Fennel ( Foeniculum vulgare ), illustration
|Scientific name of the genus|
|Scientific name of the species|
|( L. ) Mill.|
The fennel ( Foeniculum vulgare ) is the only species of the genus Foeniculum within the umbelliferae family (Apiaceae). Today it is a vegetable , aromatic and medicinal plant that is widespread worldwide . An old German name for several spicy umbelliferae is Köppernickel .
Fennel was named Medicinal Plant of the Year 2009.
Fennel is a biennial to perennial herbaceous plant that reaches heights of 40 to 200 cm and has a spicy (anise-like) smell. The stem is round , glabrous and bluish with frost. The plant forms bulb-like bulbs with its storage leaves. The two to three pinnate leaves are slit hair-like. The leaf stalks have 2 to 2.5 cm long, hood-shaped leaf sheaths . The petioles of the lower leaves are 5 to 15 cm long.
The double-gold inflorescences have a diameter of 5 to 9 cm and contain six to 29 (rarely up to 40) bulbs on 2 to 25 cm long stems. The nodules contain 14 to 42 small flowers. There are no envelopes and envelopes. The hermaphrodite flowers are fivefold. The calyx consists of decrepit calyx teeth. The obovate petals are yellow. There is only one circle with five free, fertile stamens . The stylus is very short.
The small fruits are more or less cylindrical and not winged with five characteristic, broad, blunt ribs.
The number of chromosomes is 2n = 22.
The original range of fennel includes southern Europe, North Africa, Madeira, the Canary Islands, Ukraine, Georgia, Pakistan and western Asia. In Great Britain, in the Azores, Cape Verde, in South Africa, in Australia, New Zealand, Hawaii, Micronesia, in Central and South America it is a neophyte . It thrives best on moderately dry, nutrient-rich and base-rich, mild to moderately acidic loam or loess soils in a mild, humid winter climate. One finds it in societies of the associations Sisymbrion, Onopordion or the order Brometalia.
The first valid description in the genus Foeniculum was in 1768 by Philip Miller in The Gardeners Dictionary .
There are numerous scientific synonyms : Anethum dulce DC. , Anethum foeniculum L. , Anethum minus Gouan , Anethum panmori Roxb. , Anethum panmorium Roxb. ex Fleming , Anethum piperitum Ucria , Anethum rupestre Salisb. , Foeniculum azoricum Mill. , Foeniculum capillaceum Gilib. (nom. inval.), Foeniculum divaricatum Griseb. , Foeniculum dulce Mill. , Foeniculum foeniculum (L.) H. Karst. (nom. inval.), Foeniculum giganteum Lojac. , Foeniculum officinale All. , Foeniculum panmorium (Roxb.) DC. , Foeniculum piperitum (Ucria) C. Presl , Foeniculum rigidum bread. ex Steud. , Foeniculum scoparium Quézel , Foeniculum vulgare subsp. piperitum (Ucria) Cout. , Foeniculum vulgare var. Sativum C. Presl , Foeniculum vulgare subsp. sativum (C. Presl) Janch. ex Holub , Ligusticum foeniculum (L.) Crantz , Meum foeniculum (L.) Spreng. , Meum piperitum Schult. , Ozodia foeniculacea Wight & Arn. , Selinum foeniculum (L.) EHL Krause , Seseli dulce Koso-Pol. , Seseli foeniculum (L.) Koso-Pol. , Seseli piperitum Koso-Pol. and Tenoria romana Schkuhr ex Spreng.
From Real fennel or garden fennel there are three varieties:
- Vegetable fennel, tuber or onion fennel ( Foeniculum vulgare Mill. Var. Azoricum (Mill.) Thell. )
- Spice fennel or Süßfenchel ( Foeniculum vulgare var. Dulce (Mill.) Thell. )
- Wild fennel or bitter fennel ( Foeniculum vulgare var. Vulgare )
The varieties differ in their use and growth.
Cultivation and harvest
Fennel is an old, originally Mediterranean cultivated plant that occasionally overgrows in Central Europe. It needs a heat-favored location with moderately dry, nutrient- and base-rich loam or loess soil. For example, weed debris societies, semi-brutal grasslands and vineyard edges are settled. Sowing takes place in early July. If it is sown prematurely, it will not form tubers, but will continue to grow and produce flowers and seeds. Sufficient soil moisture is important. The distance between the individual plants should be 20 to 25 cm. Once the plant reaches the size of an onion, soil should be piled up. This promotes tuber formation; Sufficient watering is also important.
