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A row or hoof village is a type of settlement and form of the village . It presupposes an elongated topographical object such as a road or a path, a dike , a valley or a ridge , a stream or moat, along which the rural settlement areas , i.e. the courtyards or courtyards , are laid out at more or less regular intervals have been lined up. In most cases, row villages are characterized by the fact that, if the local and terrain conditions allow, further settlement can be made at the beginning and end of the village, i.e. additional farms can be created.

Row villages can be laid out in a single row or in two rows (i.e. on both sides of the path). The arrangement of the arable land at the farm has the advantage of saving time and reducing the amount of transport required, since the farm can be “cultivated” directly from or into the farm (manure spreading, sowing, bringing in the harvest) better control of the lands is guaranteed.

Often there was no need to flood and often no commons either . Because the courtyards and parcels are more or less the same in terms of area, the advantages and disadvantages that are given by the different geomorphological , hydrological and geo-ecological conditions are better balanced than with other village and field forms .

  1. Hagenhufendorf : A Hagenhufendorf or Bachhufendorf is an elongated settlement, similar to the row village, along a road that runs parallel to a stream, the road being built on only on one side, while on the opposite side of the road the towel-shaped arable land belonging to the courtyards from 20 to 40 Tomorrow, the hooves are lying. The built-in plots serve as a cottage garden and for keeping small animals. The stream adjacent to the rear provides the necessary water. Ideally, there is also a nearby forest for firewood and timber production.
  2. Marschhufendorf : A Marschhufendorf is a row village in marshland along a drainage canal. The land property adjoins the courtyards in longitudinal strips. Marsh hoof villages exist particularly in the Netherlands and since around the 10th century in northern Germany in the areas in which the Dutch participated in the drainage.
  3. Moorhufendorf : The Moorhufendorf is a systematically laid out row settlement from the 16th and 17th centuries. The Moorhufendorf usually has a wide striped corridor (corridor type, in which strips of approx. 50-800 m wide dominate). The borders of the broad strips form drainage ditches. Often found in the Netherlands .
  4. Waldhufendorf : Waldhufendörfer are settlements of the Middle Ages that were laid out according to plan and were created through (and for) clearing and which, based on the Baden , Swabian and Franconian areas in southern Germany, were colonized in the northern Lower Austrian Waldviertel and in the German Ostsiedlung in Thuringia , Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt and Silesia as well as partly also Brandenburg played an important role.
  5. Street village : A street village is a village form of settlement and a special type of row village. There are street villages both regulated (planned construction, often through systematic colonization ) and unregulated (developed form). Street villages are widespread in Europe, especially in Central Europe.

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Lexicon of Geography . Spectrum Academic Publishing House, Heidelberg 2001.