The settlements are classified as illegal under international law by the International Court of Justice and the United Nations , most recently in 2016 in Resolution 2334 of the UN Security Council . Although Israel’s government takes the opposite view, the country’s Supreme Court has declared expropriations in the West Bank unconstitutional on several occasions.
The Israeli settlements are in the West Bank , East Jerusalem and the Golan Heights . Israel withdrew from the former settlements on the Sinai Peninsula in 1982 after the peace agreement with Egypt . The settlements in the Gaza Strip with around 9,000 settlers were disbanded in 2005 as part of the implementation of the Sharon Plan . Some of these settlements were over 30 years old and around 10,000 people had to leave their homes. The families were compensated with an average of 600,000 ILS, but often had to wait a long time in temporary accommodation for a new house. Some have settled in settlements in the West Bank.
Israel regards the Golan Heights and East Jerusalem as annexed, which is why the settlements on the Golan Heights are administratively integrated in the northern district of the State of Israel, those in and around East Jerusalem in the Jerusalem district . The settlements in the West Bank, which is officially referred to as Judea and Samaria in Israeli usage , are administered in four cities as well as regional and local associations and are politically represented by the Yesha Council.
The ceasefire agreement after the Six Day War gave Israel control of the territories it had conquered during the fighting:
- the entire area of the West Bank (Cisjordan), which had been under Jordanian rule since 1948 , including East Jerusalem
- the entire Sinai Peninsula belonging to Egypt up to the Suez Canal and the Gaza Strip , which was under Egyptian military administration
- almost all of the Golan Heights belonging to Syria .
Instead of the land-against-peace offers from the Arabs that Israel subsequently expected, the Arab League decided its three no's in Khartoum in September 1967 : No to the recognition of Israel, to peace and to relations with Israel. For nationally religious Jews, the entire "Land of Israel" ( Eretz Israel ), identical to the geographical term Palestine , was under Israeli control, and the return to their historical homeland was complete.
History of settlement construction
Within a month of the end of the war, the first settlement was built on the Golan Heights with the kibbutz Merom Golan . The first settlements in the West Bank, built by the Avoda governments until 1977, were established with the express aim of securing a Jewish majority in important strategic areas such as the Tel Aviv-Jerusalem corridor. The first settlement established there after the Six Day War was Kfar Etzion. It was created in September 1967. In 1968 there were only five sparsely populated settlements on the other side of the Green Line.
While Deputy Prime Minister Jigal Allon stressed the importance of settlements in strategically important areas for the establishment of secure borders, Defense Minister Moshe Dayan spoke of "new facts" that would be created with the fortified villages, of "Israelization" of occupied areas.
Another early settlement began in the city of Hebron , where the tomb of Patriarch Abraham is located. There had been a centuries-old Jewish community there until the anti-Jewish massacres in 1929 . It was no coincidence that a group of national religious Jews, led by Rabbi Mosche Levinger, settled there on the Passover festival in 1968. After negotiations with the government, the Kirjat Arba settlement was established in the east of the city in 1970 .
Until the election of Menachem Begin as Prime Minister in 1977, only a few such religious-ideological settlements had been established. Begins and subsequent Likud- led governments gave Jews financial incentives to move to Judea and Samaria, even if the populated areas were of no strategic value. Its purpose was to consolidate Israel's influence over the territory that was part of biblical and historical Israel and to forestall the creation of a Palestinian state. Immediately after the 1977 elections, 1,900 Jews lived in 38 settlements.
The development of the population in the further course:
|Jewish population in the occupied territories||1948||1966||1972||1983||1993||2004||2006|
|West Bank (excluding East Jerusalem)||480 (see Kfar Etzion )||0||1,182||22,800||111,600||234,487||282,400|
|East Jerusalem||2,300||0||8,649||76,095||152,800||181,587||184,057 1|
|Gaza||30 (see Kfar Darom )||0||700 2||900||4,800||7,826||0|
2 including the Sinai
|Population in the West Bank||1967||1977||1987||1997||2004|
|Palestinians||597,900||695,700||888.100||1.8 million||2.3 million|
In mid-2012 there were around 250 Israeli settlements and outposts with a total of more than 600,000 inhabitants, the entire infrastructure of which made up around 2% of the territory of the West Bank. Of these, around 350,000 lived in settlements in the West Bank, around 300,000 in and around East Jerusalem and around 20,000 in the 33 settlements on the Golan Heights.
Types of settlements
- Settlements that form cities with tens of thousands of inhabitants and complete infrastructure, such as Ariel , Betar Illit , Modiʿin Illit and Giwat Seew
- Settlements connected to other communities, such as Gilo in East Jerusalem
- Settlements that form Jewish enclaves within Palestinian cities, such as Hebron
- Settlements that are near Palestinian towns far from the Green Line, such as Itamar
- Defense and border villages
- so-called "outposts" - outposts that mainly consist of mobile homes, sometimes tents.
