Direction Générale de la Sécurité Extérieure
|Supervisory authority (s)||French Ministry of Defense|
|Consist||since April 2, 1982|
|Headquarters||20th Arrondissement (Paris) , France|
|Directeur général||Bernard Bajolet|
|Budget volume||644.5 million euros (as of 2013)|
The Direction Générale de la Sécurité Extérieure ( DGSE ; German General Directorate for External Security ) is the French foreign intelligence service . It was founded on April 2, 1982 as the successor organization to the Service de Documentation Extérieure et de Contre-Espionnage (SDECE), largely without any organizational or personnel changes. The tasks of the DGSE consist of espionage and counter-espionage outside the national territory. The DGSE is subordinate to the French Ministry of Defense . About 3,300 civilian employees and 1,500 military personnel , who are formally assigned to the 44th Infantry Regiment , work for the service .
On April 2, 1982, the DGSE was founded by decree number 82-306, thus continuing the actions of the foreign intelligence services that had preceded it. First there was an organization called the " Bureau Central de Renseignements et d'Action " (BCRA), something like "Central Office for Information and Actions", which General de Gaulle founded in exile in London in 1940 as an intelligence service for Free France . From this emerged the " Direction Générale des Services Spéciaux " (DGSS) and the " Direction Générale des Etudes et Recherches " (DGER) in German "General Directorate for Special Services " and "General Directorate for Studies and Research". At the beginning of the Cold War it was decided to dissolve the DGER and this was replaced by the newly created " Service de Documentation Extérieure et de Contre-Espionnage ", a counter-espionage service. The chairmanship was transferred to André Dewavrin , who was previously head of the BCRA. Eventually this service was replaced by the DGSE in April 1982. The decree with the number 2009-1657 (published on December 24, 2009) provides the incumbent head of state as the highest decision-making body.
Construction / structure
The sections of the DGSE
- Strategy : analyzes information, evaluates it, handles inquiries from all authorized bodies; above all maintains close contact with the Foreign Ministry;
- News gathering : mainly uses human sources ( humint ); In addition to the military and political sectors, the civilian sector is becoming increasingly important, especially in economic and industrial espionage ;
- (Special) operations : plans secret actions and carries them out with their own military special forces ( action division );
- Administration : responsible for the infrastructure: u. a. Personnel policy, accounting;
- Technical service : responsible for electronic reconnaissance ; Listening stations
Operation Satanique - sinking of the Greenpeace ship Rainbow Warrior
The position of the state in the world structure and the resulting interests determine the intelligence activities. For France, in terms of foreign policy, these are primarily its role as a former colonial power and as a nuclear power . After 1989, however, an increasing merging of internal and external tasks can be observed. The national security of the country is the focus.
Years before, French nuclear policy met with increasing protests from environmentalists . The South Pacific states, who saw themselves exposed to new risks, joined this protest. The autonomy efforts of the French overseas territories reached a new high point in 1983 - especially in New Caledonia . A year later, David Longe, an avowed opponent of nuclear policy, was elected Prime Minister of New Zealand . France's nuclear tests on the Mururoa Atoll were particularly criticized .
The biggest become known scandal of the DGSE was in July 1985, the "Operation Satanique", the sinking of the Rainbow Warrior , a Greenpeace - ship in the port of Auckland . Agents of the DGSE brought a diving one with time fuse provided limpet mine under the waterline of the steel hull vessel to explode, creating the Dutch-Portuguese photographer Fernando Pereira was killed. The agents left immediately and were picked up on the high seas by the Rubis submarine coming from Australia , which France subsequently admitted. Two agents, Dominique Prieur and Alain Mafart , were arrested in New Zealand and convicted of manslaughter.
As a political consequence of this affair, DGSE Director General Admiral Pierre Lacoste and Defense Minister Charles Hernu were replaced. However, representatives of France repeatedly stressed in public statements that France did not intend to question its position as a nuclear power or its position in the Pacific and would therefore continue its nuclear tests in this region.
Liberation action in Somalia
On January 12, 2013, France's Defense Minister Jean-Yves Le Drian confirmed on French television that during a failed military operation to liberate DGSE agent Denis Allex in Bula-Marer, around 30 km south of Merka , this and two other French soldiers, among them a helicopter pilot who were killed. Five helicopters were used in the operation and 17 al-Shabaab fighters were killed. Le Drian said the government had to take the risk because the agent and another agent had been detained in inhumane conditions since his kidnapping on July 14, 2009 from a hotel in Mogadishu . One of the agents later managed to escape. According to official figures, the two French were involved in training the Somali police and the Presidential Guard in 2009.
|Pierre Marion||June 22, 1981 (until April 2, 1982 SDECE)|
|Pierre Lacoste||admiral||November 12, 1982|
|René Imbot||Army General||September 25, 1985|
|François Mermet||Lieutenant General||2nd December 1987|
|Claude Silberzahn||prefect||March 23, 1989|
|Jacques Dewatre||prefect||4th June 1993|
|Jean-Claude Cousseran||diplomat||February 14, 2000|
|Pierre Brochand||diplomat||July 25, 2002|
|Erard Corbin de Mangoux||prefect||October 9, 2008|
|Bernard Bajolet||diplomat||April 11, 2013|
HR / Finance
In 1996 the DGSE had a workforce of 2,500 people, including 1,700 civilians, with an official budget of FF 1,350,000,000. In 2007 the budget was 450 million euros, and 36 million euros for special expenses. In 2009 the DGSE employed 4,492 full-time employees. The budget was 543.8 million euros, and 48.9 million euros for special expenses. In 2011 the DGSE employed 4,747 full-time employees. In 2013 the budget increased again by 1.244 billion euros
Although the DGSE primarily relies on people as a source, it has the Ensemble Mobile Écoute et Recherche Automatique Des Emissions (Emeraude) for technical communication monitoring. It is controlled by Alluets-Feucherolles in the Yvelines department to the west of Paris. In spite of everything, there is a list of DGSE listening stations in France and the rest of the world. These 30 or so plants cover practically the entire globe - with the exception of Northern Siberia and parts of the Pacific.
In the wake of the NSA scandal in 2013, Le Monde researched that the DGSE operates a comprehensive program to monitor electronic communications. This is technically implemented by CELAR (center d'électronique de l'armement) . As the newspaper reported, the foreign intelligence service systematically saves connection data on telephone calls, SMS and e-mails that go over French lines. Information on Twitter and Facebook messages are also illegally stored for years and evaluated if necessary. In addition to the domestic secret service, customs inter alia have access to the data. However, the content of messages or conversations would not be recorded. The government at the time did not initially issue a statement on the “Le Monde” report.
The interception network of the DGSE consists of the following stations:
- Alluets-Feucherolles (Yvelines): to the west of Paris
- Mutzig , ( Bas-Rhin ), Alsace
- Mont Valérien
- Plateau d'Albion , ( Vaucluse )
- Domme (near Sarlat; Périgord )
- St. Laurent de la Salanque : completed in 1997, located in a swamp near Perpignan; Priority to those radio waves established that from the other side of the Mediterranean - mainly from Algeria to come -
- Cap d'Agde , ( Hérault )
- Solenzara , (South Corsica )
- Filley ( Nice ): in a barracks; directed mainly to the Italian border
- St. Barthélemy , ( Lesser Antilles )
- Djibouti , ( Chad )
- Mayotte , ( Indian Ocean ): completed in 1998
- Reunion Island
- Kourou ( French Guiana ): opened in 1990 away from the public
- Tontouta (New Caledonia): sea airport
Due to the fact that France was a colonial power, there is still the possibility for the country to set up such stations outside of its territory .
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