Diseases and pests
Viruses: Not known to be significant. However, as a plant, fennel is often used in experiments as a host for tests with viruses.
Physiological damage: edges (brown edges) of the thickened leaves, frost, shoots (premature flowering).
On the one hand, the tubers are processed and enjoyed (especially in salads, vegetable dishes and as an accompaniment to steamed fish dishes), on the other hand the "fennel seeds" (fruits of fennel), which are comparable to aniseed . The latter are sometimes baked as a spice in black bread or poured into a tea, which has a calming effect on stomach and intestinal complaints , such as a feeling of fullness. Fennel tea, along with peppermint and chamomile tea, is one of the most valued herbal teas. It is often offered as a mixture in combination with anise and caraway seeds. In addition to digestive problems, the essential oils contained in the fruits can also alleviate respiratory problems thanks to their antibacterial properties.
Traditionally, fennel belongs to fish. Grilled sea bass and red sea mullet are flambéed on dried fennel. It is mixed with sauces and minced meat. Finely chopped fennel leaves are used in small quantities to season soups, salads, mayonnaise and for the "sauce vinaigrette ". The Geneva longeole is traditionally flavored with fennel seeds.
Fennel seeds are also very popular and widespread in Indian cuisine . They are part of spice mixes ( Panch Phoron ) and are often eaten after a meal - both with and without sugar coating - to freshen the mouth.
Fennel pollen can also be used as a spice, it is very aromatic and tastes sweet. Due to the complex production, the spice is comparatively expensive, and the pollen is only harvested in small quantities. Fennel pollen is also known as the “angel's spice”.
Tuber fennel is best stored at 0 to 5 ° C and a humidity of 90 to 95%, for example in the vegetable compartment of the refrigerator.
Even Hippocrates recommended fennel. In Theophrastus and Dioscorides he was "marathron" (Latin marathrum , resulting in medieval times maratrum was), in Columella and Pliny foeniculum (later feniculum written). According to Dioscurides , herbs and fruits help the milk secretion, the stalks of the flowers help the bladder and kidneys, with wine also for snakebites. The crushed root was used for coughing. Herbal books in the Middle Ages often mention him. Hildegard von Bingen knows fennel to dissolve mucus, Hieronymus Bock writes: The boiled seeds dispels the unnatural heat of the stomach (heartburn), helps against snake bites and drives out other poison. According to von Haller, it has a stomach and intestinal tonic, warming, windbreaking, diuretic, galactagogic and eye tonic and is said to help with stomach ache, colic, stomach cramps, coughs and other chest ailments. Folk medicine knows it primarily as a remedy for flatulence in small children and bronchial catarrh. In China, fennel seeds are used as huai -hsiang against dyspepsia , cholerins, kidney disease and snakebite.
Fennel is used in medicine as a cough suppressant, as a carminative and as a sedative.
Fennel contains essential oils (fruit: trans- anethole , fenchone , α- pinene , camphene , myrcene , α- and β- phellandrene , α-terpinene , cis-anethole, limonene , terpinolene , estragole , p-cymene ; herb: α- Phellandren, α-pinene, cis-anethole, myristicin , α-terpinene , limonene; roots: dillapiol , myrcene, α- and β-pinene, α- and β-phellandrene, α- and β- terpinene , myristicin, cis- ocimen , anethol), silica , mineral salts , starch , vitamin A , B and C . The vitamin C content of the fresh plant (leaves) per 100 g fresh weight is 247.3 mg. Fennel honey is used as a traditional home remedy for colds and disorders of the gastrointestinal tract.
|water||potassium||Calcium||magnesium||vitamin C||Folic acid||Energy value|
|Ingredients in 100 g fennel (raw)||86 g||494 mg||109 mg||49 mg||93 mg cf. text||100 µg||101 kJ (24 kcal )|
|Percent of Recommended Daily Allowance ( RDA )||-||24.7%||13.6%||13.1%||116.3%||50%||-|
As in other tea-like products, the substances methyleugenol and estragole can be detected in fennel tea . Animal experiments have shown that these two substances pose a cancer risk, which is why the Federal Institute for Risk Assessment has made a recommendation that the concentration of the two substances should be as low as possible. The EU Scientific Committee on Food has endorsed this recommendation . The situation is particularly problematic because fennel tea is often consumed in large quantities by pregnant women, babies and small children.