Most of these settlements were newly built, some existed before 1948 and were evacuated after Transjordan conquered the area. The newly established settlements are often a short distance from Palestinian villages and cities on the strategically favorable hills. They are often named after biblical locations.
Often there is an Arabic place in the vicinity with a similar name or name. For example, next to the settlement Ateret is the Arabic place ʿAṭāra, next to Bet El Bētīn (the phonetic change -īl> īn is often in Palestinian Arabic ), next to Ofra is the former il-ʿUfra, which is now called iṭ-Ṭayyibe.
Settlements in places previously settled by Jews
Some settlements were built in places that were already inhabited by Jews at or before the British Mandate .
- Golan Heights - 5 Jewish settlements from 1885; including Bnei Jehuda, above Ein Gev , was built in 1891, abandoned in 1920 due to Arab attacks and re-established in 1972 next to the old ruins.
- Nablus - Settled by Jews from biblical times until the 1930s, after 1967 several settlements were built on the surrounding mountains.
- Jerusalem , today's urban area - Kfar HaSchiloach (The place was inhabited by Jews from Yemen from 1882 until the resettlement in 1938. A new settlement was established there in 2004 in what is now the Arab district of Silwan.), Shimon HaZadiq (founded in 1891, 1936 after abandoned by Arab attacks, since 1999 again a small Jewish residential unit); Atarot (1914–1948, airport and industrial park since 1967); Newe Ya'akov (1924-1948, re-established in 1972);
- Dead Sea , northern tip - Bet HaArawa (1939-1948, re-established in 1986), Kalia (1929-1948, re-established in 1972)
- Gush-Etzion communities - They were created between 1943 and 1947 and were destroyed in 1948. The rebuilding began in 1967.
- Hebron - Settled by Jews since Biblical times, the city was abandoned after the Hebron massacre in 1929 and repopulated in 1968.
- Gaza Strip - Kefar Darom : A settlement existed from 1946 to 1948, was repopulated in 1970 and abandoned in 2005 as part of the decoupling plan.
In 2016, 391,000 Israeli settlers lived in the West Bank and 201,000 in East Jerusalem.
With the exception of the annexed areas of East Jerusalem and Golan, Israeli citizens can only move into the occupied areas with the permission of the government.
National religious Jews emphasize the historical ties of the Jews to the areas in question. They believe that God promised this land to the Jews as it is written in the Torah . They are used in Europe u. a. supported by the EU association Friends of Judea and Samarias . In addition to those who live in the settlements for national religious reasons, more and more poor people are moving to the subsidized residential complexes because they cannot afford the expensive apartments in the Tel Aviv area. According to the “Peace Now” observatory, only about a third of the settlers move to the West Bank for ideological reasons. The majority come in order to benefit from the state subsidy programs. A third of the settlers are said to be secular.
Use of language
- Settlements or municipalities: In general, the term "settlement" is assumed to be recently established locations. Some interpret the facts in this sense and therefore consider the term settlement appropriate, while others believe that these are full-fledged Israeli communities that were only re-established after 1967, after they had to be abandoned in 1948 (or much earlier). In addition, the latter point out that very different, sometimes city-like areas are referred to as "settlements", which is ultimately misleading.
- In Hebrew , for settlements outside the Green Line, most of the media and in common parlance use the term hitnachlujot ( Hebrew התנחלויות; Singular hitnachlut ,התנחלות) is used. Settlers become mitnachalim (מתנחלים; Singular mitnachel ,מתנחל) called. Right-wing conservative supporters and the settlers themselves refer to the settlements as yishuvim (יישובים; Singular yishuv ,יישוב) and the settlers as mitjaschwim (מתיישבים; Singular mitjaschew ,מתיישב), which is identical to the term for settlements in the Israeli heartland. Opponents of the Israeli settlements consider such terminology to be euphemistic.
- In Arabic the term mustauṭanāt (مستوطنات) for the settlements or mustauṭinīn (مستوطنين) used for the settlers.
- West Bank , West Bank or Judea and Samaria : The names "West Bank" or "West Bank" come from the time when Jordan controlled the area in question. They are by far the most frequently used terms in German and West Bank in English. The United Nations also use them. Judea and Samaria is the official Israeli name, the names are of biblical and historical origin.
- "Occupied" or "Disputed" territories: The legal status of the territories is a much debated issue. Israelis prefer the latter, the Palestinians refer to them either as Palestine or - with emphasis on the Israeli occupation of the area - as occupied territories (الأراضي المحتلة al-arāḍī al-muḥtalla ) or Palestinian territories.
