Market square in Hessenpark
|Number of visitors (annually)||244,318 (2017)|
Hessenpark Open Air Museum GmbH
The Hessenpark is an open-air museum in Neu-Anspach in the Hochtaunus district in Hesse . The history of Hessian village life over the past centuries is shown on an area of 65 hectares and in more than a hundred historical buildings.
Geography and location
The area of the 65 hectare open-air museum is located in the southeast of the Taunus ( eastern Hintertaunus ), between Neu-Anspach (northwest) and the Wehrheim district of Obernhain (east). The park is located immediately north of the wooded Hohen Taunus , in front of the Taunushauptkamm , about 2 km (as the crow flies ) north of the Roßkopf ( ). The park area extends at an altitude of between 360 and in the valley of the Erlenbach , the Stahlnhainer Grund .
The park is located on state road 3041, which branches off from state road 3025 from the west of Weiltal and runs east to federal road 456 . This crosses the Saalburgpass ( ) in a southerly direction and continues down to Bad Homburg in the Vordertaunus .
The museum was founded in 1974 by the Hessian state government under Prime Minister Albert Osswald ( SPD ). The foundation stone was laid in 1974. Hessenpark was officially opened in 1978 by Prime Minister Holger Börner ( SPD ). The Hochtaunuskreis was the sponsor until shortly before the opening before the open-air museum became a state-owned GmbH.
The first director and one of the main initiators was Eugen Ernst, who is still the honorary chairman of the sponsorship group. Prominent visitors were the then Federal Chancellor Gerhard Schröder on May 1, 2003 and Tenzin Gyatso , the 14th Dalai Lama , on September 22, 2007.
The Hessian Watchmaking School has been housed in the Hessenpark since 2004 .
Hessenpark pursues a number of goals:
- It is used for the museum collection of buildings. Half-timbered houses removed elsewhere from all over Hesse , two windmills from Northern Germany (1985–1987) and other buildings have been rebuilt in it in order to preserve them for posterity ( relocation ). The Hessenpark now comprises more than 100 buildings (as of 2008).
- It should give an impression of typical village life in the individual regions of Hesse. These regions are represented in the assemblies.
- He should preserve the knowledge of traditional building techniques.
- Traditional crafts should be preserved and presented.
- The houses are to be used for specific, Hesse-related trade exhibitions. So is z. B. to see a permanent exhibition about the Taunus in the Taunushaus .
- Traditional agricultural methods are to be used and old varieties and races to be cultivated.
- The facility is intended to protect the environment. The stork rearing station should be mentioned here in particular . However, storks can no longer be found in the Hessenpark (status: 2010/2011).
The primary goal of monument protection is to preserve buildings worthy of protection at their original location. A monument always has an effect in the context of the environment in which it was erected. Moving monuments is therefore generally prohibited in Germany . In exceptional cases, however, demolition is unavoidable and is permitted by the monument protection . According to the Hessian Monument Protection Act, this is the case if the obligation to maintain the property is unreasonable (e.g. for cost reasons) or not possible (e.g. when building bypasses). A large number of houses that could not be preserved at their location were dismantled into their parts, temporarily stored in the Hessenpark and thus secured. The houses in the Hessenpark are being rebuilt step by step, which means that the Hessenpark can make new offers to multiple visitors every year.
The knowledge of the building techniques of previous centuries has partially been lost. The Hessenpark tries to preserve the knowledge about construction techniques and to collect lost knowledge experimentally. He also researches traditional craft techniques and presents them to visitors. On many days, classic crafts can also be seen in action, including a. Pottery , broom making , rope making , spinning , blue dyeing , blacksmithing , nail forging , turning , pipe carving or charcoal making . Products made in Hessenpark can also be purchased.
Another focus of the Hessenpark is the cultivation of old plant varieties and animal species and the demonstration and preservation of old agricultural methods such as forest pasture .
Facilities and construction
The facilities of the open-air museum include several historical buildings with craft workshops such as B. Backhaus , smithy and printing shop . There are also public buildings such as a post office or a village school. There are also village churches and two synagogues (see synagogue (Groß-Umstadt) and synagogue (Nentershausen) ) as well as a replica of the old town from Gießen with a hotel . The Hessenpark is also known for its windmills and the watermill with hammer mill .
The Hessenpark is divided into the building groups, which are supposed to represent the different village forms of the Hessian regions. The oldest and most expanded is the Central Hesse group . The center of this assembly, which represents a typical village in Central Hesse, is the village square with the church, village school, blacksmith shop and farmsteads. An open-air theater is planned for events. The North Hesse assembly group is characterized by windmills and the tithe barn . This is also an event space for a variety of events. The East Hesse and South Hesse assemblies are currently only partially completed.
