Red List of World Heritage in Danger
The Red List of World Heritage in Danger is maintained by UNESCO . It is based on the World Heritage Convention signed by 193 countries. Of those cultural and natural monuments that are on the World Heritage List , UNESCO uses this Red List to highlight those whose existence and validity are threatened by serious and specific dangers such as damage, destruction or disappearance. UNESCO calls for extraordinary conservation efforts for these sites.
There are many reasons for threats. Land development, urbanization, natural disasters, armed conflicts, clearing, poaching, vandalism, neglect and extensive tourism can endanger World Heritage sites . Threats can already be identified, as if buildings have been demolished, or only possible, as if there is no legal basis for protection.
An inclusion in the Red List is always an appeal to the international community. The application is submitted by UNESCO or the country concerned. The decision is adopted by the World Heritage Committee with a two-thirds majority. In this case, the “community of states” should participate financially, technically and politically in the protection and rescue. The World Heritage Committee also has its own funds from which aid measures can be financed. The World Heritage Committee sometimes threatens to add a site to the Red List against the will of the affected state. This announcement alone can initiate significant conservation efforts in some countries.
"[...] the Committee is of the view that its assistance in certain cases may most effectively be limited to messages of its concern, including the message sent by inscription of a property on the List of World Heritage in Danger and that such assistance may be requested by any Committee member or the Secretariat. "
“[…] The Committee believes that, in certain cases, its assistance may most appropriately be limited to communications of concern, including notification of an item being inscribed on the World Heritage List in Danger, and that such assistance may be from anyone Member of the committee or the secretariat can be requested. "
After the entry, the World Heritage Committee formulates a program for remedial measures and creates the schedule, preferably coordinated with the state concerned, if necessary against its will. The measures to protect the site are checked, the processes are determined and it is checked when the condition that gave rise to the registration will be eliminated. A site can only be removed from the Red List when the cause of the threat to entry has been eliminated. If the hazard is not eliminated and the outstanding importance of the site is irretrievably destroyed, the site or part of it can also be removed from the World Heritage List, although this rarely occurs (see Former World Heritage ).
Entries in the red list
In July 2019, 53 of the 1113 World Heritage sites were on the Red List.
- Natural heritage sites are marked with an “ N ” and cultural heritage sites with a “ K ”.
- Monuments that belong to both the world cultural and the world natural heritage bear a " K / N ".
|Red list since||site||Country||Type||World Heritage since||reasons|
|1982||Old City and City Walls of Jerusalem||not assigned to any state||K||1981||Given the unclear legal status of Jerusalem, the preservation of the Old City is a particular problem. Most recently, work on the ramp to the dung gate was controversial.|
|1986||Ruined city of Chan Chan||Peru||K||1986||The ruins are exposed to increasingly severe damage due to climate changes , rising groundwater levels and illegal settlements on the site.|
|1992||Strict nature reserve Mount Nimba||
Ivory Coast , Guinea
||N||1981||Iron ore mining is planned in Guinea , rebels are in control in Ivory Coast and refugees have set up camps in the park.|
|1992||Aïr and Ténéré nature reserves||Niger||N||1991||The uprisings of the Tuareg led to the acceptance, the various political upheavals and insufficient involvement of the government have prevented it from being removed from the list.|
|1994||Virunga National Park||Democratic Republic of Congo||N||1979||A wave of refugees entering the region after the genocide in Rwanda threatened the park's tree population. Armed groups are still operating in the region.|
|1996||Garamba National Park||Democratic Republic of Congo||N||1980||The white rhinos were almost wiped out by poaching. The unclear politico-military situation speaks against removing the park from the list anytime soon.|
|1997||Kahuzi-Biéga National Park||Democratic Republic of Congo||N||1980||The population of the mountain gorillas is endangered, the lower-lying regions of the park are used by a Rwandan rebel group as a base of operations.|
|1997||Okapi game reserve||Democratic Republic of Congo||N||1996||Deforestation through slash and burn for agriculture and commercial hunting for the sale of game meat, as well as the mining of gold and coltan threaten the reserve.|
