Bachelor of Laws

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Bachelor of Laws (abbreviated LL.B.) is an academic degree that can be acquired through a corresponding study of law . The abbreviation LL.B. stands for Legum Baccalaureus , where LL. is the Latin abbreviation for the plural "rights".

At the Bachelor degree can consecutive to the Master of Laws (LL.M.) Connect. This formerly English academic degree denoted the completion of a degree in Roman law and English law ( common law and equity ). When it was transferred to Germany, the name was adopted uncritically. The plural is just as inappropriate as Jura as the plural of Jus in Germany, which goes back to the entirety of canon law and secular law. In Switzerland, a contemporary abbreviation was chosen with the degree designation Bachelor of Law (B Law).


The LL.B. can be obtained at some universities in Germany . However, it alone does not open the way to legal clerkship . Since the qualification for the office of judge (as a prerequisite for access to the so-called regulated legal professions) is only acquired with the second state examination following this legal traineeship , access to the classic legal professions of judges , public prosecutors , lawyers and notaries remains closed. For some time now, however, the Federal Association of Business Lawyers from Universities of Applied Sciences has been preparing a constitutional complaint in order to at least partially open up the market for legal advice on business law issues for lawyers without the status of fully qualified lawyers.

However, according to the current legal situation, it is already possible in proceedings without the obligation to use a lawyer before the local courts ( Section 79 (2) sentence 2 and 3 ZPO ), administrative courts ( Section 67 (2) sentences 2 and 3 VwGO ), labor courts ( Section 11 (2) Sentence 2 and 3 ArbGG ), social courts ( Section 73 (2) sentences 2 and 3 SGG ) and before the finance courts ( Section 62 (2) and 3 FGO ). The aforementioned regulations give authorities and legal entities under public law as well as companies the right to be represented in court by their appropriately authorized employees. The same applies to trade unions and social associations who, as their members' legal representatives, instruct their full-time employees to represent them in the process.

In this context and within the framework of the Legal Services Act , the LL.B. entitled to perform classic extrajudicial and judicial legal work. This includes both legal advice and representation in court.

Bologna process

The reason for the introduction of the LL.B. degree in Germany is the agreement of the EU states reached in Bologna in 1999 on the standardization of university degrees . One element of this agreement was the creation of consecutive courses , i.e. the introduction of Bachelor and Master degrees for all courses. In Germany, however, this led to conflicts in the field of law, because legal training is traditionally regulated by law and another, but also two-stage training system, the so-called fully qualified lawyer , exists. It would have been a logical consequence of the Bologna Declaration that the LL.B. and LL.M. be introduced, but so far the state and professional representatives have refused and want to maintain the tried and tested system of uniform lawyers. In the meantime, only discussions have been held about reforming legal training and minor changes have been made. The Bologna Process therefore only takes place to a very limited extent in the area of ​​legal training.

"Mannheim model"

Since the autumn winter semester of 2009, the University of Mannheim has been the first public university in Germany to offer a reform course in legal training, which initially leads to the “full” state examination via a Bachelor of Laws. In contrast to other Bachelor of Laws courses (such as at the Bucerius Law School), Mannheim is a combination course as defined by the JAPrO of the state of Baden-Württemberg. As part of the bachelor's degree, the students initially complete the entire civil law , as well as the university specialty examination and additional business administration skills worth 1/3 of the bachelor's degree. At the end, the students take part in the civil law exams of the state examination . After that only the exams in public law and criminal law have to be written. The possibility of “layering” the exams exists in a similar form in North Rhine-Westphalia and is justified by the fact that the Mannheim lawyers have to learn both law and business administration in a short time. After completing your bachelor's degree, in addition to training as a fully qualified lawyer, you also have the opportunity to do a Master of Science in business administration via the additional studies for the state examination . The bachelor's degree also allows for a doctorate in civil law, provided the student was in the top 5% of his year.


The diploma course in business law introduced by the universities of applied sciences before the implementation of the Bologna reforms became the model for most of the LL.B. courses in Germany that were later conceived.

In the winter semester of 2000/2001, the Ernst Moritz Arndt University of Greifswald was the first university in Germany to introduce a modularized legal course leading to a Bachelor of Laws degree , which could be obtained in parallel to or separately from the state examination that is continuously offered. The Bachelor of Laws course was accredited by ZEvA in Hanover in 2002. The accreditation was limited in time to five years and, according to the Accreditation Council, expired on September 30, 2007. The University of Greifswald no longer applied for re-accreditation. The Bachelor of Laws at the University of Greifswald was closed in the summer semester 2010 and replaced by a BA in Economics / Human Resources.