The historically oldest construction phase is today's market square. It has a special position because it is not defined regionally. Buildings from all over the state of Hesse are represented, and essential "service facilities" of the Hessenpark are set up here. In addition to permanent exhibitions (e.g. the radio technology museum or the exhibition on Hessian photography in Haus Lips from Schlitz ), it also offers a hotel and dining facilities. While the Wirtshaus Zum Adler mainly offers hearty Hessian cuisine, the Hotel Hessenpark is also equipped for fine dining. Both houses have beer gardens, the hotel also has conference rooms. Among other things, there is a replica of the four-tube fountain that stands in Langen in the middle of the market square .
The marketplace assembly group at night:
A number of shops offer manufactured products and souvenirs on the market square and in front of it on the entrance to the market square in Hessenpark. Free access for shopping is also possible after registration. The bread baked according to old technology in the stone oven, which is offered in the bakery, is particularly well-known. There are also handmade brushes, woven baskets and many other products. Through the sale of the products, the goods produced in the demonstrations are sold and part of the associated costs are covered.
The marketplace assembly by day:
House "Rörshain" ( Hessian watchmaking school )
A number of permanent exhibitions are also freely accessible in the marketplace area. These include the radio technology museum, the pharmacy, the photo museum, the cast iron exhibition and the exhibition on beer brewing . The Hessian watchmaking school and the watchmaker's workshop in Hessenpark are located in the Rörshain building, and an exhibition on tower clocks is located opposite in the Laubach building .
Permanent exhibitions and sales facilities on the market square:
This assembly is primarily used as a building yard. Nevertheless, there are already some objects in this assembly that are part of the museum. In addition to the forge built around 1800 (originally from Selters (Taunus) ), a barn with a mansard roof from Runkel-Hofen , built in 1830, should be mentioned here. This building is used for a permanent exhibition about the Duchy of Nassau . One focus here is economic history. The exhibits at the “Geldwesen in Nassau” exhibition include coins and bills from Nassau as well as a representation of the founding of the Nassauische Landesbank .
Old agricultural machines are housed in other buildings. A rail system for a mining railway is the beginning of a presentation of the mining history in Hesse.
Houses and exhibitions of the assembly group workshops:
South Hesse assembly group
This assembly currently only consists of the synagogue from Groß-Umstadt . In 1986 a vineyard was created as part of the South Hesse sub-assembly. Riesling was planted on three terraces using three typical Rheingau cultivation methods. The top terrace is grown with 144 vines in the old Rheingau pile education. The middle terrace demonstrates the low trellis with flat arch training, which was used until the 1950s. Today's cultivation method, wire frame education with a modern trellis, is set up on the lowest terrace. The harvest takes place every year in October. The wine is pressed in the Geisenheim research institute .
Rhine-Main assembly group
In addition to stables, this assembly also includes the construction of a new coach house . In July 2017, a fitness trail with ten stations was opened behind the courtyard in Anspach , built according to the historical model of the 1970s and adapted to current DIN standards and the latest findings in sports medicine. An 800-meter long running track designed as a circular course completes the range of sports on offer. In addition to this, an exhibition module sheds light on the development of the popular sports movement and thus takes up the social and societal upheavals of the 1970s for the first time in the museum. The fitness trail can be used as part of a museum visit during the general opening times.
Central Hesse assembly
In addition to the Marktplatz assembly, the Mittelhessen assembly (formerly the Lahn-Dill-Ohm assembly) was the first to be completed in the 1970s and 1980s. It forms the entrance to the Hessenpark after the cash desk. A row village was rebuilt with a transition to a cluster village , a type of settlement typical of Central Hesse in the middle of the 18th century. The houses come from the Westerwald , the Hintertaunus , the Dill area and the area around Gießen and Marburg . The core of the assembly is a small square, which is characterized by the half-timbered chapel from Niederhörlen and the school and town hall from Frickhofen. A special feature is also a community baking house with a “poor apartment” from Probbach on the edge of the building group. There is also the Lollar Chapel , which can be used for weddings. There is an open-air theater behind the church.
The series part of the assembly is opened with the school riding from Münchhausen , which is used for special exhibitions.
East Hesse assembly group
Few buildings have been rebuilt in the East Hesse sub-assembly. In 2008–2013, a house called an annex from Sieblos was opened. In addition, a farm from Mittelkalbach was built , as well as a stable from Oberkalbach and a small chapel from Weyhers in 2005 . A post mill with a box-shaped structure from the Peine district in Lower Saxony completes the assembly.
