Georg Wilhelm, the three city gates and the fountain on the market square were demolished, also as a tribute to the increasing traffic. (P. 11f) The widely visible Idaturm on the Harrl was built in 1847. Georg Wilhelm had it built at the request of his wife Ida so that the poorest of the poor had wages and bread. Shortly before his death in 1858, the foundation stone was laid for the Bethel Hospital, a foundation of the civil servant's daughter Luise von Vincke. (P. 127)
Under his successor Adolf Georg , Bückeburg became a Prussian garrison . Between Ulmenallee and Bergdorfer Straße , the Jäger barracks for the Westphalian Jäger Battalion No. 7, the “Bückeburger Jäger” , whose name lives on in the names of two orchestras, was built in 1867 . Not far from here, the Adolfinum grammar school was built on Ulmenallee between 1874 and 1876. Two further major construction projects began in the year Adolf Georg died. The castle was expanded considerably and received its current appearance. Opposite the hospital, the Herminen-Palais was built, an extensive complex with a representative residential building, orangery and, only in 2004, restored and publicly accessible park in the English landscape garden style. Under Georg , the state parliament received a new government building on Herminenstrasse in 1894; today the justice center is housed there. A residential area with large villas for wealthy citizens was built on Nordharrl between Ulmenallee, Adolfstrasse, Lülingstrasse and Herminenstrasse. In 1906 the new town hall was inaugurated on the market square.
Towards the end of the 19th century, Bückeburg became a cultural center of northern Germany, a garrison town and, as a residence , a representative government and official town, in which in 1904 there were already 5,625 people. (P. 110) However , this had hardly any impact on industrial development. Despite the settlement of some businesses, Bückeburg fell behind the economically prosperous neighboring towns of Stadthagen (mining), Obernkirchen (mining, glassworks) and Rinteln (glassworks). The construction of the Mittelland Canal, which crosses the city in the far north, also had no economic impact. (Pp. 14–17) Administratively, Bückeburg in the Principality of Schaumburg-Lippe belonged to the Bückeburg office, from 1879 to the Bückeburg-Arensburg office, which in 1884 became a district office and in 1899 was converted to the Bückeburg district . The city of Bückeburg initially remained independent and was incorporated into the district in 1934.
Last display of splendor
Adolf II , who came to power in 1911, changed the face of the city significantly. He had the mausoleum, the orchestra school (later the Bückeburg Army Music School ), the palm house and the “Fürst-Adolf-Werkstätte” built around the palace gardens. In Bad Eilsen to the east, the new spa center was built with the glamorous “Fürstenhof”, which at the time was one of the most elegant and largest hotels in Europe. The Kurfrische was connected to the royal seat in 1918 with the 6.7 km long small railway line of Bad Eilser Minchens . A huge horse racing track was to be built in the Eves “Gevatterfeld”. The project was abandoned after the November Revolution. Not so the project of another small train, with which the stately visitors should get directly from the Minden train station over the 12.5 kilometer long route leading through the middle of the village of Petzen to the racecourse. The first train ran on July 29, 1919 - the last only a year and a half later, because the railroad could not survive economically without a racetrack audience.
Around 1900 a number of well-known personalities lived and worked in the city. Richard Sahla was considered one of the best violinists of his time. In 1888 he came to the Bückeburg court and was chief conductor of the princely court orchestra until 1918. The writer Lulu von Strauss and Torney drew attention to herself with poems and short stories.
The writer and journalist Hermann Löns , already known then as a heath poet, was editor-in-chief of the Schaumburg-Lippische Landes-Zeitung from 1907 to 1909. He wanted to realize his novel projects in the quiet of the provinces. He spent a large part of his time in the restaurant "Zurfall" editing his manuscripts. The building is still a traditional restaurant and used to be a bank. The Heyne banking house was run from 1799 by a cousin of Heinrich Heine's grandfather . Lön's experiences in the provincial residence resulted in the biting satire Duodez about small states. To this day, this work by Löns has resulted in the Bückeburg population having a split relationship with him.
As a prince educator, Adolf Holst worked at the Bückeburger Hof from 1901 to 1913, from 1915 to 1918 he headed the court library. After his time in Bückeburg, he became known as the author of children's songs and stories.
When Adolf II abdicated in 1918, a workers 'and soldiers' council initially took over government. In the following 15 years, governments influenced by social democrats directed the fortunes of the small country, which was limited in its independence . Nevertheless, the city was still shaped by the conservative bourgeoisie. Pensioners who moved from the big cities let Bückeburg grow further. On April 1, 1928, Jetenburg was incorporated into Bückeburg. The village northeast of the city blocked its development. Adolf II returned to Bückeburg in 1927 and was enthusiastically received. As a major investor, however, he had failed within the democratic structures. The development of the economically backward city stagnated. The result was dissatisfaction among the population. (P. 18f)
Period of National Socialism and World War II
The city had long been an NSDAP stronghold when the Nazis took power in 1933. (P. 19) One of the first to feel this was Karl Wiehe : The German national mayor, who had been in office since the imperial era, was ousted in 1935 after he had defended himself in front of the Bückeburg Jews. Others also experienced the new spirit. On October 1, 1936, a "parade ground" (the former military training area ) was set up for the Wehrmacht in Röcker Feld . The farms of the villages of Röcke and Nammen located there were forcibly relocated, most of them to the "Kornmasch" in the north-west of the city. The villages of Knatensen and Selliendorf were incorporated into Bückeburg in 1939.