In contrast, the Fernuniversität Hagen , which was the second state university to create a law course in accordance with the requirements of the Bologna Process , continues to offer this. As with most of the six- to eight-semester LL.B. courses offered in Germany, law and economics content is taught there. The consecutive LL.M. course offered by the university serves to complete the law degree, in which the public and criminal law content is deepened in addition to legal history and legal philosophy.

At the University of Hamburg there was the opportunity to acquire the academic degree Baccalaureus Juris . To use this variant of the LL.B. In order to obtain this, it was necessary to study for at least six semesters as part of a regular course leading to the First State Examination in Law , to complete some additional courses, to write a baccalaureate thesis and to achieve the corresponding credit points. After acquiring this degree, there was also the opportunity to acquire the degree of Magister Juris after a further year . In the meantime, law studies at the University of Hamburg have been reformed. The Baccalaureus Juris is no longer offered. It is replaced by a Bachelor of Laws (LL.B.) course . The new degree can be taken in two different versions. The options are finance and insurance with a focus on law (LL.B.) and work and social management with a focus on law (LL.B.) . After completing an LL.B. After completing a two-semester postgraduate course, you can also achieve the degree of Master of Laws .

The Fulda University since the winter semester 2007/2008 offers a bachelor degree in social law to which also the Bachelor of Laws (LL.B.) leads. Furthermore, in cooperation with the University of Kassel, the postgraduate studies for LL.M. Social law / social economy offered.

The HTWG Konstanz introduced a bachelor's degree in business law with a Bachelor of Laws (LL.B.) degree in the 2010/2011 winter semester .

The Berlin School of Economics and Law offers an LL.B. and the Law in Companies (LL.B.) course, in which real estate law, commercial and corporate law, enforcement law (including insolvency law) and other areas of law are more in the foreground, since 2008 a generalist law course (LL. B.) , which in six semesters exclusively teaches the three areas of law , private law , public law and criminal law , without economic content.

Since 2010, the eight-semester course Economics, Society, Law - Good Governance (LL.B.) has been offered at the University of Rostock , which, after an interdisciplinary first year of study, also includes general legal studies in all three areas of law.

At some universities, such as the Bucerius Law School in Hamburg , the University of Mannheim with a degree in corporate lawyer LL.B. and the EBS University of Economics and Law in Wiesbaden , however, the LL.B. degree is a degree that is awarded during the course on the way to the state exams (which allow access to the classic professions), so the way here to the classic fully qualified lawyer also with an LL.B. can lead.

The University of Darmstadt has a bachelor degree program in the field of information law with the conclusion Bachelor of Laws (LL.B.) introduced.

The University of Hannover since fall 2011 offers the eight-semester Bachelor's degree program IT Law and Intellectual Property Law at the Institute of Forensic computer science.


It can be stated that roughly three approaches are being followed for the structure of the LL.B. degree in Germany:

Some universities integrate the award of the LL.B. in their conventional law studies, which might raise the question of whether this really complies with the Bologna requirements, this LL.B. thus actually represents a stage from which a professional activity can be taken up.

The majority of the LL.B. and subsequent LL.M. courses, which are mostly offered by universities of applied sciences, are designed to a certain extent as an "interface course" in which, in addition to a predominantly legal part, other, mostly business-related, content is taught. The focus of the jurisprudential part is usually on business or administrative law content, which complies with the Bologna requirements of preparing for specific fields of activity with the first academic degree. Prospective LL.B., who are aware of the legal restrictions for out-of-court and judicial legal advice, for example in tax advice, auditing or insolvency administration or, if they specialize in public administration, can already be used with useful prior knowledge.