The Hittites used fennel (ZÁ.AḪ.LI or marašanha) in a ritual in which destroyed enemy cities were cursed.
- Antiquity - late antiquity: Dioscurides 1st century --- Pliny 1st century --- Galen 2nd century --- Pseudo-Apuleius 4th century
- Arab Middle Ages: Avicenna 11th century --- Constantine 11th century --- Circa instans 12th century --- Pseudo-Serapion 13th century
- Latin Middle Ages: Walahfrid Strabo 9th century --- Pseudo-Macer 11th century --- German Macer 13th century --- Hildegard von Bingen 12th century --- Pseudo-Arnaldus de Villanova 13th - 14th century --- Gabriel von Lebenstein 14th - 15th century --- Konrad von Megenberg 14th century --- Michael Puff 15th century --- Nikolaus Frauenlob 15th century --- Herbarius Moguntinus 1484 --- Gart der Gesundheit 1485 --- Hortus sanitatis 1491 --- Hieronymus Brunschwig 1500
- Modern times: Paracelsus approx. 1530 --- Otto Brunfels 1532 --- Hieronymus Bock 1539 --- Leonhart Fuchs 1543 --- Gessner 1583 --- Mattioli / Handsch / Camerarius 1586 --- Nicolas Lémery 1699/1721 --- Onomatologia medica completa 1755 --- William Cullen 1789/90 --- Jean-Louis Alibert 1805/05 --- Hecker 1814/15 --- Pereira / Buchheim 1846/48 --- August Husemann / Theodor Husemann 1871 --- Theodor Husemann 1883
For the fennel (Middle High German including vënchel ) the other German-speaking trivial names exist or existed : Brodsamen ( Augsburg ), Enis ( St. Gallen ), Femis (Augsburg), Fenchil ( Old High German ), Fenckel ( Middle High German ), Fencol (Middle High German) , Fengel (Middle High German), Fenichal (Middle High German), Fenikraut (Middle High German), Fenichil (Old High German), Fenikl ( Austria ), Fenis ( Memmingen ), Femkel (Middle High German), Fenkel ( Bern ), Fenköl ( Holstein , Unterweser ), Fennchal, Finchel ( Transylvania ), Finechel, Frauenfenchel, Phenchel ( Middle Low German ), Vencol (Middle Low German), Venecol (Middle Low German), Venekol (Middle Low German), Venekolt (Middle Low German), Venichel, Venkel (Middle Low German), Vinkel and Wenchil (Middle Low German).
- Erich Oberdorfer : Plant-sociological excursion flora for Germany and neighboring areas . With the collaboration of Angelika Schwabe and Theo Müller. 8th, heavily revised and expanded edition. Eugen Ulmer, Stuttgart (Hohenheim) 2001, ISBN 3-8001-3131-5 , pp. 716 .
- Foeniculum in the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN), USDA , ARS , National Genetic Resources Program. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. Retrieved May 5, 2018.
- Philip Miller : The Gardeners Dictionary. 8th edition. Foeniculum no. 1. 1768. (online)
- Tong Kwee Lim: Edible Medicinal And Non-Medicinal Plants. Volume 5: Fruits. Springer Science & Business Media, 2013, ISBN 978-94-007-5653-3 , p. 36. (online)
- Robert Zander : Zander hand dictionary of plant names. Edited by Fritz Encke , Günther Buchheim, Siegmund Seybold . 14th, revised and expanded edition. Eugen Ulmer, Stuttgart 1993, ISBN 3-8001-5063-8 , pp. 278-279.
- Frieda Welten: Biological Horticulture Counselor . From practice, for practice, Lichtquellverlag Oberwill 1978, page 57
- C.-M. Messiaen, D. Blancard, F. Rouxel, R Lafon, Les maladies des plantes maraîchères. 3. Edition. INRA, Paris 1991, ISBN 2-7380-0286-2 , pp. 340 + 341.
- Economic Association of Herbal and Fruit Tea; Market report: Herbal and fruit teas with sales record in 2010.
- Max Wichtl (Ed.): Tea drugs and phytopharmaceuticals: A manual for practice on a scientific basis. 5th edition. Scientific publishing company, Stuttgart 2009.
- Helmut Genaust: Etymological dictionary of botanical plant names. Birkhäuser, Basel / Stuttgart 1976, ISBN 3-7643-0755-2 , p. 235.