|1997||Manovo-Gounda Saint Floris National Park||Central African Republic||N||1988||Organized poaching has massively reduced the park's animal population.|
|1999||Salonga National Park||Democratic Republic of Congo||N||1984||The general breakdown of law and order in the region resulted in the looting and desertion of some of the park guards.|
|2000||Medina of Zabid||Yemen||K||1993||The historical souq is no longer used, and many buildings have been replaced by modern concrete structures.|
|2001||Early Christian ruins of Abu Mena (Monastery of St. Menas)||Egypt||K||1979||Rising groundwater as a result of an irrigation project destroys the foundations.|
|2002||Minaret and archaeological finds from Jam||Afghanistan||K||2002||The minaret threatened to be washed away by the river and is no longer vertical. There are no structures to protect the site yet.|
|2003||Cultural landscape and archaeological sites of the Bamiyan Valley (e.g. Buddha statues of Bamiyan )||Afghanistan||K||2003||After the statues were destroyed by the Taliban in 2001, their niches threatened to collapse. Landmines still lie in parts of the valley .|
|2003||Aššur||Iraq||K||2003||The excavation sites threatened to be flooded by the construction of the Makhul Dam. Although the project has been abandoned, the general security issues remain.|
|2005||Old town and port of Coro||Venezuela||K||1993||Severe storms in 2004/05 wreaked havoc on the city.|
|2006||Medieval monuments in Kosovo : Dečani Monastery , Patriarchal Monastery Peć , Gračanica Monastery and Church of the Virgin of Ljeviša||
( Kosovo )
|K||2004/2006||The security situation is unstable.|
|2007||Archaeological sites of Samarra||Iraq||K||2007||The dome and minarets of the Al-Askari shrine were destroyed by bomb attacks.|
|2007||Niokolo-Koba National Park||Senegal||N||1981||The park suffers from poaching and a dam construction project in the Gambia could prevent the regular flooding of the grasslands.|
|2010||Everglades National Park||United States||N||1979||Increasing environmental pollution and interventions in the water balance threaten the park.
The park was already on the red list from 1993 to 2007.
|2010||Kasubi Tombs , tombs of the Buganda kings||Uganda||K||2001||Was partially destroyed by fire.|
|2010||Atsinanana rainforests||Madagascar||N||2007||Illegal logging and hunting of the endangered lemurs of the natural heritage site|
|2011||Río Plátano Biosphere Reserve||Honduras||N||1982||Illegal logging, slash and burn , increasing pressure from agriculture, a planned hydropower plant and inadequate management endanger the forests.|
|2011||Tropical rainforests of Sumatra : Gunung Leuser National Park , Kerinchi-Seblat National Park and Barisan Selatan National Park||Indonesia||N||2004||Illegal logging and increasing pressure from agricultural use, as well as poaching and plans for roads through the area.|
|2012||Fortifications on the Caribbean coast in Panama: Portobelo - San Lorenzo||Panama||K||1980||Environmental factors, poor maintenance and uncontrollable urban development threaten the fortresses, once a splendid example of 17th and 18th century military architecture on the Caribbean coast.|
|2012||Timbuktu mosques , mausoleums and cemeteries||Mali||K||1988||The Malian government asked for the protection of the world heritage sites in the north of the country, which is affected by an armed conflict .|
|2012||Askia tomb||Mali||K||2004||The Malian government asked for the protection of the world heritage sites in the north of the country, which is affected by an armed conflict.|
|2012||Historic port city of Liverpool||United Kingdom||K||2004||Endangerment from a planned new building project that would destroy the historic character of the docks.|
|2013||Aleppo old town||Syria||K||1986||All world heritage sites are threatened by the civil war in Syria . It is also intended to draw attention to the risks to which they are exposed.|
|2013||Old town of Bosra||Syria||K||1980|
|2013||Dead cities in northern Syria||Syria||K||2011|
|2013||Krak des Chevaliers and Qal'at Salah ed-Din||Syria||K||2006|
|2013||East Rennell||Solomon Islands||N||1998||Deforestation of island forests, sea level rise due to climate change, mining activities, commercial fishing and lowering of the water table associated with the ingress of sea water|
|2014||Potosí||Bolivia||K||1987||Mining and industry cause the groundwater level to drop and endanger the stability of the city's subsoil|
|2014||Selous Game Reserve||Tanzania||N||1982||Organized poaching has almost wiped out the reserve's wildlife.|
|2014||Battir Cultural Landscape||Palestine||K||2014||Drought and changes in land use endanger the character of the original landscape|
|2015||Ruins of the Parthian city of Hatra||Iraq||K||1985||Damage caused by armed groups|
|2015||Old City of Sanaa||Yemen||K||1986||Destruction and exposure to armed conflict|
