The swimming fern genus ( Salvinia ) belongs to the swimming fern family and consists of ten to twelve species that are predominantly found in the tropics (exception: Australia). Swimming ferns occur in stagnant or slow-flowing waters. The only European species is the common swimming fern Salvinia natans .
Salvinia are 2-20 cm wide, driving on the water surface plant . They spread sexually through spores and vegetatively through runners; The latter method of reproduction can lead to a large overgrowth of the water surface.
Each individual plant consists of horizontally growing axes with threefold whorls of leaves. Two of these are designed as round or oval floating leaves; the third is finely divided, extends a few centimeters below and, as a so-called water leaf, takes on the role of a root. But it is not anchored in the ground.
There are ten to twelve types:
- Round-leaved floating fern ( Salvinia auriculata Aubl. ), Native to: Mexico, Bermuda Islands, West Indies, Central America and South America.
- Salvinia biloba Raddi , home: Brazil, Bolivia and Paraguay.
- Hooded swimming fern ( Salvinia cucullata Roxb. Ex Bory ), native to: India, Indonesia, Thailand, Myanmar, Cambodia and Vietnam.
- Salvinia cyathiformis Maxon , home: Trinidad.
- Salvinia hastata Desv. , Home: Kenya, Tanzania, Malawi, Mozambique, Madagascar and Réunion.
- Salvinia herzogii de la Sota : It occurs in Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay and Uruguay.
- Salvinia minima Baker : It is native to Mexico, the Caribbean, Guatemala, Honduras, Belize, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Panama, Colombia, Ecuador, Venezuela, Brazil, Bolivia, Peru, Paraguay, Uruguay and northern Argentina. Widely naturalized in North America.
- Salvinia molesta Mitchell , origin: Brazil, widely naturalized in the tropics and subtropics, also occurs in the Netherlands.
- Common swimming fern ( Salvinia natans (L.) All. ), Native to: Europe, North Africa, Asia.
- Salvinia nymphellula Desv. , Home: West Africa.
- Long-leaved floating fern ( Salvinia oblongifolia Mart. ), Origin: Brazil.
- Salvinia radula Bak. : It occurs in Panama, Colombia, Ecuador, Venezuela, Brazil, Bolivia and Paraguay.
- Salvinia sprucei Kuhn ; It occurs in Panama, Colombia, Venezuela, Trinidad and in northern Brazil.
As aquarium plants , Salvinia auriculata (small-eared floating fern), Salvinia cucullata (hooded floating fern) and above all Salvinia molesta (annoying floating fern), but also Salvinia oblongifolia (long-leaved floating fern) are cultivated.
- DS Mitchell, PA Thomas: Ecology of water weeds in the neotropics: an ecological survey of the aquatic weeds Eichhornia crassipedes and Salvinia species, and their natural enemies in the neotropics . In: Technical papers in hydrology . tape 12 . Unesco, Paris 1972 ( online [PDF; 2.6 MB ; accessed on November 6, 2007]).
- Walter Erhardt , Erich Götz, Nils Bödeker, Siegmund Seybold: The great pikeperch. Encyclopedia of Plant Names. Volume 2. Types and varieties. Eugen Ulmer, Stuttgart (Hohenheim) 2008, ISBN 978-3-8001-5406-7 .
- Clifton E. Nauman: Salvinia. In: Flora of North America Editorial Committee (Ed.): Flora of North America North of Mexico . Volume 2: Pteridophytes and Gymnosperms . Oxford University Press, New York / Oxford a. a. 1993, ISBN 0-19-508242-7 , pp. 336-337 (English, online ).
- Lotte Burkhardt: Directory of eponymous plant names . Extended Edition. Botanic Garden and Botanical Museum Berlin, Free University Berlin Berlin 2018. 
- Michael Hassler, Bernd Schmitt: Checklist of Ferns and Lycophytes of the World . Karlsruhe ( online [accessed November 7, 2013] website).
- Salvinia in the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN), USDA , ARS , National Genetic Resources Program. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. Retrieved February 22, 2019.
- Salvinia in the Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS)
- Christel Kasselmann : aquarium plants. Ulmer Verlag, Stuttgart 1995; 2nd, revised and expanded edition 1999, ISBN 3-8001-7454-5 , pp. 414-416 and 468.
- Distribution of Salvinia molesta in the Netherlands (Dutch)
- Salvinia - Weed of National Significance (PDF)
- Bionic coating helps ships to save fuel. Materials based on the swimming fern model could massively reduce fuel consumption. - Press release from the University of Bonn on May 4, 2010