Status of the areas
International and legal background
The last binding legal instrument on the territory of the settlements was the British League of Nations Mandate for Palestine , which recognized the right to Jewish settlement in the entire Mandate area. These rights under the British mandate were upheld by the successor organization of the League of Nations, the UN, under Article 49 of the Charter of the United Nations .
The establishment and expansion of Israeli settlements in the West Bank and Gaza Strip have been declared illegal by the United Nations Security Council on several occasions, for example in Resolutions 446 , 452 , 465 and 471 . On December 23, 2016, the Security Council found in Resolution 2334 that the settlements were a flagrant violation of international law, that it was contrary to the two-state solution and that Israel must end settlement activities. The US did not veto Israel for the first time in 36 years . Like previous resolutions on Israel, this resolution adopted under Chapter VI of the UN Charter is not binding under international law.
The basis for the position of the United Nations and the International Court of Justice is the Fourth Geneva Convention of 1949, which states:
"The occupying power may not deport or relocate parts of their own civilian population to the area they occupy."
In an opinion to the UN General Assembly, the International Court of Justice represented the applicability of the fourth Geneva Convention to the Palestinian territories. The court argued that under Article 2 of the Geneva Convention, the Convention applies in all cases where there is an armed conflict between two contracting parties, regardless of the status of the territories in international law prior to an attack.
Israel takes the position that the West Bank and Gaza Strip have never been part of a sovereign state since the end of the British mandate . The annexation of the West Bank by Jordan, in violation of international law, was not recognized internationally. Formally, the territory is not legally occupied and the Fourth Geneva Convention is therefore not applicable to the West Bank. In addition, Article 49 only refers to the forced transfer of large parts of the population, but the settlements are a voluntary move by civilians, initially against the will of the Israeli government.
In addition, the Geneva Convention only applies if there is no peace treaty and only between two states that both recognize the Geneva Convention. Because the Oslo Accords postpone the negotiations on the status of the settlements until later, the allegation of illegality is undone.
It is also argued that under customary international law, no territorial acquisition should be recognized as legal if it has been achieved through the threat or use of force, according to Stefan Talmon, for example.
The Israeli side also argues that giving up territories does not necessarily lead to peace. This was shown by the abandonment of the Gaza Strip and the dissolution of the settlements there in summer 2005.
In 2012, the Israeli Supreme Court ruled that some settlements were on Palestinian land and could not be legalized afterwards. This affected the Ulpana district of Bet El , which was evacuated in summer 2012, and the Migron and Amona outposts , which were evacuated in 2012.
In 2020, the Supreme Court again declared the expropriations of Palestinian landowners in the West Bank unconstitutional, after a corresponding law was passed in 2017 to legitimize the expropriations.
Discussions about legality of land acquisition
The Israeli side alleges that the absolute majority of the areas currently occupied by the settlements either belonged to the state from which they were leased or were legitimately bought by the Palestinians. It is not illegal to acquire land in this way. An Ottoman law of 1858 is also used by the Israeli civil administration for the expropriation of Palestinian land. Land can thus be expropriated by the state if it is no longer built on for a long time.
Opponents of this view say the vacant land either belonged to refugee Arabs or was communal land that was collectively owned by a village. This practice had developed under Ottoman rule, but the British and Jordanians tried unsuccessfully to end the practice since the late 1920s.
The Israeli non-governmental organization B'Tselem claims that the Israeli governments took advantage of the lack of modern legal documents for the communal land in order to appropriate it. Taken together, according to B'Tselem, around 42% of the West Bank is under Israeli control.
The Israeli non-governmental organization Shalom Achshaw claimed in a document published in 2006 that around 40% of the settlements were built on land that is privately owned by Palestinians. Numerous errors, inaccuracies and lies were found in this report, which raised questions about the organization's credibility.
In January 2009, the Israeli daily Haaretz reported that it had obtained a secret database of settlements that was being held back by Defense Minister Ehud Barak because of its political explosiveness. The database shows that in 75% of all settlements in the West Bank, some significant developments were carried out without a permit or even against Israeli regulations. In over 30 settlements, buildings and infrastructure (roads, schools, synagogues, yeshivot and also police stations) were built on private property by Palestinians.
Under Israeli law, an outpost is a settlement that has been established without the required approval from the Israeli government.
In some cases, the demolition of existing outposts has been ordered. In June 2014, after six years of litigation, Palestinians received compensation for lost income from their country for the first time, because the state did not evacuate the illegally established Amona outpost there, despite orders from the civil authorities. The comparison confirms that the construction of the building was not only carried out without a permit, but was also subsidized with state funds.