Wiehe's successor, the NSDAP mayor Albert Friehe , distinguished himself by allowing political opponents and Jews to be persecuted and harassed more severely than elsewhere. On November 9, 1938 , Bückeburg's synagogue also burned down without being completely destroyed. From 1939 onwards, many Jewish families were forcibly quartered in buildings that had been confiscated from Jewish property - including the synagogue. The church, estimated to be worth 22,000 Reichsmarks, was later to be owned by the city for 8,300 Reichsmarks, but the transfer did not take place. The Bückeburg Jews who had not been able to leave in time were deported from December 1942. Of 71 people displaced, only five survived the Holocaust .
The Petz parish pastor Wilhelm Mensching gave a completely different example than Friehe . From October 1943 to March 1944 he hid a Jewish woman from the Nazi henchmen in his rectory.
In three Allied bombing raids on Bückeburg there were 55 dead. The attack on October 26, 1944 was aimed at the Jäger barracks. Some outbuildings were hit and 29 people died. On November 5, 1944, the bombers targeted a group of workers on the vineyard, killing 20. A third attack followed on December 31, 1944, probably also targeting the Jäger barracks. However, the air mine went down in Bergdorf, destroyed several houses and killed six people.
The end of the war was approaching for Bückeburg on April 7, 1945. A US troop unit stood in front of the city and put it under artillery fire for several hours in preparation for the invasion. In the early morning of April 8th, the farm pharmacy tenant Wilhelm Kroseberg, the merchant Herbert Jöns, the innkeeper Albert Schütz and the master shoemaker Karl Schütte met the task force posted on the vineyard with a white bed sheet. At the same time, the master carpenter Friedrich Steinhof began to clear the anti-tank barriers that had been set up within sight of the soldiers at the entrance to the city . The US soldiers were able to take the city without a fight.
After the combat units had withdrawn, Bückeburg was occupied by British troops. They confiscated 80 houses in and around the city. They increased the prevailing housing shortage, because the city was still full of war evacuees, and at the same time more and more expellees poured in from the east. A bad episode in this context was the fate of the people who reached Bückeburg on the transport of expellees from Silesia, known as the “death train”, on the morning before Christmas Eve 1946. With 16 unheated cattle wagons , the train and its 1,543 occupants - including more than 1,100 old people, children and young people - had left Wroclaw a week earlier . On the way the temperatures dropped to minus 15 degrees. More than 70 people died, 17 of them still after they had reached Bückeburg.
The headquarters of the British Air Force (BAFO) were located in Bückeburg and neighboring Bad Eilsen from 1945 to 1954 as part of the occupation forces in Germany. In 1946 the British built a military airfield between Bückeburg and Achum using plans from the former German Air Force . Among other things, the space was used for a staff courier. During the Berlin blockade , cargo planes also took off from there to supply Berlin as part of the Airlift .
Drawing conclusions from his experiences during the Nazi era, Pastor Wilhelm Mensching founded the International Friendship Home on the vineyard in 1948, an (educational) institution that organized peace work until the early 1990s. Mensching was posthumously honored for his courageous behavior during the Nazi era in 2001 by the Israeli Yad Vashem memorial as “ Righteous Among the Nations ”.
Third growth spurt
1950s and 1960s
The war and the post-war period had caused the population to skyrocket. This is how the largest settlement surge in the city's history began. In 1939 Bückeburg still had 7850 inhabitants, in 1952 more than 12,000 people lived in the city limits. At that time there were still 700 people looking for accommodation, so the lack of living space was the most pressing problem. The main focus of a large-scale residential construction program was the free space on both sides of Petzer Strasse, where row and apartment buildings were created. Similar residential areas were built on Südharrl and between the Jäger barracks and Bergdorf. Large settlements ("Little London") were built between Nordharrl and Jäger-Kaserne for members of the British occupying forces. (P. 22f) The construction of living space continued unabated in the 1960s. Housing estates emerged on the Hofwiesen, between Plettenbergstrasse and Brandenburger Strasse, in Höppenfeld and Bergdorfer Feld. Construction continued in the Petzer Feld as well. A large residential and villa district grew on Südharrl. The result: In 1961 there were already twice as many residential buildings in Bückeburg as in 1931. (p. 21) The Bundeswehr took over the airfield in Achum in 1960 and built the Army Aviation School there including the shepherd barracks, named after the German fighter pilot Emil Schäfer (1891–1917) was named. Housing estates were built for the many soldiers, including in Höppenfeld.