|2015||Old town and city wall of Shibam||Yemen||K||1982||Potential exposure to armed conflict|
|2016||Old towns of Djenné||Mali||K||1988||Due to the unstable location in the region, the world heritage site can no longer be adequately protected.|
|2016||Historic center of Shahrisabz||Uzbekistan||K||2000||The demolition of old buildings and the construction of hotels and other modern structures in the vicinity of the medieval old town have led to an irreversible change in the historical cityscape.|
|2016||Leptis Magna archaeological site||Libya||K||1982||Since the beginning of the civil war in 2011, Libya has been extremely unstable. The presence of armed groups in the immediate vicinity of the World Heritage sites has already caused damage. Further destruction is to be feared.|
|2016||Sabratha archaeological site||Libya||K||1982|
|2016||Cyrene archaeological site||Libya||K||1982|
|2016||Rock paintings by Tadrart Acacus||Libya||K||1985|
|2016||Old town of Ghadames||Libya||K||1986|
|2016||Nan Madol||Micronesia||K||2016||Danger from silting up the waterways and overgrowth by the mangroves|
|2017||Historic center of Vienna||Austria||K||2001||Endangerment from a planned 66 meter high new building on Heumarkt .|
|2017||Old town of Hebron / al-Chalil||Palestine||K||2017||In an emergency application, the Palestinians campaigned for protection status, as they complain of increasing destruction in the old town, which they blame the Jewish settlers.|
|2018||National parks on Lake Turkana||Kenya||N||2018||The biotope is threatened by a dam.|
|2019||Islands and reserves of the Gulf of California||Mexico||N||2005||The heritage site was put on the Red List because of concerns about the imminent extinction of the endemic vaquita , which have an outstanding share in the inclusion as a World Heritage site.|
Deletions from the Red List
The following world heritage sites were on the red list in the past, but have since been deleted. The deletions from the Red List listed here were due to the removal of the reason for inclusion in the Red List. For indirect deletions from the Red List as a result of the deletion of the endangered site from the list of World Heritage sites, see Former World Heritage .
|Red list from ... to||site||Country||Type||World Heritage since||reasons|
|1979-2003||Bay and Kotor region||Montenegro||K / N||1979||The cities in the bay were destroyed by an earthquake in 1979. In the 1990s, uncontrolled construction threatened integrity.|
|1984-1988 and 2000-2006||Djoudj bird sanctuary||Senegal||N||1981||1984: Dams built on Senegal threatened the water balance in the delta. 2000: An invasive swimming fern was out of control.|
|1984-1989||Ngorongoro Nature Reserve||Tanzania||N||1979||The game population in the park was threatened by poaching and encroaching agriculture.|
|1984-1992||Garamba National Park||Democratic Republic of Congo||N||1980||The white rhinos in the national park have been almost wiped out by poaching. After being deleted since 1996, it has been on the red list again, see above .|
|1985-2007||Abomey Royal Palaces||Benin||K||1985||In 1984 a tornado caused severe damage in Abomey. Inadequate protective measures prevented the deletion for a long time.|
|1988-2004||Bahla Fortress||Oman||K||1987||Due to the lack of conservation efforts, the earthen buildings were regularly damaged by rainfall.|
|1989-1998||Wieliczka Salt Mine||Poland||K||1978||High humidity in the tunnels threatened to damage sculptures and tunnels.|
|1990-2005||Mosques, mausoleums and cemeteries of Timbuktu||Mali||K||1988||The erection of modern buildings threatened the cityscape. In 2003 a flood destroyed a number of late medieval buildings.
Since 2012 on the red list again, see above .
|1991-1998||DubrovnikOld town of||Croatia||K||1979||The city was badly damaged in the Battle of Dubrovnik in 1991.|
|1992-1997||Plitvice Lakes National Park||Croatia||N||1979||The armed conflicts between Croats and Serbs in the area of the park are considered to be the trigger for the establishment of the Republic of Serbian Krajina and led to destruction.|
|1992-2003||Srebarna Biosphere Reserve||Bulgaria||N||1983||With the construction of a dam at the Iron Gate , the area began to dry out and threatened the population of the Dalmatian pelicans .|
|1992-2004||Angkor , Roluos and Banteay Srei Archaeological Parks||Cambodia||K||1992||At the time of enrollment, Cambodia was under UN administration and there was no monument protection legislation. With the steadily increasing number of visitors in the following years, it took a long time for protective and restoration measures to take effect.|
|1992-2005||Sangay National Park||Ecuador||N||1983||The construction of a road threatened the integrity of the park.|
|1993-2007||Everglades National Park||United States||N||1979||The effects of Hurricane Andrew, along with increasing environmental pollution and disruptions to the water balance, threatened the park.