A government report from 2005 commissioned by the then Prime Minister Ariel Sharon describes secret cooperation between various ministries and official bodies in order to consolidate the so-called "Wildcat" outposts, which were established by settlers more than 10 years ago. The report, lead by former Israeli Prosecutor Talia Sasson, revealed that the Department of Construction and Housing used NIS 71,870,000 between 2000 and 2004 to fund unauthorized outposts. Sasson called it a "blatant violation of the law" and stated that the process of expanding the outposts would continue.
A legal commission set up by Netanyahu in January 2012 under former Chief Justice Edmund Levy, however, recommended legalizing the outposts, which are illegal even under Israeli law. The Israeli governments have given their "tacit approval" for the construction by officially declaring the construction illegal and at the same time promoting it.
Following the evacuation of the Amona outpost , parliament passed the controversial legalization law in February 2017 that retrospectively legalizes around 4,000 settler houses that have been built on private Palestinian land. While Avoda MP Merav Michaeli criticized: “We need security here. We want to live in peace and prosperity, and in order to achieve this there is no choice but to find a solution to this conflict with the Palestinians. The legalization law is just one more step in burying our heads in the sand, because the Palestinians will not go away even if we pass a legalization law. ", Education Minister Naftali Bennett asked :" We have been waiting for normalization for fifty years. ... Do we want a Palestinian state to emerge in Judea and Samaria or do we want Israeli sovereignty over the so-called C-areas according to Plan Bennett? ”The law was temporarily suspended in August 2017 by the Supreme Court.
In April 2018, residents of the Havat Gilad outpost retrospectively received building permits in response to the murder of Rasiel Shevah, one of the residents of the settlement.
Plans to annex the settlements
In the West Bank, Israeli citizens are also officially subject to military jurisdiction and not Israeli law. In practice, however, cases from residents of the settlements are tried in a civil court (Jerusalem District Court). There are efforts to change this legal status and extend Israeli law to the settlements as well. Since this would de facto amount to an annexation of the settlements and would be condemned internationally, this plan has not yet reached the Knesset .
Shalom Achshaw accuses the settler movement of working for decades to make a two-state solution impossible. More and more politically motivated Jewish settlers are moving specifically to the Arab part of Jerusalem in order to create facts. The more mixed the neighborhoods, the more difficult it is to slam East Jerusalem over to the Palestinians in the event of a peace agreement and the establishment of a state of Palestine.
According to a Haaretz commentary, the settlement activity has not progressed so far that only the annexation of the West Bank is practicable, as the settler movement has repeatedly published. Even if there are settlements in almost all parts of the country, 85% of the settlers live in the large settlement blocks. 93% of the buildings are used for residential purposes, most of the factories are in 14 industrial zones, in which mainly Palestinians are employed. As a result, the majority of the residents work in the Israeli heartland and do not automatically lose their jobs if settlements are abandoned.
At the end of 2017, the central committee of the ruling party Likud passed a resolution calling for the annexation of the occupied West Bank, literally the extension of "Israeli sovereignty to Judea and Samaria ". Prime Minister Netanyahu was not present at the vote.
Before the parliamentary elections in Israel in September 2019 , Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu announced that he would annex the Jordan Valley on the border with Jordan if he was re-elected . He later specified that he only wanted to annex all Jewish settlements in the Jordan Valley and the “northern Dead Sea”, while Palestinian places such as Jericho remained untouched. However, this corresponds to about 90 percent of the area in question. Netanyahu's most promising challenger, Benjamin Gantz from the party alliance “Blau Weiß” , claimed the idea of this annexation in response to this. Among the Israeli parties, only the Israeli Left Alliance and the Arab parties reject the annexation plans in principle. All others are also aiming for the annexation of the Jordan Valley. UN Secretary General António Guterres criticized the annexation plans as a serious violation of international law, which was devastating for the possibility of a revival of negotiations and regional peace, considerably reduced the chance for peace in the region and made a two-state solution between Israelis and Palestinians more difficult. The EU also opposed Netanyahu's election promises. The European Union will not recognize any unilateral changes to the pre-1967 borders; Israeli settlement policy and activities are illegal under international law.
Treatment of special status by the EU
In July 2013 the EU issued new guidelines that stipulated that companies with connections to settlements are no longer allowed to participate in EU-funded projects. This caused protests in the Israeli government, as the Horizon 2020 science project is also affected. The Dutch water supply company Vitens ended its cooperation with the Israeli Mekorot , which drills for water in the West Bank , for a similar reason . Mekorot was also accused of discriminating against the Palestinians in water supplies. A study by the Israeli Begin Sadat Center found that there was almost no difference in the per capita consumption of natural water between Israelis and Palestinians.