Parallel to the procurement of housing, attempts were made to create jobs. Part of the new Petzer Feld development area - along Windmühlenstraße - was designated as an industrial area. In 1952 a lampshade factory (Liebener), a wire goods factory (Ellenbeck) and the Bückeburg GmbH glass factory started operations. A film factory (Neschen) and a machine factory (Berlin) were added later. In 1958, the Beste biscuit factory started operations there. A trouser manufacturer (Heinecke and Klaproth) relocated from Hanover, an optics factory (optical workshops) from Helmstedt to Bückeburg. The Mania road construction company set up shop at Südharrl. A department of the Bundesbahn-Versuchsamt moved into the building of today's Marienschule; Apartment blocks were built on Petzer Strasse for the employees. (P. 22f)
The growing population required an expansion of the social institutions. The first step was the construction of the mountain swimming pool: The outdoor swimming pool in Harrl was opened on June 27, 1959 and replaced the previous small outdoor swimming pool on Friedrich-Bach-Straße, on the premises of which further apartment blocks were later built. At the beginning of the 1960s, the evangelical retirement home was built on the Hofwiesen as a replacement for a facility previously housed in the “Münchhausen” Burgmannshof. Herderschule (1963) and then Dr. Faust Hall (gym and indoor swimming pool) and Dr. Faust sports field were built on Neumarktplatz. Since 1918 the "Eilser Minchen" had transported people from Bückeburg to Bad Eilsen and back; on May 21, 1966 the train service was stopped.
In 1955, Bückeburg became the seat of the Lower Saxony State Court ; the agency started its work two years later. In the mid-1960s, the Dr. Kurt Blindow down. The former schaumburg-Lippe ministerial building on Herminenstrasse, which had housed the regional court and public prosecutor's office since the early 1950s, and the neighboring Kruse Villa were linked by an extension in 1969 and expanded into a justice center. The district court, which until then had its seat in the former Renthaus (now Stadthaus II), moved in there.
The city now also forged international ties. The partnership with the small French town of Sablé sur Sarthe was sealed in 1966.
1970s and 1980s
In 1970 the commercial area Kreuzbreite was designated in the east of Bückeburg. The state of Lower Saxony built a correctional facility on its edge, which was used for the first time in the same year. Also in 1970 the city made the Münchhausen-Burgmannshof available for an extensive helicopter collection. The Helicopter Museum was inaugurated there on June 9, 1971, and its exhibition area was expanded by a 2000 square meter annex between 1978 and 1980. The school center was built on the Hofwiesen and in 1975 the Adolfinum Bückeburg grammar school moved into it. The building on Ulmenallee, in which the grammar school was previously housed, has been renovated and has since housed the Am Harrl primary school. In 1976 the Association of Independent Youth Center was founded. He was initially housed on Herderstrasse, later in the provisionally prepared former Latin school on Schulstrasse, until - like other associations - he moved into a wholesale house at the train station that had been converted into a municipal youth leisure center in the early 1980s. In order to create space for the rapidly growing motor traffic, the park pallet near the city center was built in 1978 on the eastern edge of the castle park . In 1979 the city invested in its sports facilities: The Jahn Stadium was given artificial turf, and the district sports hall, which had been built at the school center, was given an outdoor sports facility.
1974 was an important year: as a result of the regional reform, the urban area grew from 1,000 to almost 7,000 hectares. In the same year the partnership with the Dutch city of Nieuwerkerk was sealed.
In 1985 the renovation of the old Latin school on Schulstrasse began, to which the city library then moved. This was the first urban redevelopment project, an extensive funding program, by the end of which in 2004 a number of urban development measures had been implemented. The first included the conversion of the former Windt property into a meeting place, the redesign of Sablé-Platz and the renovation of Münchhausen-Burgmannshof (helicopter museum), a former farm pharmacy and state museum, also a former Burgmannshof. At the end of the 1980s, the Schmiedeweg industrial park was designated on the western edge of the city center, and in 1988 the Edeka Group was the first company to set up a meat and sausage factory.
The federal highway 65 used to run in a west-east direction through the middle of the city center, at the city church the B 83 branched off in a south-east direction. For decades, the city suffered from the steadily increasing volume of road traffic until the two bypass roads (north bypass B65, south bypass B83) were completed in 1990. Then the western part of Langen Strasse was expanded into a pedestrian zone and the market square was redesigned, which again received a fountain.
In 1998 the first houses were built in the Sprekelsholzkamp building area on Südharrl, the penultimate larger area that was still being developed as building land in the core city area. Since around the mid-1990s, the focus has been on designating new development areas in the districts and instead closing vacant lots in the city center. In the so-called “Little London” settlement - a total of 110 houses with around 150 apartments - 64 houses were privatized from 2001 after the British soldiers moved out. The last inner-city building area was developed in 2006: The Falkingsviertel was built on an industrial wasteland, on which the Kögel company had produced body superstructures for trucks until 1993.