Those universities that design their original LL.B. degree programs in a generalist way go a different way by teaching all three areas of law without specialization. You are thus closer to the structure of the classical law course, although the didactic communication is different. In accordance with the Bologna guidelines, the modularized content is not taught in the same depth, but with more focus on the acquisition of structural knowledge. The stronger extrinsic motivation due to the higher number of binding, course-related examinations, which are included in the final grade, forces students to deal efficiently with the subject matter, which forbids delving into the depths of the numerous teaching opinions on detailed problems in the bachelor’s degree . At the same time, however, it also prohibits grade inflation downwards, as is generally the case in traditional law studies, so that final module examinations only contain the material taught in the respective semester and the assessment reflects the entire range of grades. Accusations of inadequate scientific knowledge and the imparting of critical thinking are countered by strengthening the basic legal subjects . This Bologna-compliant legal training should therefore - in accordance with the classic uniform lawyers - produce graduates who can familiarize themselves with each legal area independently using legal methodology. It is obvious that, contrary to their specialized colleagues, they do not "inherently" have a unique selling point compared to their colleagues who are authorized to provide unlimited legal advice and qualified to serve as judges. Your studies appear above all as a "blueprint" for an actual transformation of the conventional legal training. Interestingly, in the self-presentation of an international law course at the HU Berlin , which also leads to the state examination, it is admitted that the study of German law can be taught in six semesters, which corresponds to the Bachelor requirements.

However, as long as the traditional path to becoming a “fully qualified lawyer” is confirmed by a relevant source, it is up to these graduates to develop their niches with the specialized LL.B. to gain further qualifications through a consecutive Master’s degree in the areas of the private sector, public administration and / or for an academic career.

Study opportunities


Monofaculty universities with the right to award doctorates and habilitation

Universities of applied sciences


At universities in Austria the LL.B. was Degree for law studies only partially introduced. An implementation is being planned, but is often rejected by the law faculties. Since 2016 studies at the Sigmund Freud University in Vienna lead to the LL.B.

The Vienna University of Economics and Business and the Johannes Kepler University Linz offer a bachelor's degree in business law, which also leads to the LL.B. is completed. A bachelor's degree in law and economics is now offered at the University of Salzburg . It is designed as an "interface course" with around 35 percent business and economic and around 50 percent legal content and around 15 percent other key qualifications.

Despite the often negative attitude of law faculties, in 2011 the President of the Austrian Bar Association basically advocated admitting holders of the degree “Bachelor of Laws” to the bar exam, provided that they have acquired this after successfully completing a four-year, generalist legal degree . Taken literally, the way would then be paved for both legal training in Austrian law, which is compliant with the Bologna process, and for the conception of future legal training, which, however, is similar to the German-Polish phase, which is divided into bachelor and master phases Legal training at the European University Viadrina Frankfurt (Oder), in the law of Austria and a neighboring country, and could lead to admission to the bar. The qualified LL.M. as completion of a corresponding consecutive course of study is an alternative requirement for the bar exam. In Germany, the admission procedure in the Law on the Activities of European Lawyers in Germany (EuRAG) would open up an additional option for admission to the bar without a state examination. (And this does not speed up the training, as well as in the legal training in Austria several years of practical apprenticeship of the bar exam, later admitted to the bar in Germany preceded by several years of legal practice in Austria and again an entrance exam in Germany.)


The University Distance Learning Foundation Switzerland offers a bachelor's degree in law and the Zurich University of Applied Sciences (ZHAW) in business law. The universities of Freiburg, Basel, Bern, Lucerne and Zurich have also introduced a six-semester bachelor's degree in law, which is structured in modules, but this degree is not abbreviated as LL.B. but as B Law . According to the Hagen model, the content of the course comprises the three basic areas of civil , criminal and public law .

The Kalaidos University of Applied Sciences is the only university of applied sciences in Switzerland that offers a degree in law that can be completed alongside work and family. The course leads to the Bachelor of Law (BLaw) and Master of Law (MLaw).

Anglo-Saxon legal system ( Common Law )