In November 2015, the EU Commission stated in an “interpretative communication” how the existing regulations for labeling the country of production of cosmetics and agricultural products should be interpreted. Both for these products, where labeling is mandatory, and for voluntary labeling of other products, this must not be misleading. The Commission therefore proposes the designation “product from the West Bank (Israeli settlement)” or “product from the Golan Heights (Israeli settlement)”, while products produced outside the settlements are labeled “product from the West Bank (Palestine)” or “product from” Palestine ”should carry. The designation “Made in Israel” is in both cases incorrect and misleading. Israeli politicians reacted angrily and the EU ambassador was summoned to the Israeli foreign ministry. Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu compared the regulations to the boycott of Jewish products by the Nazis. Israeli politicians pointed out that products from the Western Sahara, which was occupied by Morocco , do not have to be labeled in the EU as well.
On November 12, 2019, the European Court of Justice ruled that within the EU for products from settlement areas, an additional note must be attached in addition to the label "made in Israel". According to the spokeswoman for the EU embassy in Israel, it is part of the EU's consumption policy that the origin is “clear and not misleading”. The Israeli professor Arie Reich considers the judgment to be directed unilaterally against Israel, as the EU imports products from other occupied areas such as Northern Cyprus without any special labeling. The Palestinians, on the other hand, welcomed the verdict. The EU states should now fulfill their “legal and political duty”. The SPD MEP Dietmar Köster stated that Palestinians who work in the companies there suffer most from the expected decline in the products produced. In addition, the labeling of goods from the disputed regions could be instrumentalized for campaigns that question Israel's right to exist . The Yesha Council , the settler organization , criticized the judgment as "hypocritical" and said it had its origins in "the deepest layers of anti-Semitism".
Because of the settlements, there were several upsets between Israel and the USA. In 1991 , the US withheld a cheap loan to put pressure on Israel to continue building settlements in the Jerusalem and Bethlehem corridor. Former US President Jimmy Carter described the UN General Assembly's decision in 2000 that the settlements were "illegal and an obstacle to peace" as America's long-standing stance. The George W. Bush administration described the settlements as "not helpful" for the peace process . US President Barack Obama said in his Cairo speech in 2009 : “The United States does not regard continued Israeli settlement as legitimate. It violates existing agreements and undermines efforts to achieve peace. It is time for this settlement to end. ”In response to Netanyahu's announcement of further settlements in September 2009, the White House responded with a press release calling for the expansion to stop. US President Donald Trump found in February 2018 that the construction of settlements was making the Middle East peace process more difficult . After the election of Trump, however, there was a surge in spending in the settlements, with spending on roads, schools and public buildings rising by 39% in the West Bank in 2017. Both supporters and critics of the settlement movement had previously spoken of a "trump card", the expectation that the president's friendlier approach would lead to an expanded expansion of the settlements. On November 18, 2019, the US government, through Secretary of State Mike Pompeo , declared that Israeli settlement construction in the West Bank was legal and not in violation of international law.
Violence in the settlements
There have been violent attacks by Palestinians and settlers in connection with the settlements.
Time and again, settlers are victims of attacks in the settlements or on the streets there. For example, assassins invaded settlements several times and murdered entire families. The cases of the shot baby Schalhewet Pass in Hebron in 2001 and the murder of the Fogel family in the Itamar settlement in 2011 caused a sensation . The terrorist organization Hamas describes Israeli settlers as "legitimate targets".
On the other hand, settlers are attacking neighboring Palestinian villages. The destruction of olive trees in the vicinity of the settlements and other agricultural areas in revenge or to drive away farmers also occurs again and again. According to the ICRC , 10,000 olive trees were cut down or burned by settlers between 2007 and 2010. According to Haaretz, however, these attacks are rarely passed on by the authorities and the media.
While Palestinians are intensely persecuted for their attacks, settlers are less likely to be. At the end of 2013, for the first time, a military judge pronounced an acquittal against Palestinians who had been charged with throwing stones because the settler on the other side, who had also thrown stones, had not been prosecuted in any way.
After the first evacuations of illegal outposts by the Israeli army, an extremist group from around the settlers introduced the so-called “price tag” policy. For every illegal Jewish outpost destroyed by the Israeli army, Palestinian property is destroyed as "a price to be paid by the Palestinians." Mosques were also set on fire. On September 7, 2011, this extremist group “punished” the Israeli army for the first time for an evacuation carried out two days earlier. An army base was devastated and vehicles parked there damaged. Two days earlier, a Palestinian mosque had been damaged in this context, an act that was also condemned by the EU. In the following two years, the attacks were increasingly directed against Christian targets. According to a report by the Schin Bet, around 100 followers of Yitzchak Ginsburgh from the area around the settlement of Jitzhar are mainly behind the Price Tag attacks .