Urban planners reserved open spaces on the edge of the center primarily for the settlement of trade and industry. In the year 2000 the industrial area Kreuzbreite was expanded considerably (Kreuzbreite II); At the same time, other smaller industrial areas were identified on the site of the former dairy on the northeastern outskirts of the city and on Steinberger Strasse. In addition, the city bought the area of the Mittellandkanal port in Berenbusch in 1997 and designated it as a commercial area.
Other important developments: The Bergbad am Harrl was extensively renovated from September 1994 to June 1995; Since then, the water in the swimming pool has been heated by solar energy. In 1992, the Dr. W. Blindow Schools moved into the vacant building of the former vocational school on Hinüberstrasse. In August 2000, the first Christian school in the Schaumburg district opened in the former British school in "Little London". The city itself built the primary school Im Petzer Feld in 1996 on an area previously used by the Bundeswehr, and a gymnasium was added in 2002.
Bückeburg is currently experiencing a real “building boom”. In particular, single-family houses and commercial space are in high demand. The city administration is concentrating primarily on closing vacant lots in the core city; However, they had to develop further new development areas, such as B. identify the new development area Am Bergdorfer Weg in order to meet the strong demand. In order to be able to cover the likewise rapidly increasing demand for commercial space, the city administration designated the 45,000 square meter area Kreuzbreite III north of Hans-Neschen-Straße at the beginning of 2017 .
On March 1, 1974, the communities Achum, Bergdorf, Cammer, Evesen, Meinsen, Müsingen, Rusbend, Scheie and Warber, the community-free area Baum and parts of Beckedorf, Luhden and Schöttlingen were incorporated.
(1961 on June 6th, 1970 on May 27th, each with the later incorporated towns; from 1987 on each December 31st)
In the demographic profile of the Bertelsmann Stiftung , Bückeburg is classified as “demographic type 8” (strongly aging municipalities). Although the report of the former royal seat predicts a population decline of −6.9% between 2012 and 2030, the number of residents of Bückeburg has increased again since 2013.
This development is due, on the one hand, to a slight increase in the birth rate, which in 2013 was 7.4 births per 1000 inhabitants and rose to 7.8 births per 1000 inhabitants by 2015, but mainly due to increased immigration. Families in particular decide to settle in Bückeburg. While the family migration to Bückeburg in 2013 amounted to 2.8 families per 1000 inhabitants, in 2015 it already amounted to 8.7 new families per 1000 inhabitants.
The city is the seat of the Evangelical Lutheran Regional Church Schaumburg-Lippe . The Evangelical Reformed community of Bückeburg holds services in the castle chapel . There is also a Roman Catholic parish in Bückeburg, which is also responsible for Bad Eilsen . The St. Marien Church was the seat of a deanery in the Diocese of Hildesheim until September 2012 . Today the community is part of the Weserbergland deanery. The religious community of Jehovah's Witnesses has its seat in the former synagogue . In addition, the Baptists with the Evangelical Free Church Community have their seat in the city.
There is a mosque for the members of Islam living in Bückeburg .
The city council has 33 members: 32 elected representatives from political groups and parties (2011: 34) and, by virtue of his office, the full-time mayor who was directly elected for the first time in 2005.
Since the local elections on September 11, 2016 , the seats in the body have been distributed as follows (for comparison also the number of seats in 2011):
|Party / list||SPD||CDU||GREEN||WE 1||BfB 2||FDP||total|
1 We for Bückeburg
2 Citizens for Bückeburg
The electoral term began on November 1, 2016 and ends on October 31, 2021.
Reiner Brombach (SPD) has been the full-time mayor since 2005. In the mayoral election on September 22, 2013, he was re-elected with 50.34 percent.
The budget of the city of Bückeburg has a total volume of 33.5 million in 2018, which marks a new high. As in previous years, it is balanced. In order to be able to make investments, however, loans amounting to 2.1 million euros must be taken out.
The per capita debt in 2014 was around 500 euros. The city of Bückeburg continues to perform some voluntary tasks that it is not obliged to do by law in order to keep the location attractive for citizens. For example, Bückeburg does not charge hall usage fees, keeps senior and youth leisure facilities accessible free of charge and subsidizes the local swimming pools with grants.
coat of arms
|Blazon : “The city's coat of arms shows on a silver (white) shield a red city gate bordered by two towers at the side, the opening of which is reinforced in the upper third with a silver (white) portcullis. On both spiers there are black, outward-facing flags with a silver (white) nettle leaf. Between the spiers on a red background, the Schaumburger nettle leaf in silver (white) and red with the Lippe rose floats. The coat of arms is crowned by a gold (yellow) city wall reinforced with five towers. "|
|Foundation of the coat of arms: The coat of arms awarded in 1907 goes back to a seal from the 15th century. It commemorates the city charter granted in 1609 and the earlier affiliation to the Principality of Schaumburg-Lippe .|
|Hoisted flag: "The flag is cross-striped in white, red and blue with the coat of arms in the middle."|
City partnerships exist between Bückeburg and
- Sablé-sur-Sarthe in the French region of Pays de la Loire , since 1966
- Nieuwerkerk aan den IJssel , today part of the municipality of Zuidplas in South Holland , since 1974
Culture and sights
On festive occasions, the women wore a linen shirt, a red band skirt with colored trimmings, an embroidered apron in many color variations, the doublet, an embroidered shoulder scarf, the ruff (here called a collar ), a breast scarf and knitted forearm warmers ( handbags ).