- Hans Zotter : Ancient medicine. The collective medical manuscript Cod. Vindobonensis 93 in Latin and German. Academic printing and Verlagsanstalt, Graz 1980 (= Interpretationes ad codices. Volume 2); 2nd, improved edition ibid. 1986, ISBN 3-201-01310-2 , p. 189 f.
- Hyronymus Bock: Kräuterbuch Strasbourg 1546th
- Gerhard Madaus: Textbook of biological remedies. Volume II. Olms, Hildesheim / New York 1979, ISBN 3-487-05891-X , pp. 1354-1361 (reprint of the Leipzig 1938 edition).
- M. Pahlow: Medicinal Plants. Gräfe and Unzer, Munich 1989, p. 136.
- heilpflanze-suchmaschine.de ( Memento from October 30, 2007 in the Internet Archive )
- Souci, specialist. Kraut, 1994.
- UGB statement: Exaggerated warning against fennel tea , July 10, 2002.
- SPB Durnford, JR Akeroyd: Anatolian marashanha and the Many Uses of Fennel. In: Anatolian Studies . 55, 2005, pp. 1-13.
- Pedanios Dioscurides . 1st century: De Medicinali Materia libri quinque. Translation. Julius Berendes . Pedanius Dioscurides' medicine theory in 5 books. Enke, Stuttgart 1902, p. 308 (Book III, Chapter 74): Marathron (digitized version )
- Pliny the Elder , 1st century: Naturalis historia book XX, chapters xcv – xcvi (§ 254–258): Feniculum (digitized version ) ; Translation Külb 1855 (digitized version )
- Galen , 2nd century De simplicium medicamentorum temperamentis ac facultatibus , Book VII, Chapter XII / 5 (based on the Kühn 1826 edition, Volume XII, p. 67): Marathron. Foeniculum (digitized version )
- First printing: Rome 1481, Chapter 126: Herba feniculum (digitized version )
- Avicenna , 11th century: Canon of Medicine . Translation and adaptation by Gerhard von Cremona , Arnaldus de Villanova and Andrea Alpago (1450–1521). Basel 1556, Volume II, Chapter 281: Foeniculum (digitized version )
- Constantine the African , 11th century: Liber de gradibus simplicium . Pressure. Opera . Basel 1536, p. 364: Marathri semen (digitized version )
- Circa instans 12th century print. Venice 1497, p. 198v: Feniculus (digitized version )
- Pseudo-Serapion 13th century, print. Venice 1497, sheet 144r (No CCCXXIIII): Feniculus (digitized)
- Walahfrid Strabo 9th century: Liber de cultura hortorum . Edition: Ludwig Choulant . Macer floridus des virtutibus herbarum una cum Walafridi Strabonis… Carminibus… Leipzig 1832. No. X: Feniculum (digitized version )
- Pseudo-Macer . Edition: Ludwig Choulant. Macer floridus de virtutibus herbarum… Leipzig 1832, Chapter XVII (p. 56–57): Feniculum (digitized version )
- German Macer . After: Bernhard Schnell, William Crossgrove: The German Macer. Vulgate version. Niemeyer, Tübingen 2003, p. 337 (Chapter 13). Cpg 226 , Alsace, 1459–1469, sheet 185v – 186r (digital copy ) . Transcription: (.xij. Maratrum or feniculum is called fennel and is print and hot on the other grade (ffenchel with win is good before poisoned (ffenchel worczel pounded with honey and painted on the eyes spoils the schymen. (The juice of green fennel Semen trucket at the sun is good for handicapped things and looks for the eyes (The same juice with a win used dribble the water-addicted bulges (It is also good for the animals or worms that carry poisoned) byyssent (The same helps the lungs and looks for the livers (It is also good for the wet nurses when they win milk dauon (ffenchel boiled in water in win and printed helps neufraticos that the stone is in the bladder or the loin is changed or water is looking for in the pale one (It also helps the wip jr kranckeit verjrret sint (ffenckel with win gessen spoils the wullen (ffenchel drunk with water spoils the right hicz in the stomach (when one is versed at siner schemde where from the komen is / sudet he fennel roots and appeals to it so that it helps (the same dut the fennel pounded with honey and coated with it // fennel pounded with it and leyed vff the nuwen wonden puffed / it sý from slaghen or as it has been / it helps and distributes it (the same with used helps the one in the syten we is / or whether he has the krut sudet / and drincket (whoever eats the fennel steadily yeasts the younger /
