|Coordinates||33 ° 33 ' N , 68 ° 25' E|
|resident||69,000 (calculation 2020)|
Ghazni ( Persian غزنی, DMG Ġaznī , tooغزنه, DMG Ġazna andغزنين, DMG Ġaznain , in ancient times Alexandreia ) is the capital of Ghazni Province in central Afghanistan . The population of the city , located a little southwest of the capital Kabul , is around 69,000.
Ghazni is on the Afghan ring road and has an airfield in the south of the city.
Ghazni or Ghazna was the name of the city about 1000 years ago. The city was the center of the Ghaznavid Empire . About 400 poets and scientists worked here, such as Ferdousī , Farrochi , Ansari , Manutschihri , Sana'i and Anwari . They made a great contribution to the development of the Persian language (also called Dari ) and literature . The shahnameh of Ferdousī reached the peak of the Persian epic . The monumental work contains the mythology of the Iranian culture from prehistoric times to the 11th century.
The Ghurid ruler Ala ad-Din Husain II (r. 1149–1161) destroyed Ghazna in 1151. The final conquest of the city took place in 1173/74.
Many of the poets and scholars mentioned are buried in the city. Not only lovers of Persian literature make pilgrimages to their holy places. This includes the grave of the famous Persian scientist al-Biruni as well as the graves of other poets of the Ghaznavid period , whose works are called the pinnacle of Persian literature .
Mahmud of Ghazni , an important patron of Persian literature, and Ayaz
In the First British-Afghan War , the British Army of the Indus under John Keane won the Battle of Ghazni against Afghan troops on July 23, 1839 and was able to take the city.
On March 29, 2005, parts of the city were flooded when the Band-e-Sultan Dam broke .
On August 12, 2021, the city was captured by the Taliban.
Islamic Capital of Culture 2013
Ghazni was selected in 2004 by the Conference of Islamic Culture Ministers in Algeria, along with three other cities, Medina , Bishkek and Ouagadougou, to participate in the “Islamic Capital of Culture” project. For the implementation of this project, 15 million US dollars were transferred from the Islamic Organization for Education, Science and Culture to the Afghan government at the beginning . The almost 30 projects are almost exclusively managed by the Afghan authorities. These include, among other things, the expansion of the infrastructure, such as the construction of an airport. Part of the budget is also used for the actual idea of the “Capital of Culture”, the communication of cultural values to the local population and abroad. Examples of this are the construction of an Islamic cultural center and the presentation of the actual Ghaznis culture as part of “Ghazni days” in other European countries.
German participation of RWTH Aachen
As part of the Culture for Peace initiative , the German state and RWTH Aachen University participated in the “Capital of Culture” project in Ghazni by helping to rebuild the historic city wall. Culture for Peace stands for a program supported by Germany, Great Britain and Oman, for the restoration of the wall by local workers and for bringing the population closer to their own cultural heritage. The restoration of this Ghazni's landmark began in 2010 by the Center for Documentation and Conservation at RWTH Aachen University. RWTH Aachen sent experts and led the project. This created 400 jobs for local construction workers and craftsmen who can participate in the reconstruction in the long term. The project was made possible by the financial support of the Federal Foreign Office , which contributed around 1.7 million euros to the renovation. The measure was successfully completed in 2014.
sons and daughters of the town
- Mahmud of Ghazni (971-1030), most powerful sultan of the Ghaznavids
- Hudschwīrī (around 990 - 1071/1077), Persian Sufi scholar
- Hassan Ghaznawi (12th century), Persian poet
- Mahmud Tarzi (1865–1933), Afghan intellectual
- Babrak Wassa (* 1947), German composer and conductor
- Hayward ( California , USA )
- Giżycko , Poland
- Tapa Sardār , ruins of a Buddhist monastery that existed until the 8th century, four kilometers southeast of the city
- Wilhelm Tomaschek : Alexandreia 6 . In: Paulys Realencyclopadie der classical antiquity science (RE). Volume I, 1, Stuttgart 1893, column 1389.
- Karsten Ley : Ghazni and its walls. About the former capital of the Ghaznavids and a restoration project as a political measure. In: Antike Welt , journal for archeology and cultural history. 1, 2014, pp. 69-81, ISSN 0003-570X
- ḠAZNĪ . In: Ehsan Yarshater (Ed.): Encyclopædia Iranica . (English, iranicaonline.org - including references).
- UNESCO Sector de Cultura: The Museums of Ghazni
- Society for the Preservation of Afghanistan's Cultural Heritage Ghazni City
- ↑ a b Population data 2020
- ↑ Co Giżycko łączy for Ghazni? ( Memento of the original from November 11, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- ↑ Bahram Shah minaret. ArchNet ( page no longer available , search in web archives ) Info: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- ↑ Ghazni Airport ( Memento of the original from December 26th, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link has been inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. - Islamic Republic of Afghanistan: Ministry of Transport and Civil Aviation (English), ( 33 ° 31 ′ 52 ″ N , 68 ° 24 ′ 46 ″ E ), accessed December 25, 2015
- ^ Taliban Capture Ghazni City, 150 Km From Afghan Capital: Official . NDTV (AFP), August 12, 2021.
- ↑ http://www.isesco.org.ma/index.php?option=com_k2&view=item&layout=item&id=51&Itemid=81&lang=en
- ↑ http://dw.de/p/17MiB
- ↑ Archive link ( Memento of the original from November 11, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- ↑ Ghazni 2013 - Islamic Capital of Culture. RWTH Aachen