On the red list again since 2010, see above .
|1995-2003||Yellowstone National Park||United States||N||1978||Various interventions and negative influences (shooting down of bison to control diseases, mining in the peripheral regions, construction of tourist facilities, too liberal granting of hunting and fishing permits) threatened the park.|
|1996-2006||Ichkeul National Park||Tunisia||N||1980||The water balance of the wetland was damaged by dam construction and it threatened to become too salty.|
|1996-2007||Río Plátano Biosphere Reserve||Honduras||N||1982||Deforestation, expansion of agriculture and the intrusion of foreign animals and plants together with the plans for a dam threatened the tropical rainforest.
Since 2011 on the red list again, see above .
|1996-2017||Simien National Park||Ethiopia||N||1978||Shrinking of the extremely small Ethiopian Ibex population and increasing human settlement in the park area.|
|1997-2005||Butrint ruins||Albania||K||1992||Due to general neglect, the ruins were in poor condition.|
|1999-2001||Iguaçu National Park||Brazil||N||1986||Reopening a previously closed road would have split the park in half.|
|1999-2004||Ruwenzori Mountains||Uganda||N||1994||Between 1997 and 2001, the Allied Democratic Forces rebel group operated from the Ruwenzori Mountains . This led to the collapse of the management of the park.|
|1999-2006||HampiTemple district of||India||K||1986||The construction of a bridge and an industrial park would have directed larger flows of motorized traffic into the protected area.|
|2002-2006||TipasaRuined city||Algeria||K||1982||Insufficient protection has led to vandalism, illegal settlements and constant disputes over property. In addition, there was not enough staff to deal with the erosion damage and deliberate destruction.|
|2003-2007||Kathmandu valley (e.g. Kathmandu , Bodnath , Patan , Bhaktapur and Pashupatinath / expanded in 2006)||Nepal||K||1979||The population pressure and the rapid urban development led to new buildings in the vicinity of the protected sites, which threatened their traditional appearance.|
|2003-2009||City of Baku with the Palace of the Shirvanshahs and Maiden Tower||Azerbaijan||K||2000||After being damaged by an earthquake in 2000, uncontrolled building activity accelerated in the old town.|
|2003-2017||Comoé National Park||Ivory Coast||N||1983||The civil war in Ivory Coast had increased poaching.|
|2004-2006||Cologne cathedral||Germany||K||1996||The visual integrity of the cathedral and the skyline of Cologne were endangered by the high-rise plans on the opposite side of the Rhine from the cathedral.|
|2004-2013||Bam and its cultural landscape||Iran||K||2004||Bam was destroyed by an earthquake in 2003.|
|2004-2014||Ruins of Kilwa Kisiwani and Songo Mnara||Tanzania||K||1981||Lack of measures to stop the ruins from falling into disrepair.|
|2007-2010||Galapagos Islands||Ecuador||N||1978||Increasing tourism and unauthorized settlement mean that more and more alien species are being introduced. The illegal settlers have been forcibly relocated to the mainland, and tourism is being more strictly controlled.|
|1992-2011||Manas National Park||India||N||1985||After an attack by a Bodo separatist group, the park was largely destroyed. The recovery and stabilization of the animal population is proceeding slowly.|
|2000-2012||Lahore Fort and Shalimar Gardens in Lahore||Pakistan||K||1981||Two of the three cisterns that water the gardens were destroyed in favor of the construction of a road.|
|2001–2012||Rice terraces in the Filipino Cordillera||Philippines||K||1995||With the decreasing interest of the Ifugao in their traditional culture, the rice terraces were also increasingly neglected.|
|2009-2015||Los Katíos National Park||Colombia||N||1994||Illegal logging has resulted in deforestation within and around the park's edges.