- Charles Victor Daremberg and Friedrich Anton Reuss (1810–1868). S. Hildegardis Abbatissae Subtilitatum Diversarum Naturarum Creaturarum Libri Novem. Physica , Book I, Chapter 66: Feniculum . Migne, Paris 1855. Sp. 1156–1158 (digitized version ) - Translation: Herbert Reier: Hildegard von Bingen Physica. Translated into German after the text edition by JP Migne, Paris 1882. Kiel 1980, p. 32: Fennel is cold and has moderate warmth and is not able to do enough because it has only moderate power to revitalize and gives the person who eats little power, but does not damage him as millet tends to damage him, nor bad ones It causes juices and diseases in humans as strongly as millet does. But if you have a hot fever, boil fennel in wine and often drink this wine warm, and it will be cured. Fennel has a pleasant warmth and is neither dry nor cold in nature. Eaten raw does not harm people. However it is eaten, it makes people happy and gives them pleasant warmth, good sweat and good digestion. Its seeds are also warm in nature and useful for health when added to other herbs in medicines. If you eat fennel or its seeds sober every day, you reduce the bad flecma and rot and suppress the stinking breath. He clears his eyes with his good warmth and good powers. Anyone who cannot sleep from a disgust, cook fennel and twice as much yarrow moderately in the summer, squeeze out the water and place the herbs warm for a while on forehead and head and over a cloth. He'll take green sage too, sprinkle it moderately with wine, put it on his heart and around his neck, and he'll be better. If someone has gray eyes, that it is dark inside, and hurts, and if the pain is new, he mash fennel and its seeds and drink its juice and the dew that he finds on upright stalks. In addition, a little wheat flour, mix it into a small cake and put it on his eyes with a cloth at night, he will get better. And if someone has similarly cloudy eyes that are neither very hot nor restless, but just a little iridescent, and if they have a painful darkness in them, they pound fennel in summer, their seeds in winter and lay them on top of them, grated and moistened with egg white Eyes when he goes to sleep. He will lessen the darkness of the eyes. But if you feel too much pain with frequent flow from the nose, take fennel and three times as much dill and place it on a roof tile that is moderately warmed up, turn the fennel and dill over until it smokes. Draw the smoke and odor through your nose and mouth, then eat the warmed herbs with bread. He does this for 4 to 5 days, and the draining juices will be all the more gently secreted. But if you have bad moisture in your sick stomach, take fennel and a little more urtica (nettle) and levistici, as much of these as of the other two, and make a meal out of it with a lot of flour or bread and eat it often. This will take the moisture away from the sick stomach. Those suffering from melancholy crush fennel into juice and often anoint the forehead, temples, chest and stomach with it, and the melancholy will subside. Whoever eats braised meat, braised fish or something else braised and is in pain, eat fennel or its seeds quickly and the pain will subside. But if a very nasty tumor swells up in the male genitals and hurts him there, he takes fennel, just as much Foenum graecum and a little cow butter, pound it and put it on top. That pulls off the bad juices. Then the man takes small cakes that are used to make beer, make them moderately warm with warm water, and place them on the tumor. If a pregnant woman is very miserable during childbirth, cook her sweet herbs such as fennel and asarum in water with care and moderation, squeeze out the water and place them warm around the thighs and on the back, tied with a cloth in a pleasant way, so that the pain and her womb can be released more comfortably and easily. Humans also take fennel seeds and half as much galanga and dictamnus, half of them pilosella, everything pulverized and strained, and drink it about half an hour after breakfast with warm wine, not hot. This powder will keep the healthy healthy, strengthen the sick and give him digestion and give him strength, give him good and beautiful complexion. It is good for both the healthy and the sick if he eats it after the meal. When sheep start to get sick, he takes fennel and more dill, soaks them in water so that the water acquires its taste, and gives it to the sheep to drink.
- Pseudo-Arnaldus de Villanova . 13-14 Century: The treatise… of the care and advice of the wine… pressure. Esslingen (?) After 1478: Venhel wein  ; Wein für den hůsten (digitized version )
- Gabriel von Lebenstein 14th - 15th century. Distilled waters . Manuscript M Clm 5905 , Bavarian, 2nd half of the 15th century, sheet (digitized) . Transcription: Venichel waſſer. Anyone who does not like to eat the drink venichel waſſer ſo he will eat from t and on. Who trucke eyes has nem venichel waſſer vnd honey ſaim vnd ain klar von ainen ay vnd ſtreich that in the eyes. Whoever forgives the drink has the water. Who will be watery wold the drink the water ſo he will be entertained. Whoever does not eat the drink in a thoughtful way every morning ſo he eats in a thoughtful way.
