HI signaling system

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
HI signal shows signal image HI 12a
HI distant signal here as repeater

HI signals (pronounced: HL) are railway signals that have been used as main and distant signals by the German State Railroad (DR) in the GDR since 1959 .

As part of the development of daylight signals to replace the outdated formal signals , the railway administrations of the Organization for the Cooperation of Railways (OSJD) agreed on this largely standardized signaling system. It is characterized by the combination of pre- signal and main signal functions as a multi-section signal on a single signal screen. The maximum permitted speed is signaled by different arrangements of colored lights (below main signal aspect and above distant signal aspect). The introduction of the HI signals at the Deutsche Reichsbahn took place in the course of new signal box construction , during modernization work on existing signal boxes and also through the replacement of individual shape signals. In particular, mechanical approach signals with a long travel range have been replaced by light signals since the 1960s. In contrast to the Deutsche Bundesbahn (DB), the DR also equipped interlockings of the old designs to varying degrees with light signals, so that they represented the most widespread design before the introduction of the Ks system . New electromechanical and (rarely) mechanical signal boxes were also built. d. Usually equipped with HI signals.

Signal aspects

The combination of pre- and main signal function on the one hand and four different speed levels (40 km / h, 60 km / h, 100 km / h and maximum route speed) resulted in a total of 17 different signal patterns (Hl 1 to Hl 12b plus stop concept Hl 13, according to 1990 in the uniform main signal stop concept Hp 0) whereby the valid speed from the signal location is indicated by the light points in the lower part of the signal screen. No light means line speed, a yellow one ("yellow 2") means 40 km / h. This speed is increased with additional light strips, with yellow to 60 and with green to 100 km / h. The maximum speed to be expected on the following signal is indicated by the upper light point. Yellow ("yellow 1") parking light means "expect stop", yellow flashing "expect driving at 40 or 60 km / h", green flashing "expect driving at 100 km / h" and green was "expect driving at top speed". If there is no main signal in the braking distance, then yellow 1 and the flashing light are omitted. HI signals, which are only used as distant signals, have only two lamps, yellow and green. Since the additionally attached colored light strips increase the speed from 40 km / h to 60 km / h (yellow) and to 100 km / h (green), the lower visibility of the lights does not represent a safety risk.

Signal lanterns for light points that are not required at a signal location are not installed and the openings in the signal screen are closed by blind covers. Since the mid-1960s there have been two types of Hl signal screens. The smaller one with up to four main signal lanterns is used for block signals in the automatic section block without shortened braking distances, for pre-signals and for main signals that cannot show a main signal travel concept, for example as the delimitation of an entrance road, the larger one with up to five main and two secondary signal lanterns in all other cases. Double filament lamps are only used for the stop term in dwarf main signals. With the exception of signals in EZMG control boxes, the red lantern is doubled for reliability and for visibility that is identical to the main red . If another lantern fails, the next possible signal aspect is switched on. If it concerns yellow 1 or 2, the signal remains in the stop position. Because of the significantly shorter lighting time in relation to the stopping term and the long shelf life of the flat core filament lamps, the lack of replacement threads for the driving terms is justifiable.

HI signal in the compact umbrella in Hohen Neuendorf (b Berlin)

In the case of interlockings from foreign manufacturers, their signal designs were mostly used, but adapted to the German HI system. Examples of this are the typical signals of the EZMG interlockings with the boom for the second light of the shunting signal, interlocking systems imported from Czechoslovakia in lignite mining with signal screens composed of individual, square signal lanterns or interlockings supplied by German manufacturers in the former West Berlin. Easy to recognize in the Berlin-Marienfelde train station , also with specially developed light strips and the necessary control.

If an HI signal is used as the main signal , it receives the relevant mast sign , whereby red and white-black-white-black-white are only used on the lines of the Berlin direct current S-Bahn . Pure pre-signals (which cannot show a stopping point) are marked by the pre-signal board Ne 2 regardless of the possible number of signal points . Advance signal repeaters receive a white square board with a black border and black ring and are not announced by advance signal beacons. The identification of main signals with pre-signaling by a yellow, downward-pointing triangle under the mast sign, introduced with the Ks signals, was introduced at the same time for Hl signals.