However, there are also examples of cooperation on both sides; Journalist Amira Hass from the Haaretz newspaper reported that products from the Tekoa settlement could be found in “fine” shops in Ramallah and that a group of the settlers there would represent a two-state solution .
The abandonment of settlements and peace proposals
→ Main article: Israeli peace diplomacy
The previous Israeli and American peace proposals provided for Israel to keep large settlement blocs within the framework of a peace treaty. 80% of all settlers live in five settlement blocks ( Maʿale Adummim , Modiʿin Illit , Ariel , Gush Etzion and Giv'at Seev ). According to Mitchell G. Bard, director of the Jewish Virtual Library, it is inconceivable that Israel would evacuate large cities like Ma'ale Adumim, with a population of around 40,000, even after a peace deal with the Palestinians. Even Yasser Arafat accepted the idea at Camp David that the large settlement blocs would be part of Israel.
Ehud Olmert's 2008 peace plan provided for compensation through Israeli territories.
By exchanging 4.73% of the West Bank territory, the establishment of a contiguous Palestinian state would be possible in a possible conflict resolution without the forced evacuation of the majority of Israeli settlers.
- Steffen Hagemann : The settler movement. Fundamentalism in Israel (= science newsreel ). Wochenschau Verlag, Schwalbach 2010, ISBN 978-3-89974-615-0 .
- Idith Zertal, Akiva Eldar: The Lords of the Land. Israel and the settler movement since 1967 . Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt, 2007, ISBN 3-421-04268-3 ; Translation of עקיבא אלדר / עדית זרטל: אדוני הארץ - המתנחלים ומדינת ישראל 1967.
- Human rights situation in Palestine and other occupied Arab territories (PDF; 538 kB). Report of the independent international fact-finding mission to investigate the implications of the Israeli settlements on the civil, political, economic, social and cultural rights of the Palestinian people throughout the Occupied Palestinian Territory, including East Jerusalem, February 2013
- Dore Gold: From "Occupied Territories" to "Disputed Territories" (Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs)
- Settlements ( Memento of April 17, 2004 in the Internet Archive ) ( PLO Negotiations Affairs Department)
- Jewish Virtual Library: Israel-Palestinian Peace Process: The Settlements
- The legal status of Israeli settlements under International Humanitarian Law (Harvard University / ReliefWeb)
- Land expropriation and settlements ( B'Tselem )
- Secret Israeli database reveals full extent of illegal settlement , Report in Haaretz (English), February 1, 2009
- Benjamin Moscovici: What you should know about the Israeli settlements In Süddeutsche Zeitung , February 15, 2017
- Josef Federman: Trump's election has boosted Israeli settlement construction. In: AP. May 14, 2019, accessed November 7, 2019 .
- UN Security Council: Resolution 465 (1980) (PDF)
- RESOLUTION 66/78 of the UN General Assembly, u. a. with reference to decisions of the ICJ. December 9, 2011, accessed September 17, 2019 .
- Resolution of the UN Security Council of 2016, with reference to earlier decisions: Resolution 2334 (2016) (PDF)
- Charles A. Compatriot: Netanyahu's lawyers consider settlements to be legal . In: Der Tagesspiegel , July 10, 2012.
- DER SPIEGEL: West Bank: Supreme Court blocks subsequent legalization of Israeli settlements - DER SPIEGEL - Politics. Retrieved June 10, 2020 .
- Amira Hass : In West Bank, buying land isn't always what it seems . Ha-Aretz, January 10, 2012
- Many Evicted Gaza Settlers Go to West Bank, at least at First New York Times, August 23, 2005
- Peter Philipp: The history of settlement policy . German wave . July 22, 2009
- Josi Rudoren: As Syria Reels, Israel Looks to Expand Settlements in Golan Heights. In: Nee York Times, October 3, 2015, accessed September 18, 2018.
- Jewish Virtual Library: Geography of Israel: The Etzion Bloc (Gush Etzion)
- Mitchell G. Bard: Facts About Jewish Settlements in the West Bank In: Jewish Virtual Library
- New facts in DER SPIEGEL , December 7, 1970
- Can Jewish settlement issue be resolved? In: BBC News . February 16, 2017 ( bbc.com [accessed May 31, 2018]).
- Harriet Sherwood: Population of Jewish settlements in the West Bank up 15,000 in a year. Number of settlers has almost doubled in 12 years, increasing obstacles to two-state solution to Israeli-Palestinian conflict. In: The Guardian. July 26, 2012, accessed April 2, 2013 .