- Konrad von Megenberg , 14th century: Book of nature. Output. Franz Pfeiffer . Aue, Stuttgart 1861, p. 400 (V / 37): Venichelkraut (digitized)
- Michael Puff : Booklet of the burnt-out waters . 15th century print Augsburg (Johannes Bämler) 1478 (digitized)
- Nikolaus Frauenlob 15th century Cpg 583 , South-West Germany (Mattighofen), 1482–1486, sheet [(digitized version)]. Transcription ( rubricated places in bold ): Fenichl has xij tugent Dy first tugent from the tugeln eyes ader dy wethum Man sal fenich pounding the roots and mixing honey with the juice and wiping your eyes with it that makes them lawtter and clearly another erczney to the eyes Man sal fenich sam pounded and the juice in a rainen glass at the Sun trucken, the sal gar tewre erczneÿ zuo the eyes will be too much talk on the eyes aliud remedium ad oculos Dye natern or the slang So sy jr face from age vein because of other things, ader left the sweet on yerem face abruptly, so take advantage of that. that helps jn against to yerem face from it one may take that the fenich is also wonderful to the eyes and helpful whether one uses them in them who want to be in front of it etc. Man sal fenich jn wine syeden and drink from it and helps for all gifft payde geessen ader druncken wye sy have been received Who geren grawsst from eat ader drink Man sal fenich jn boil wine and drink from it that helps and who doesn’t want to eat or drink salt jn poke and put on the prust so will people like to eat who is thirsty When people are thirsty So when you boil fenich in water and drink from it that helps against thirst and whoever is hot at the time and also not cured whoever does n’t care Man sal fenich sam jn weep boiling and drinking that helps whale Who the stain in the platern so we do that the pluet from people get Man sal fenich jn boil water and drink it from it that makes people happy who wüerm jn The oren has Man sal fenich sam zestössen and the juice so warm in dÿoren meet the kills the worm in the oren vnd nymbt darczue den wetagen Dürch wen das pluet geet Man sal fenich pleter with eatzich ze bump and lay onf dÿ prust with each other drink it A special ler from fenich Allt lewt sullen offt nüczen fenich in essen vnd in trincken that behelt sÿ pey ir gestalt vnd pey jr krafft When the maysters write the dÿ nater ader slangen rejuvenate the sy to stay fresh Contra jnflatum membrorum Man sal fenich with oil puffs and put on dy bulges that helps thrown it ain tayl vnd of raÿnem hönig ij tail vnd sal . Or you sal fenich with it boil your vein and lay on top of the bulge. who has a cold stomach the moral cooking together vnczt that it gets fat of the same sal one in the morning ij spoonful of useful sobering that helps the stomach and many things ain especially noticeable e rczney vnd ler von fenich krawtt Man sal fenich wurczen jn wine syeden vnd drink from it that helps the power and helps against the poisonous it seÿ pissing ader sunst It also helps against the preaching of the lungl of the jn anleÿtt and the plater helps and helps the water of the starting from rainigt dÿ women at jr haymlichait It also helps the frawen dÿ children neren vnd gepern that jn dÿ milk is mashed You also pound the sam with pepper that helps against the water and is looking for many other things good / you don't have wine it also helps soaked in water and drunk from it --- Cpg 666 , Kurpfalz, 1478–1480, sheet [(digitized)]. Transcription: F enichel has xij tuget vnd jst even a good noble herb a If you dÿ eyes tunckel his vein sunst we do Man sal fenichel wrcz to poke and the juice mixed with honey do with sal man smear your eyes vein anointing makes your eyes louder vnd clear b A special erczney to the eyes Man sal fenichel sam to poke vnd daz juice jin a pure glaze to let the sun shine daz sal even a good tea erczney sey to the eyes c a special erczney vnd tuget of fennel herb Dÿ slang vein dÿ natter when sÿ jr face from ageß because of ader von andersley because of ader daz sy tears off your face so nÿmt sy fennel vnd nuczt den daz helps jr against your face because you don't want to use the fennel to go with