Liu Shaoqi

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Liú Shàoqí

Liú Shàoqí or Liu Schao-Tschi ( Chinese  劉少奇  /  刘少奇 ; born November 24, 1898 in Huaminglou, Ningxiang County, Hunan Province ; † November 12, 1969 ) was the President of the People's Republic of China from 1959 to 1968 .


The son of rich farmers completed his training at the same teacher training college as Mao Zedong before . In 1917 he was a founding member of the Society for New Popular Studies, of which Mao was a member. Instead of continuing his studies in France after a year of preparation , he enrolled at the foreign language school in Shanghai , which was initiated by the Comintern . From 1921 to 1922 he stayed in Moscow, where he studied at the University of the Workers of the East. At the same time he became a member of the newly formed Chinese Communist Party .

On his return he was active in the coalfield of Anyuan , Jiangxi Province, on the instructions of the party and was instrumental in organizing strikes and unions until 1925. Between 1925 and 1927 he continued this work, including in Hubei and Shanghai . Most notable was the development in Wuhan , where 300,000 workers in 200 newly formed unions became members in two months in 1926. At the 5th Congress of the Communist Party in 1927 he was accepted into the Central Committee .


This started a steep career in which he held numerous offices, including:

  • 1928 at the 6th Party Congress in Moscow Director of the Workers' Department of the Central Committee,
  • 1931, elected to the 5th International Workers' Congress, member of the Executive Bureau and, of the 4th Plenum of the CPC , member of the Politburo,
  • In 1931, when the Chinese Soviet Republic was proclaimed, member of its Central Executive Council ,
  • 1932, general secretary of the CCP in Fujian Province
  • 1933, Deputy Commissioner for Labor in the Council of People's Commissars,
  • 1934, member of the Permanent Presidium

In 1934 he took part in the Long March and supported Mao Zedong during the Zunyi Conference . After arriving in Shaanxi Province in 1935, which marked the end of the Long March, he became head of the North China Section in Beijing . In 1936, he was the CCP general secretary for North China and led the anti-Japanese movement in the area. From 1937 to 1938 he helped determine the personnel policy of the organization department and lectured at the Marx-Lenin Institute.


From 1939 to 1945 he used the written form to publish his political views. After the proclamation of the People's Republic of China , Liú was elected President of the Second and Third People's Congresses. In the early 1950s he contributed to the economic development of China.

Further stations were:

  • 1941: Head of the Central China Office; Political Commissar of the Fourth Army
  • 1943: Vice Chairman of the People's Revolutionary Military Council and General Secretary of the CCP
  • 1945: Deputy party chairman
  • 1948: Honorary Chairman of the Labor Association
  • 1949: Deputy Chairman of the World Federation of Trade Unions and the People's Government Council
  • 1954: Chairman of the National People's Congress.

In 1959, after Mao's resignation, he took over the office of Chairman of the People's Republic of China and traveled in this capacity to Moscow, Indonesia, Burma, Cambodia, North Korea, Pakistan and Afghanistan. He was also able to strengthen his domestic political position. During a trip to his home village, he got to know the excesses of the so-called big jump . At a meeting of all leading figures in China, through a speech (previously submitted in a different form) in which he criticized Mao, although Lin Biao did not follow him, he was persuaded to resign. In the 1960s, he helped overcome the economic catastrophe caused by the Great Leap. At the beginning of the Cultural Revolution in 1967, he was finally arrested and placed under house arrest. The American sinologist John K. Fairbank claims in his 1972 book "China Perceived" that the Red Guards and the masses who persecuted him were mobilized from outside the party apparatus. In October 1968 he was expelled from the party and removed from office. While in custody, he was regularly tortured and denied drugs for his diabetes and pneumonia . A year later he died after another ostracism at the party congress in April on November 12, 1969 in custody in Kaifeng . Only after the apostate Deng Xiaoping , who became a leading figure after Mao's death, was Liu at the fifth plenary session of the XI. CPC Central Committee posthumously rehabilitated in February 1980.

On a private level, Liú Shàoqí entered into five connections. At first he was connected with a Russian woman when he continued his studies in the Soviet Union in 1921. In 1922 he married He Baozhen, who was executed in Nanjing in 1933 . Third wife, Xie Fei (谢 飞) from Wenchang, Hainan, took part in the 1934 Long March . From his fourth marriage, 1940-1945 with Wang Qian (王 前), a son (Liu Yunzhen 刘允 真) and a daughter (Liu Tao 刘涛) were born. In 1946 he married Wang Guangmei , with whom he had two sons and two daughters.



Web links

Commons : Liu Shaoqi  - collection of pictures, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. ^ John K. Fairbank: American Experience of Chinese Life , in: China perceived. Images and politics in Chinese-american relations , Alfred A. Knopf, New York (USA) 1974, ISBN 0-394-49204-8 , p. 185