North Hesse assembly group
The core of the North Hesse assembly is an ensemble of the tithe barn , a manor building with a kitchen wing and stables and barn buildings in the form of a four-sided courtyard . The tithe barn is used for catering and offers rooms for larger events. This tithe barn originally stood in the Trendelburg domain and was built in 1568. In the barn building opposite there is an exhibition on modern agriculture and agricultural history. There is also a butcher, a cider press, a distillery and a cooper's workshop. The building comes from Emstal-Sand and was built in several steps in 1742, 1896 and in the first third of the 20th century as part of a larger estate. The head end is formed by the Engelbach estate and the associated kitchen wing. This building was erected in the middle of the 18th century in place of an older building as the main building of a larger courtyard with a dozen outbuildings in Niederaula-Solms . The church from Kohlgrund was rebuilt as a church building . A barn from Asterode has been used as an exhibition house since 2009 . In 2014 the village tavern “Martinsklause”, a building built in Remsfeld in 1723 and demolished in 1975/76 with a mixture of agriculture and trade typical of the region, was opened in the style of the 1950s. In the barn next to the hermitage there is an exhibition on the history of the Lich private brewery .
House from Ostheim with blue dyeing
Barn from Asterode (exhibition house)
History of the site
Historically, the use of the site can be divided into three phases. When designing the site, all three uses are shown. Between 1000 and 1100 the first clearing began in the Stahlnhainer Grund. The management took place until approx. 1400/1450 by the nearby forest smithy settlement Stahlnhain . Mainly charcoal burning and iron smelting were operated on the site . In the Stahlnhains area, 50 racing campfires and 500 kilns were found. Of these, 5 racing fire pits and 15 kiln pitches were on the grounds of the Hessenpark.
From the 15th to the 19th century, after iron smelting had declined, the area was used as forest pasture .
From around 1829 and until 1930 the coppice was used for wages . The first conifers were planted in 1900. After the Second World War, the area was mainly used for firewood. Partial areas were also cleared and served as pasture.
In the course of the year, a large number of traditional events attract additional visitors to the Hessenpark. The plant market takes place at the beginning of May and the Christmas market at the beginning of December . Events corresponding to the topic take place on a large number of commemorative and action days (such as Beer Day ).
With the support of the museum educators, information about the former living, living and working conditions of the rural population can be deepened. Various tours and projects are offered for school classes.
The state of Hessen is responsible for the Hessenpark . On July 1, 1978, the park was outsourced as a state operation to a separate company. In order to promote the work of the Hessenpark, there is the support association of the Hessenpark, the “Förderkreis Freilichtmuseum Hessenpark e. V. “1974 to 2004 more than 2.1 million euros in contributions and donations were received for the further development of the Hessenpark.
The Hessenpark is easily accessible by public transport. The Bad Homburg city bus line 5 connects it every hour on weekends with the local S-Bahn and U-Bahn stations. There is also a daily bus connection to the Taunusbahn railway stations in Wehrheim and Neu-Anspach .
- Internet presence of the Hessenpark open-air museum
- Archive of the Hessenpark in the Hessian Main State Archive Wiesbaden ( page no longer available )
- Frankfurter Rundschau of January 11, 2018, author Torsten Weigelt: Record visit to Hessenpark , accessed on February 21, 2018, on fr.de.
- Freilichtmuseum Hessenpark GmbH: Discovery Guide . Ed .: Freilichtmuseum Hessenpark GmbH. 1st edition. Jonas Verlag, Kromsdorf / Weimar 2016, ISBN 978-3-89445-491-3 , p. 320 .
- Map services of the Federal Agency for Nature Conservation ( information )
- Frankfurter Allgemeine from 09/21/2014, author: Bernhard Biener: Hessenpark Open Air Museum - When does history begin? , accessed on February 21, 2018, from faz.net
- Hessenpark Open Air Museum (ed.) On behalf of Hessenpark GmbH, p. 9, ISBN 3-930095-18-1 .
- Eugen Ernst: The location of the Hessenpark in the last 700 years. In: Hessenpark (Mitteilungsblatt des Förderverein) Edition 2/84, pp. 7–9.
- establishment of the State Office "Freilischtmuseum Hess Park" 5 June 1978 of . In: The Hessian Minister of Finance (Hrsg.): State Gazette for the State of Hesse. 1978 No. 30 , p. 1413 , point 870 ( online at the information system of the Hessian state parliament [PDF; 8,8 MB ]).