your face d Those who guard against gyfft and warrant wil Man sal fennel jn wine syden vnd dor drink off daz helps for all gyfft wÿ sÿ is received e Who likes to eat or drink man sal fennel jn wine syden vnd dor abe drink n daz helps do for or to poke uff dÿ prust so people would like to eat and drink f those who are thirsty we do man sal fennel jn water syden and dor but drink daz helps and who the stomach alzeytt is hot and unhealthy g who dy seyten we do Man sal fennel sam jn wine syden vnd daz drink daz helps do for h Whom daz gestain we do jn the platern daz daz plut of jm has to give Man sal fennel jn wol syden vnd dor abe drink daz makes people ready j who warm jn the oren man has to poke sal fennel sam vnd so warm jn dy oren top daz todt dy warmth jn the oren vnd nymbt the wetagen k through which people daz plut get man sal fennel pleter with vinegar and put together uff dy prust vnd also dor abe drink daz verstelt daz plut l A special erczney of fennel Alt lewt should often eat fennel nüczen peÿde and drink daz sy bey jrer gestalt and beÿ jrer strength when the master write daz dj slang ader dÿ nater do with verger ngen daz sy fresh pleyben m Who wants to help jme for swollen man to poke fennel with oil and put on dy swollen daz helps against it. razor vein thrown n Who will help the sal fennel with vinegar syden vein and put onf dy vein thrown it helps o those who have a cold stomach and dÿ speyß do not want to keep Man sal fennel juice take a teyl and from reynem honey ij teyl vnd salt daz with each other literally cook vncz that it gets fat the same sal man in the morning ij spoon full nüczen sober daz helps the stomach vnd vil things p a special mercklich erczney man sal fennel wzcz jn wine syden vnd dor but drinking it helps the gemechtt vnd hilfft resist daz gyfftig it SEŸ gepÿssen vein sust q also hilfft against the geprechen of payments vnd hilfft the platern vnd hylfft the water of Auss gangs vnd reynigt the frawen jr heimlikeytt also hylfft the women Dy do child Neren vnd gepern daz jn dy milk is meret r Even if one sells the sam with pepper to stoz daz hylfft against dy water and is also good for many other things one has not with wine it hylfft jn water boiled and there of drinking
- Herbarius Moguntinus , Mainz 1484, Part I, Chapter 62: Feniculus (digitized version
- Gart der Gesundheit . Mainz 1485, Chapter 175: Feniculus (digitized version )
- Hortus sanitatis 1491, Mainz 1491, Part I, Chapter 189: Feniculus (digitized version )
- Hieronymus Brunschwig : Small distilling book , Strasbourg 1500, sheet 47v – 48r: Fennel krut water (digitized version )
- Paracelsus - Oporinus : Scholia & Observationes quaedam perutiles in Macri Poemata de Virtutibus Herbarum, & c. quas Ioh. Oporinus (dum per triennium aut ultra Theophrasti esset Amanuensis) ex ore dictantis studiose exceperat. (Useful comments and observations on the Macer poems about the powers of medicinal plants, which Johannes Oporinus - three years or more scribe of Paracelsus - has eagerly selected from the heard.) Huser edition of the works of Paracelsus, Basel 1590, part 7, page 263–264: De Foeniculo (digitized version )
- Otto Brunfels : Contrafayt Kreüterbůch . Johann Schott, Strasbourg 1532, p. 203: Fennel (digitized version)
- Hieronymus Bock : New Kreütter Bůch . Wendel Rihel, Strasbourg 1539, Part I, Chapter 149: Fennel (digitized version)
- Leonhart Fuchs : New Kreütterbuch… Michael Isingrin, Basel 1543, Chapter 191: Fennel (digitized version)
- Other part of the treasure Euonymi… first carried together by Mr Doctor Cunrat Geßner / Accordingly by Caspar Wolffen… described and manufactured in truck / now and recently interpreted by Johann Jacobo Nüscheler in Teütsche language . Zurich 1583, p. 154: Fenckel oil (digitized)
- Pietro Andrea Mattioli : Commentarii, in libros sex Pedacii Dioscoridis Anazarbei, de medica materia. Translation by Georg Handsch, edited by Joachim Camerarius the Younger , Johan Feyerabend, Franckfurt am Mayn 1586, sheet 269v – 270v: Fennel (digitized)