The most striking feature is the large black wing or bow hood with long ribbons, the so-called cap . A queder was tied around the waist .
The men wore white linen shirts, dark neck ties, long and short-sleeved vests with two rows of buttons, light-colored knee breeches and red-lined linen smocks. There was also a fur hat or the black church hat.
Wearing the Bückeburg costume and the traditions associated with it are still lived today in the Bückeburg costume groups and village youths. At the so-called harvest festivals , the costume groups perform traditional dances in Bückeburg costume, such as the windmill wing or the Freischütz .
The city is home to the Bückeburg Museum for City History and Schaumburg-Lippische Landesgeschichte as well as the Bückeburg Helicopter Museum .
The non-profit association for the preservation of historical fire- fighting vehicles , equipment and literature Bückeburg eV, founded in 1996 , began to build up a collection of fire-fighting equipment with the acquisition of a TLF 24 fire truck from 1957 in 1996. Since moving into the former accommodation of the civil protection and disaster control - together with the standby service of the German Red Cross Bückeburg - a museum has been built on the upper floor, the former training and office rooms, which is supposed to document the importance and the history of the five aid organizations active in Bückeburg . This museum houses the Arbeiter-Samariter-Bund, the German Red Cross, the German Lifesaving Society, the fire brigade and the technical relief organization.
Bückeburg has a charming city center. The Bückeburg city church was built in the Weser Renaissance style and is considered the most important church building of early Protestantism in Northern Germany. Immediately adjacent to the city center is Bückeburg Castle with the castle chapel , which has the same style. It is located in an extensive park, which also houses the mausoleum (built 1911–1915) of the former dynasty of Schaumburg-Lippe .
The (new) palace was built as a princely seat in 1896. During the Second World War it served as a reserve hospital. The British occupation forces used it as an officers' mess. Today a vocational school is housed here.
Green spaces and recreation
With the castle park, Bückeburg has an 80 hectare green area, which is located adjacent to the city center. It is named after the Bückeburg Castle , which is located within the castle park. The palace park was originally laid out around 1600 as a Renaissance garden. It has been redesigned several times in its history. It served, for example, as a baroque garden , fortress , orchard and kitchen garden, as well as a hunting park and golf course. In the south it borders on the nature reserve Hofwiesenteiche , in the south-west on the mausoleum park created in 1912. Another park is the listed palace garden, which was laid out in the 19th century.
Bückeburg also borders the wooded Harrl ridge , which is criss-crossed by some well-developed hiking trails. At the highest point at 211 m. ü. NN is the Idaturm , which with its attached restaurant is a popular destination for hikers.
The Bückeburger Niederung nature reserve is north of the city. The Bückeburger Aue flows through it and is the habitat of numerous endangered bird species. Furthermore, the nature reserve Wietser Teiche and the nature reserve Hofwiesenteiche are located within the city limits.
The Bückeburger Jäger brass orchestra was founded in 1949 by the former staff music master of the Army Music School, Paul Prager, and has developed into one of the most famous brass ensembles in Germany to this day. A big band with the same name but with professional musicians grew out of this formation. Since July 1958, this group has been a guest at the North Sea spa in Cuxhaven as a spa orchestra.
Bückeburg is the seat of the children's and youth choir Schaumburger Märchensänger , which achieved a worldwide surprise success in 1954 with the song "Derrohliche Wanderer" ("The Happy Wanderer"). The song even made it into the UK singles charts.
According to Prince Alexander zu Schaumburg-Lippe , the currywurst was not, as it is so often called, invented in Berlin in 1949 by widow Herta Heuwer , but in Bückeburg by master chef Ludwig Dinslage. He found evidence of this in the archives of Schloss Bückeburg . According to this, Ludwig Dinslage, then head chef of the castle kitchen, is said to have served the dish to soldiers of the British Rhine Army as early as 1946. The sauce consisted of apricot jam, tomato ketchup, curry and salt. In the edition of the Westfalenpost of September 12, 1984, an article with the headline “Warsteiner served Brits 38 years ago Currywurst - the hour of birth in Bückeburg Castle” appeared, which also contained a quote from Dinslage's wife: “I I can still remember exactly how my husband came home and proudly told of his success with the new sauce for the bratwurst. "
sport and freetime
Bückeburg offers a wide range of sports, which is organized by over 30 sports clubs. In addition to numerous popular sports such as football , volleyball , hockey , baseball , athletics and swimming , less common sports such as gliding , diving or rowing can also be practiced in Bückeburg . In addition, shooting has a long tradition in Bückeburg and is practiced in several shooting clubs.