- Carta's Historical Atlas of Israel. A Survey of the Past & Review of the Present, Jerusalem 1996, p. 23 ("Towns and Villages of the First and Second Aliyah"), ISBN 965-220-342-4 (= Historical Atlas); Fischbach, Michael R .: Jewish Property Claims against Arab Countries, New York 2008, p. 36f, ISBN 978-0-231-13538-2 (= Fischbach)
- Gilbert, Martin: Jerusalem. Illustrated History Atlas, 3rd edition Jerusalem 1994, Gilbert p. 53 ("Jerusalem in the 1880s"), ISBN 0 85303 285 8 (= Gilbert)
- Gilbert, p. 55 ("Jerusalem in the 1890s")
- Gilbert, p. 85 ("The Jews and Arabs of Jerusalem by 1945")
- Gilbert, p. 89 ("Jewish and Arab Suburbs in the Jerusalem Area by 1947"), Fischbach, p. 84
- Historical Atlas, p. 29 ("The Arab Invasion, 15 May 1948"), Fischbach, p. 84
- Historical Atlas, p. 29 ("The Arab Invasion, 15 May 1948")
- Historical Atlas, p. 29 ("The Arab Invasion, May 15, 1948"); Fischbach, p. 87
- CIA World Factbook
- The History of Settlement Policy . German wave . July 22, 2009
- Peace in the Mideast? I'm not interested , Ha-Aretz on June 26, 2014
- Jeffrey Helmreich: Diplomatic and legal aspects of the settlement question. In: The Jerusalem Question, Issue 2, No. 16, January 19, 2003.
- Carol Morello: "US declines to veto UN Security Council resolution for Israel to stop Jewish settlement activity" Washington Post, December 23, 2016
- Israel and the Palestinians: Can settlement issue be solved? In: BBC News. September 17, 2019, accessed November 8, 2019 .
- Geneva Convention on the Protection of Civilians in Time of War. (PDF; 626 kB) Swiss Confederation , August 12, 1949, pp. 17–18 , accessed on May 30, 2009 .
- USA regards settlement construction as legal. Israelnetz.de , November 19, 2019, accessed December 26, 2019 .
- UN News Center: International Court of Justice finds Israeli barrier in Palestinian territory is illegal In: 9 July 2004.
- International Court of Justice: Legal Consequences of the Construction of a Wall in the Occupied Palestinian Territory Summary July 9, 2004 ( Memento of the original from June 24, 2018 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link has been inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. (PDF)
- The US Undermines International Law , Spiegel Online, December 2017
- "Dismantling of settlements threatens Israel's existence". Israelnetz.de , January 9, 2020, accessed on January 12, 2020 .
- Chaim Levinson: Israel Expropriates Palestinian Land in Order to Legalize West Bank Settlement. In: Haaretz. July 8, 2011, accessed November 6, 2019 .
Peace Now: ( Peace Now );
Settlements 'violate Israeli law' BBC , November 21, 2006;
Rory McCarthy: 39% of Israeli settlements 'on private land' ( The Guardian , November 22, 2006);
Yair Sheleg: 40 percent of settlements were built on Palestinian land ( Memento of the original from June 7, 2007 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. ( Ha'aretz , November 21, 2006); Dror Etkes: A settlements mafia ( Ha'aretz , November 22, 2006); Nadav Shragai: Blow to settlement movement ( Ha'aretz , November 23, 2006).
- Tamar Sternthal: Peace Now's margin of error. In: Ynetnews. March 21, 2007, accessed November 5, 2019 .
- Uri Blau: Secret Israeli Database Reveals Full Extent of Illegal Settlement. In: Haaretz. January 1, 2009, accessed November 5, 2019 .
- For first time, Israel compensating Palestinians over settlers' land grab , Ha-Aretz on June 25, 2014
- Talya Sason: Summary of the Opinion Concerning Unauthorized Outposts. Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs, March 10, 2005, accessed May 18, 2014 .
- What is the Sasson Report? ( Memento of October 13, 2009 in the Internet Archive ), Shalom Achschaw . Retrieved September 28, 2010
- Israel legalizes thousands of settler dwellings in ZEIT ONLINE, February 6, 2017
- Criticism of the legalization of settlements in Deutschlandfunk, February 7, 2017
- Supreme Court temporarily stops legalization law. In: Focus Jerusalem TV. August 18, 2017, accessed November 6, 2019 .
- Israel approves settlement in the West Bank. In: Frankfurter Rundschau. February 4, 2018, accessed November 6, 2019 .