- Nicolas Lémery : Dictionnaire universel des drogues simples. , Paris 1699, p. 305: Foeniculum (digitized) ; Translation. Complete material lexicon. Initially drafted in French, but now after the third edition, which has been enlarged by a large [...] edition, translated into high German / By Christoph Friedrich Richtern, [...]. Leipzig: Johann Friedrich Braun, 1721, column 462: Foeniculum (digitized version )
- Albrecht von Haller (editor): Onomatologia medica completa or Medicinisches Lexicon which explains all names and artificial words which are peculiar to the science of medicine and the art of pharmacy clearly and completely [...]. Gaumische Handlung, Ulm / Frankfurt am Main / Leipzig 1755, Sp. 663–665: Foeniculum vulgare (digitized version )
- William Cullen : A treatise of the materia medica. Charles Elliot, Edinburgh 1789. Volume II, p. 158: Foeniculum (digitized version ) . German. Samuel Hahnemann . Schwickert, Leipzig 1790. Volume II, pp. 183-184: Fennel (digitized version)
- Jean-Louis Alibert : Nouveaux éléments de thérapeutique et de matière médicale. Crapart, Paris, 2nd ed., Volume II 1808, pp. 148–151: Fenouil (digitized)
- August Friedrich Hecker 's practical medicine theory. Revised and enriched with the latest discoveries by a practicing doctor . Camesius, Vienna, Volume II 1815, pp. 80–82: Semen Foeniculi (digitized version )
- Jonathan Pereira’s Handbook of Medicines Doctrine. From the point of view of the German Medicin edited by Rudolf Buchheim . Leopold Voss, Leipzig 1846-48, Volume II 1848, pp. 503-505: Foeniculum vulgare (digitized version )
- August Husemann / Theodor Husemann : The plant substances in chemical, physiological, pharmacological and toxicological terms. For doctors, pharmacists, chemists and pharmacologists. Springer, Berlin 1871, p. 1128: Fennel oil (digitized version )
- Theodor Husemann : Handbook of the entire drug theory. Springer, Berlin 2nd ed. 1883, pp. 1205–1207: Fructus Foeniculi (digitized version )
- Transcription and translation of Unterkircher: Feniculus : complexio calida in 3 °, sicca in 2 °, alias calida et sicca in 2 °. Electio: melior est recens domesticus boni saporis tendens ad acuitatem. iuvamentum: confert oculis et visum clarificat et provocat lac et urinam, resolvit ventositates. nocumentum: tarde digeritur. Remotio: per bonam masticationem et contritionem. Quid generat: colericos humores. Convenit frigidis, senibus, yeme et quando reperitur, regionibus frigidis et alijs, quibus reperitur. Fennel : warm complexion in the 3rd degree, dry in the 2nd, after others warm and dry in the 2nd degree. Preferable: preferably fresh from the garden, with good taste, tending to be hot. Benefit: good for the eyes, makes seeing clear, urinates and milk, relieves windiness. Damage: is digested slowly. Prevention (of harm): by chewing and pounding well. What it produces: bilious juices. Beneficial for people with a cold complexion, for old people, in winter and when it can be found, in cold areas and anywhere else where it is found.
- Georg August Pritzel , Carl Jessen : The German folk names of plants. New contribution to the German linguistic treasure. Philipp Cohen, Hanover 1882, page 152 f. ( online ).
- She Menglan, Mark F. Watson: Foeniculum. In: Flora of China. Volume 14, p. 134: Foeniculum vulgare. on-line. (Section description)
- Spiced fennel from Katzer's Spice Plants website.
- Erich Oberdorfer : Plant-sociological excursion flora. 6th edition. Ulmer Verlag, Stuttgart 1990, ISBN 3-8001-3454-3 .
- Rudolf Schubert, Klaus Werner, Hermann Meusel (eds.): Werner Rothmaler - excursion flora for the areas of the GDR and the FRG. Volume 2: Vascular Plants. 12th edition. People and Knowledge Volkseigener Verlag, Berlin 1983.
- Fennel. In: FloraWeb.de.
- Profile and distribution map for Bavaria . In: Botanical Information Hub of Bavaria .
- Fennel . In: BiolFlor, the database of biological-ecological characteristics of the flora of Germany.
- Foeniculum vulgare Mill. In: Info Flora , the national data and information center for Swiss flora . Retrieved January 7, 2016.
- Distribution in the Netherlands  (Dutch)
- Data sheet and pictures at Flora-de: Flora von Deutschland
- Vegetable fennel