The VfL Bückeburg with over 1,900 members, the most important sports club in Bückeburg, which besides its large membership, football department over nearly 30 other sports from the amateur sports. The first men's team of VfL competes in the Lower Saxony regional soccer league . Home games take place in the 3,000-seat Jahn Stadium.
Economy and Infrastructure
Along with the other two large cities, Stadthagen and Rinteln, Bückeburg is an important business location in the Schaumburg district . The service sector has by far the largest share in the domestic economy. Tourism is also playing an increasingly important role for Bückeburg's economy.
Company headquarters in Bückeburg
- Farm, meat and sausage producer with around 800 employees in the city
- Neschen , manufacturer of coated self-adhesive and digital printing media, around 300 employees in Bückeburg (2016)
- Precima, magnet technology, 160 employees
- dbl Eggers textile care, rental textiles, approx. 200 employees
- GEMAC, storage technology and separation systems
- SE Spezial-Electronic, manufacturer of special electronics
- Kögel , vehicle construction (location closed in 1992)
- Kronenwerke, brewery and later margarine factory, today the venue
The local daily newspaper with headquarters in Bückeburg is the Schaumburg-Lippische Landes-Zeitung . In addition, the Schaumburger Nachrichten and the online newspaper Bückeburg Lokal report on topics from the former royal seat.
Tourism is significant in Bückeburg due to the historical buildings in the former royal seat. The city is an excursion destination for nationally known events, such as the country party or the Christmas magic in the castle. In addition to these two major events, the Medieval Fantasy Spectaculum is also worth mentioning, which is held at 15 other locations in addition to Bückeburg. In 2018, Bückeburg replaced the largest MPS venue in Hamburg-Öjendorf in terms of visitor numbers.
There is a gastronomic offer in the city with over 20 restaurants. There are also a number of options for overnight stays in hotels, guest houses, holiday apartments or caravan sites. The number of overnight stays in Bückeburg amounted to 27,897 in 2015, an increase of 1.7 percent compared to the previous year.
According to a ranking carried out by "Travelcircus" , in which over 1,000 small towns were analyzed with regard to their number of hashtags on the Instagram social network , Bückeburg took 42nd place with a number of 10,292 hashtags. In the following year, Bückeburg was able to work its way up to 34th place with a total of 18,500 hashtags. In 2020, 29,100 postings were made in 29th place and the city was awarded the "Instagram Star Award ".
The Bundeswehr maintains the Jäger barracks and an army airfield in Bückeburg . The International Helicopter Training Center and the 2nd Company of Sergeant / Sergeant Candidate Battalion 2 are stationed here .
The Lower Saxony State Court , the Regional Court of Bückeburg and the District Court of Bückeburg serve the judiciary, and the Bückeburg public prosecutor is responsible for prosecution and enforcement . The youth detention center Bückeburg , a department of the Hameln youth center with 40 detention places, was closed on January 1st, 2012 due to insufficient occupancy and need for renovation. The detention places were taken over by the Verden department of the Vechta correctional facility .
Lower Saxony State Archives - State Archives Bückeburg is one of seven locations of the Lower Saxony State Archives .
- Primary school Am Harrl
- Elementary School Evesen
- Meinsen-Warber primary school
- Elementary school in the Petzer field
- Immanuel School - Elementary School, Free Christian School
- Graf-Wilhelm-Schule - secondary school (to be discontinued, merged with the Herderschule to form the new secondary school)
- Herderschule - Realschule (expiring, merged with Graf-Wilhelm-Schule to form the new secondary school)
- High School Bückeburg
- High school Adolfinum Bückeburg
- Former rural women’s school, today a branch of the Rinteln vocational schools
- Schaumburg Fairy Tale Singers Music School
- Bernd Blindow Schools
- Dr. Kurt Blindow Schools
- Schools Dr. Wolfgang Blindow
- DIPLOMA - FH North Hesse
The city is on federal highway 65 and at the north end of federal highway 83 . The east-west long-distance connection of the federal motorway 2 can be reached via the B 83, which passes the city a few kilometers south.
In 2013 the city decided on a bicycle traffic concept according to which the infrastructure for bicycle traffic should be further expanded. The tourist cycle route "Landtour Bückeburg" connects the city with a round trip through the surrounding area.
Bückeburg has been connected to the railway network since 1848. (P. 175) The route on the northern edge of the city center leads in a south-westerly direction to Cologne and from there to Paris and in an easterly direction to Hanover and on via Berlin to Warsaw. The Biickeburg station located at the railway line Hannover-Minden and hourly from RE trains on to Hannover - Braunschweig and Minden - wages (continued every two hours until Bielefeld or Osnabruck - Rheine ) served. These services have been provided by Westfalenbahn since December 13, 2015 . Since 2000, Bückeburg has also been connected to the Hanover S-Bahn network.