Web links

Individual evidence

  1. Federal Association of Business Lawyers from Universities of Applied Sciences V .: Preparation of a constitutional complaint (accessed on March 30, 2011)
  2. Bachelor and Master: Greifswald University waives accreditation
  3. See Bachelor of Laws in Greifswald closed ( Memento from May 30, 2010 in the Internet Archive )
  4. ^ First Bachelor of Laws graduates at the Fernuni Hagen
  5. Curriculum LL.B. ( Memento from January 12, 2013 in the Internet Archive )
  6. Curriculum LL.M. ( Memento from January 7, 2013 in the Internet Archive )
  7. Alexander Hartmann: Baccalaureus and Magister Juris - what to do with it?
  8. ^ University of Hamburg (ed.): Baccalaureus Juris & Magister Juris. ( Memento from February 6, 2012 in the Internet Archive )
  9. Bachelor courses at the Faculty of Law in Hamburg ( Memento from January 28, 2010 in the Internet Archive )
  10. a b Archive link ( Memento from July 31, 2013 in the Internet Archive )
  11. Archive link ( Memento from July 31, 2013 in the Internet Archive )
  13. Business Law (LL.B.)
  14. Law in companies (LL.B.)
  15. ^ Law Ius (LL.B.)
  16. More about the conception of the course by Hans Paul Prümm: Why basic legal subjects in the Ius course are so important that they have to be compulsory modules. (PDF file; 2.03 MB) in: LL.B., 2011, pp. 25–31.
  17. ^ University of Rostock: LL.B. Economy, Society, Law - Good Governance ( Memento from January 14, 2012 in the Internet Archive )
  18. More on the development and structure of the course with Benjamin Tobias Lahusen: Good Governance in Rostock. About the establishment, structure and perspectives of a new course. ( Memento of December 12, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) (PDF file; 4.37 MB) in: LL.B., 2012, pp. 48–52.
  20. Archive link ( Memento from March 30, 2012 in the Internet Archive )
  21. Information law (LL.B.). on the Darmstadt University of Applied Sciences website
  23. cf. Hans Paul Prümm: Basic legal academic training (also) at universities of applied sciences. (PDF file; 452 kB) and Benjamin Tobias Lahusen: Good Governance in Rostock. About the establishment, structure and perspectives of a new course. ( Memento of December 12, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) (PDF file; 4.37 MB) in: LL.B. 2012.
  24. ↑ on this also Hans Paul Prümm: Legal academic basic training (also) at universities of applied sciences. (PDF file; 452 kB)
  25. cf. Program of the Humboldt European Law School ( Memento from March 1, 2013 in the Internet Archive )
  26. ^ Bologna Process and German Legal Training; Reports of the Committee of the Conference of Justice Ministers for the Coordination of Legal Training ( Memento of March 14, 2013 in the Internet Archive )
  29. course . In: University of Oldenburg . October 6, 2017 ( [accessed November 27, 2017]).
  30. ^ Faculty of Law - University of Bremen. Retrieved November 27, 2017 .
  32. DEWR. Retrieved November 27, 2017 .
  34. ^ Wiesbaden Business School - RheinMain University of Applied Sciences. Retrieved May 8, 2020 .
  35. Economics and Social Sciences (WiSo) | Osnabrück University of Applied Sciences. Retrieved November 27, 2017 .
  37. Hochschule Fresenius - Business Law (LL.B.) ➤ Bachelor full-time ➤ Hochschule Fresenius. Archived from the original on July 13, 2014 ; accessed on November 27, 2017 (German).
  38. HTW Berlin: HTW Berlin - University of Technology and Economics Berlin - Business Law. Retrieved June 29, 2018 .
  39. Archive link ( Memento from April 18, 2008 in the Internet Archive )
  40. The Blindow Group - diverse educational institutions. Retrieved November 30, 2017 .
  41. Archive link ( Memento from September 18, 2008 in the Internet Archive )
  43. schaer / müller: home page. Accessed November 30, 2017 (German).
  44. Distance learning Bachelor in Business Law. Retrieved on July 11, 2020 (German).
  45. South Westphalia University of Applied Sciences : FH-SWF joint study course in business law (LL.B.). In: Retrieved August 10, 2016 .
  46. Degree courses in the AV-FH Güstrow department. In: Retrieved January 10, 2017 .
  47. Bachelor of Laws (LL.B.) | The bachelor's degree for lawyers. Retrieved November 30, 2017 .
  51. ^ Law and Economics - University of Salzburg. Accessed November 30, 2017 (German).
  52. Cf. 135. Curriculum for the Bachelor's degree in Law and Economics at the University of Salzburg (Version 2011) , p. 3 ff.
  53. Interview: "Also admit Bachelor to lawyer" . In: . ( [accessed November 30, 2017]).
  54. Seidlitz, Martina: German-Polish law studies • Faculty of Law • European University Viadrina / EUV. Retrieved November 30, 2017 .
  55. ^ RIS - Lawyers' Act - Consolidated Federal Law, version dated May 20, 2019. Retrieved May 20, 2019 .
  56. Archive link ( Memento from August 27, 2006 in the Internet Archive )
  57. Archive link ( Memento from July 15, 2013 in the Internet Archive )
  58. ^ University of Lucerne - Law. Retrieved September 19, 2017 .