Significant improvements in the management of the national park led the World Heritage Committee to remove the park from the red list.
|2009-2016||Historical monuments in Mtskheta||Georgia||K||1994||The masonry and frescoes clearly showed signs of destruction. At the 40th meeting of the WHC it was decided to remove the world heritage site from the list. This takes into account Georgia's efforts to improve the protection and management of the monuments.|
|2009-2018||Barrier Reef Nature Reserve of Belize||Belize||N||1996||Mangroves have been cut down on a large scale.|
|2010-2017||Bagrati Cathedral and Gelati Monastery in Kutaisi||Georgia||K||1994||The entry in the list of endangered world heritage was due to renovation work on the Bagrati Cathedral , which greatly changed the character of the site. In 2017 the Bagrati Cathedral was removed from the World Heritage Site. The remaining Gelati Monastery is no longer on the red list.|
|2012-2019||Birthplace of Jesus Christ: Church of the Nativity and Pilgrimage, Bethlehem||Palestine||K||2012||The roof tiles of the church have not been renewed since the 19th century. Penetrating rainwater damages the load-bearing elements as well as wall mosaics and paintings.|
|2005-2019||Humberstone and Santa Laura Saltpeter Works||Chile||K||2005||Almost fifty years after the works were abandoned, the desert winds and thefts wreaked havoc. Some of the buildings are in acute danger of collapsing.|
- World Heritage Committee page on the Red List: English , French .
- The Red List in English , French .
- Convention for the Protection of the World’s Cultural and Natural Goods, Paragraph 4
- Operational Guidelines for the Implementation of the World Heritage Convention (official text in English; PDF; 1.2 MB), guidelines for the implementation of the Convention for the Protection of the World’s Cultural and Natural Heritage (German translation; PDF; 468 kB)
- Guidelines (PDF; 468 kB), paragraphs 177–191
- Guidelines (PDF; 468 kB), paragraphs 192–198
- List of World Heritage in Danger. UNESCO World Heritage Center, accessed July 6, 2019 .
- by UNESCO due to the disputed status of Kosovo under Serbia .
- World Heritage Committee puts Medieval Monuments in Kosovo on Danger List Press release of the World Heritage Committee , July 13, 2006
- World Heritage Committee inscribes Rainforests of Atsinanana (Madagascar) on List of World Heritage in Danger. UNESCO World Heritage Center, July 30, 2010, accessed May 27, 2017 .
- Danger listing for Indonesia's Tropical Rainforest Heritage of Sumatra World Heritage Committee press release, June 22, 2011
- Heritage sites in northern Mali placed on List of World Heritage in Danger Press release of the World Heritage Committee, June 28, 2012
- World Heritage Committee places Liverpool on List of World Heritage in Danger World Heritage Committee press release, June 26, 2012
- UNESCO: "Syria's Six World Heritage sites placed on List of World Heritage in Danger" from June 20, 2013, viewed on June 20, 2013
- The Iraqi site of Hatra added to the List of World Heritage in Danger ( Memento of 2 July 2015 Webcite ) (English). UNESCO World Heritage Center, July 1st, 2015.
- Yemen's Old City of Sana'a and Old Walled City of Shibam added to the List of World Heritage in Danger ( Memento of 2 July 2015 Webcite ) (English). UNESCO World Heritage Center, July 2nd, 2015.
- Mali's Old Towns of Djenné on List of World Heritage in Danger. UNESCO World Heritage Center, July 13, 2016, accessed July 17, 2016 .
- Historic Center of Shakhrisyabz, Uzbekistan, added to List of World Heritage in Danger. UNESCO World Heritage Center, July 13, 2016, accessed July 17, 2016 .
- Libya's five World Heritage sites put on List of World Heritage in Danger. UNESCO World Heritage Center, July 14, 2016, accessed July 17, 2016 .
- Heumarkt puts Vienna under pressure to act on ORF from July 6, 2017, accessed on July 6, 2017
- Nina Bärschneider: Behind Hebron's Wall. New Unesco World Heritage Site. Spiegel Online , July 13, 2017, accessed July 13, 2017 .
- Lake Turkana National Parks (Kenya) inscribed on List of World Heritage in Danger. June 30, 2018, accessed June 30, 2018 .
- The Islands and Protected Areas of the Gulf of California (Mexico) inscribed on the List of World Heritage in Danger. UNESCO World Heritage Center, July 3, 2019, accessed July 6, 2019 .
- World Heritage Committee removes the Iranian World Heritage site of Bam and its Cultural Landscape from danger listing. UNSECO World Heritage Committee, June 17, 2013, accessed May 27, 2017 .
- Colombia's Los Katíos National Park removed from List of Heritage in Danger June 30, 2015 (English)
- Historical Monuments of Mtskheta, Georgia, removed from List of World Heritage in Danger. UNESCO - The World Heritage Committee, July 13, 2016, accessed July 17, 2016 .
- Gelati Monastery, Georgia, removed from UNESCO's List of World Heritage in Danger. UNESCO World Heritage Center, July 10, 2017, accessed August 10, 2017 .
- World Monuments Fund , accessed December 12, 2012