The Mittelland Canal , which opened near Bückeburg in 1916, passes the city center around five kilometers to the north. (P. 275) Bückeburg is connected to this federal waterway via the ports of Bückeburg . The first port, which also has a rail connection, was built in the district of Berenbusch and in 1974 the land in Rusbend was incorporated .
The nearest airport is Hanover Airport in Langenhagen , which can be reached via the federal motorway 2 and the S-Bahn. Airfields for smaller sports aircraft are in the neighboring towns of Rinteln , 10 km away, and Porta Airport in Porta Westfalica is 20 km away. In addition, Bückeburg owns an airfield that is used by the Bundeswehr, as well as a glider airfield located south of the city in the meadows to Kleinenbremen .
sons and daughters of the town
- Philip I. Count of Schaumburg-Lippe (1601–1681), founder of the ruling line of the Schaumburg-Lippe family
- Adolph Wilhelm Rottmann (1616–1689), Protestant theologian
- Friedrich Christian Count of Schaumburg-Lippe (1655–1728), sovereign of Schaumburg-Lippe
- Albrecht Wolfgang Graf zu Schaumburg-Lippe (1699–1748), military and military leader, sovereign of Schaumburg-Lippe
- Heymann Heine , actually Chaijm Bückeburg (unknown –1780), merchant in Hanover, grandfather of the writer Heinrich Heine
- Johann Christoph Dommerich (1723–1767), Lutheran theologian and philosopher
- Jakob Heinrich Meister (1744–1826), German-Swiss theologian, enlightener and co-editor of Correspondance littéraire, philosophique et critique
- Wilhelm Friedrich Ernst Bach (1759–1845), musician and composer
- Friedrich Accum (1769-1838), chemist
- Gottfried von Herder (physician) (1774–1806), court medic in Weimar, son of Johann Gottfried Herder
- Sigismund August Wolfgang von Herder (1776–1838), geologist and mineralogist, son of Johann Gottfried Herder
- Ernst Wilhelm Meyer (1779–1868), organ builder
- Georg Wilhelm (1784–1860), first Prince of Schaumburg-Lippe, ensured that the city was connected to the Minden – Hanover railway line
- Carl Ludwig Althans (1788–1864), Prussian mountain ridge, head of the royal Prussian hut in Sayn
- Clemens von Althaus (1791–1836), liberation fighter
- Heinrich Strack (1805–1880), architect of the Schinkel School, built the Berlin Victory Column, among other things
- Viktor von Strauss and Torney (1809–1899), princely schaumburg-Lippe ministers
- Ernst Heinrich Meier (1813–1866), orientalist and narrative researcher (born in Rusbend)
- Adolf I. Georg (1817–1893 ibid), Prince of Schaumburg-Lippe
- Lothar von Strauss and Torney (1835–1903), Prussian major general
- Otto Karlowa (1836–1904), legal scholar and Romanist
- Hugo von Strauss and Torney (1837–1919), Prussian District Administrator, Senate President at the Higher Administrative Court in Berlin
- Wilhelm Begemann (1843–1914), Masonic historian
- Georg (Schaumburg-Lippe) (1846–1911), Prince of Schaumburg-Lippe
- Karl Fuhr (1853–1917), classical philologist and teacher
- Max Ballerstedt (1857–1945), was a teacher at the Adolfinum grammar school, he made great contributions in paleontology
- Hans Battermann (1860–1922), astronomer in Berlin and Königsberg
- Rudolf von Campe (1860–1939), District President in Minden
- Lulu von Strauss and Torney (1873–1956), writer
- Hermann Muckermann (1877–1962), biologist and anthropologist
- Friedrich Muckermann (1883–1946), religious priest, publicist
- Gertrud Leistikow (1885–1948), dancer and choreographer
- Richard Muckermann (1891–1981), politician of the German Center Party
- Kurt von Plettenberg (1891–1945), forester and member of the inner circle of the resistance from July 20, 1944
- Karl Rust (1891–1960), Mayor of the city of Minden
- Wilhelm von Apell (1892–1969), Lieutenant General
- Karl Dreier (1898–1974), politician (NSDAP), state president of the Free State of Schaumburg-Lippe
- Richard Sahla (1900–1942), show jumper
- Friedrich Wilhelm Räuker (1928–2015), journalist and broadcast director
- Les Scheinflug (* 1938), Australian football player and coach
- Helga Botermann (* 1938), ancient historian
- Rainer Kaune (* 1945), author, educator
- Johannes Kramer (* 1946), Romance studies specialist, linguist and university professor
- Hans Heinrich Driftmann (1948–2016), officer, entrepreneur, President of the German Chamber of Commerce and Industry
- Wolfgang Ebeling (* 1951), mathematician
- Jürgen Paschke (* 1952), publicist, federal chairman of the Blue Cross
- Karsten Mützelfeldt (* 1958), journalist, radio presenter
- Michael Hull (* 1959), most successful German professional dancer of all time, ten-time world champion
- Bernd Schütte (* 1961), medieval historian
- Jürgen Janek (* 1964), physical chemist
- Nané Lénard (* 1965), author, real name Nicole-Annette Leonhard
- Peter Trabner (* 1969), actor
- Timo Maas (* 1969), techno and house DJ
- Katrin Engelking (* 1970), children's book illustrator
- Massimilian Porcello (* 1980), football player
- Marja-Liisa Völlers (* 1984), politician
- Fräulein Plastique (* 1986), model, singer with the band Welle: Erdball
- Ruwen Filus (* 1988), table tennis player, member of the German national team
- Andre Schiebler (* 1991), member of the German music and comedian trio ApeCrime
- Christopher Bolte (* 1992). Musician and music producer
- Daniel Masur (* 1994), professional tennis player
- Luna Bulmahn (* 1999), professional athlete
- Lilly Blaudszun (* 2001), politician (SPD) and influencer
People connected to the city
- Johann Kasimir von Monkewitz (1722–1789), Lieutenant Colonel of the Schaumburg-Lippe-Bückeburg Carabinier and Jäger Corps in the Seven Years' War and lived in Bückeburg until his death.