- hairetz.com , Ha-Aretz on May 13, 2012
- Palestinians protest against evictions , Der Spiegel , August 13, 2009
- The lies about the settlements , Ha-Aretz on October 3, 2012
- party for the annexation of parts of the West Bank. In: ZEIT ONLINE. December 31, 2017, accessed October 26, 2019 .
- Netanyahu wants to annex the Jordan Valley - Palestine fears "erasure". In: WORLD. September 10, 2019, accessed October 20, 2019 .
- The Anti-Netanyahu. In: Tagesschau. September 17, 2019, accessed October 26, 2019 .
- Christoph Sydow: The two-state solution goes over the Jordan. In: SPIEGEL ONLINE. September 11, 2019, accessed November 7, 2019 .
- UN rejects Netanyahu's annexation plans as a violation of international law. In: time. September 12, 2019, accessed October 26, 2019 .
- EU criticizes Benjamin Netanyahu's annexation plans. In: time. September 11, 2019, accessed October 26, 2019 .
- Products originating in the West Bank do not come under the preferential tariff regime of the EC-Israel Agreement (PDF; 85 kB). Court of Justice of the European Union
- Israel-EU rift deepening after talks over settlement funding ban hit impasse , Ha-Aretz on November 25, 2013
- Dutch water giant severs ties with Israeli water company due to settlements , Ha-Aretz on December 11, 2013
- Study on the water situation in the West Bank. In: Embassy of the State of Israel in Berlin. January 20, 2012, accessed November 15, 2019 .
- Interpretative Notice on indication of origin of goods from the territories occupied by Israel since June 1967. (PDF) Numbers 9 and 10. EU Commission, November 11, 2015, accessed on November 12, 2015 .
- label: Netanyahu feels reminded of Nazi times. derStandard.at, November 11, 2015, accessed on November 12, 2015 .
- Is EU discriminating against Israel by labeling settlement goods? Times of Israel, November 12, 2015
- labeling for settlement products. Israelnetz.de , November 12, 2019, accessed on November 15, 2019 .
- Pierre Heumann, Eva Fischer: ECJ: Products from settlement areas are not “made in Israel”. In: Handelsblatt. November 12, 2019, accessed November 15, 2019 .
- state.gov (PDF)
- the long-stated American position , cf. Jimmy Carter : For Israel, Land or Peace ( Memento of May 19, 2006 on the Internet Archive ) (Opinion, reprinted by the Washington Post on November 26, 2000, now on the Internet Archive )
- A new beginning - official German translation of President Obama's speech to the Muslim world of June 4, 2009
- Statement by the Press Secretary on Israeli Settlements ( Memento of the original from September 9, 2009 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link has been inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. , White House , September 4, 2009
- Trump criticizes Israel's settlement policy in ZEIT ONLINE , February 11, 2018
- Zeit.de: Schützenhilfe für Netanyahu , November 18, 2019
- Tagesschau.de: USA consider settlement construction as legal
- Focus.de: USA: Israel's settlement construction in the West Bank is not a violation of international law
- Jewish settlers bury baby. In: Rheinische Post. April 1, 2001, accessed November 6, 2019 .
- The Itamar massacre. In: Israel Network. March 20, 2011, accessed November 6, 2019 .
- Hamas official: Israeli settlers are a legitimate military target , Ha-Aretz on September 4, 2010
- Israel makes life very hard for Palestinians, says ICRC (BBC, February 17, 2010)
- Amira Hass: Israeli Attacks on Palestinian Olive Groves Kept Top Secret by State. In: Haaretz. October 28, 2013, accessed November 6, 2019 .
- For first time, Palestinians acquitted of stone throwing , Ha-Aretz on January 2, 2014
- Israeli settlers vandalize IDF base in first 'price tag' act against army , Ha-Aretz
- EU's Ashton: Settler attack on West Bank mosque undermines Mideast peace , Ha-Aretz
- Attack on Jerusalem graves unnerves Christians , Associated Press on 10 October 2013
- Amos Harel, Revital Hovel, Jack Khoury: 'Security sources: 100 followers of racist rabbi are behind hate crimes,' , Ha-Aretz on May 8, 2014.
- Helga Embacher, Bernadette Edtmaier, Alexandra Preitschopf: Anti-Semitism in Europe. Case studies of a global phenomenon in the 21st century. Böhlau, Vienna 2019, p. 21
- nytimes.com: Mapping Mideast Peace
- Options for Resolving the Israeli-Palestinian Territorial Issue. Retrieved June 1, 2018 .
- Three Options for Peace Between Palestinians and Israel . ( nytimes.com [accessed June 1, 2018]).
- Judy Maltz: Explained: How Big an Obstacle Are Israeli Settlements to Peace? In: Haaretz . February 14, 2017 ( Haaretz.com [accessed June 1, 2018]).