There is one exception that does not fit into the system in railway operations in mining, especially in lignite mining. Because the permissible speeds there are well below 100 km / h, the green flashing light in its original meaning is not necessary. In order to reduce effort, the signal aspect Hl 4a was introduced, which signals “expect stop” with a green flashing light. The use of this term saves having to equip the signals concerned with a yellow (pure pre-signals) or yellow-1 lantern (main signals with pre-signaling).

After the German reunification , it became necessary to standardize the different signal systems in the eastern and western federal states. Instead of the Hl or the H / V signal system common in West Germany, the joint board of the Deutsche Reichsbahn and Bundesbahn decided to develop the new Ks signal system . In contrast to the HI system, this manages with fewer light points, allows with the Zs 3 a broader differentiation of the permissible speeds and does not conflict with the existing signal systems. The last point - the signal image Hl 3a (travel at 40 km / h, then at maximum speed) cannot be distinguished from Hp 2 as a light signal of the H / V system (slow travel) for locomotive personnel and, apart from the non-existent mast sign, sees the light signal concept Vr 2 (expect slow travel) similar - when the Hl signal system was introduced, it also affected the Deutsche Reichsbahn and, as then, could have been solved by swapping the yellow and green light points at Vr 2 of the H / V pre-signals. Compared to the Ks system, the HI system offers fewer speed levels that can be signaled, but the signal terms are clearly recognizable from a much greater distance because they do not use digits.

No controls for Hl signals were developed for electronic interlockings , none for Ks signals for previous interlocking technology.


The HI signal system contains the following signal aspects 1

Hl 1
ride at top speed
Hl 2
drive at 100 km / h,
then at top speed
Hl 3a
drive at 40 km / h,
then at top speed
Hl 3b
drive at 60 km / h,
then at top speed
Saint 4th gif
St. 5th gif
Hl 4 reduce
top speed
to 100 km / h
Hl 5
drive at 100 km / h
Hl 6a
drive at 40 km / h,
then at 100 km / h
Hl 6b
drive at 60 km / h,
then at 100 km / h
St. 7th gif
St. 8th gif
Hl 7
Reduce top speed
to 40 or 60 km / h
Hl 8
Reduce speed from 100 km / h
to 40 or 60 km / h
Hl 9a
drive at 40 km / h,
then at 40 or 60 km / h
Hl 9b
drive at 60 km / h,
then at 40 or 60 km / h
Hl 10
wait for a stop
Hl 11
speed 100 km / h
expect moderate stop
Hl 12a
speed 40 km / h
expect a moderate stop
Hl 12b
speed 60 km / h
expect a moderate stop
HL13 replacement lamp.png
Hp 0 (earlier Hl 13)
(main red)
Hp 0 (formerly Hl 13)
(substitute red)

The common pre-signaling of 40 and 60 km / h with a yellow flashing light is justifiable because the specific speed can be adjusted within the minimum visibility of the main signal aspect. A differentiation via the flashing cycle, as introduced by the ČSD , proved to be unnecessary.

1After this discussion, both variants of the light strips are shown. They are both valid and are still used today.
The left light strip is shown according to the WSSB standard drawing and the right according to the official DB signal book (guideline 301.0103). If only one light strip is required at the signal location, then it is usually installed in the lower position.

Additional signals

HL13 + Zs1.GIF
Hl1 Zs2.png
Hl3a Zs7.png
Hl13 Zs8.gif
Hl12a Zs13.png
HL13 + Ra12.png
Hp 0 with Zs 1
substitute signal
Hl 1 with Zs 2 direction indicator
Hl 3a with Zs 6 counter track indicator
Hp 0 with Zs 8 on the
opposite track replacement signal
Hl 12a with Zs 13
dead-end and early stop indicator
Hp 0 with Ra 12 (DV 301)
maneuvering signal
Hl 1 with Zp 10
close doors!
Hl 1 with Zp 9

Literature and web links

Commons : HI signals  - collection of images, videos and audio files