- Johann Christoph Friedrich Bach (1732–1795), musician and composer, became a member of the court orchestra in 1750, took over its leadership in 1755 and was the court conductor at the Bückeburg court from 1755 until his death in 1795.
- Thomas Abbt (1738–1766), writer and philosopher, 1765 to 1766 schaumburg-Lippian court, government and consistorial councilor as well as Patronus scholarum.
- Johann Gottfried Herder (1744–1803), poet, theologian and philosopher, worked from 1771 to 1775 as chief preacher, superintendent and consistorial councilor in Bückeburg.
- Bernhard Christoph Faust (1755–1842), physician, was from 1788 to 1842 councilor and personal physician to the Princely House.
- Josef Heyne, a cousin of Heinrich Heine's grandfather , ran a banking business from 1799, in whose house the “Zurfall” inn was later set up.
- Baroness Louise Lehzen (1784–1870), governess of Queen Victoria from 1814 to 1842 , lived in Bückeburg from 1842 until her death in 1870.
- Iwan Müller (1786–1854), composer and instrument maker.
- Karl von Plettenberg (1852–1938), General of the Infantry, lived in Bückeburg.
- Richard Sahla (1855–1931), violinist and conductor, was chief conductor of the royal court orchestra from 1888 to 1918; he died in Bückeburg in 1931.
- Hermann Löns (1866–1914), journalist and writer, was editor of the Schaumburg-Lippische Landes-Zeitung from 1907 to 1909.
- Wilhelm Külz (1875–1948), politician, was mayor from 1904 to 1912, from 1909 mayor of Bückeburg and in 1926 Minister of the Interior in the cabinets of Chancellors Hans Luther and Wilhelm Marx .
- Karl von Bodecker (1875–1957), German Rear Admiral in the Navy, lived in Bückeburg until his death
- Wilhelm Mensching , pastor in Petzen (1920 to 1952), hid a Jewish woman from the Nazis in the parsonage from 1943 to 1944 and was honored for this in 2001 by the Israeli Yad Vashem memorial with the title “Righteous Among the Nations”; founded the International Friendship Home at the Bückeburg vineyard in 1948 .
- Ernst Torgler (1893–1963), politician, KPD parliamentary group chairman in the Reichstag from 1929 to 1933 and one of the defendants in the Reichstag fire trial , worked from 1945 to 1948 in the Bückeburg city administration.
- Bernhard Sturtzkopf (1900-1972), architect, a representative of the New Building , lived in Bückeburg until his death
- Heinrich Goertz (1911-2006), set designer, dramaturge, painter, journalist and writer, died in Bückeburg
- Karl Lieffen (1926–1999), actor, was trained at the Army Music School.
- Willy Schnell (* 1927), oboist and member of the Württemberg State Orchestra and the Stuttgart Bach Academy , was trained at the Army Music School.
- Hans Blum (* 1928), pianist, bassist, pop composer, was trained at the Army Music School.
- James Last (1929–2015), bassist, composer and band leader, was trained at the Army Music School.
- Horst "Hackl" Fischer (1930–1986), trumpeter, was trained at the Army Music School.
- Helmut Preul (1933–2001), repeatedly honorary mayor of the city of Bückeburg, holder of the Federal Cross of Merit, holder of the Oranje-Nassau order of the Dutch Queen, a rare honor for German citizens.
- Hans-Jochen Jaschke (* 1941), auxiliary bishop in the Archdiocese of Hamburg , grew up in Bückeburg.
- Heinrich Christian Rust (* 1953), Baptist theologian and book author, grew up in Bückeburg.
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