Under bolting means the stretching of the plant shoots and the formation of buds during growth of plants and thus the transition of the plant from the vegetative to the generative phase . In many plant species, shooting is the prerequisite for flowering, fertilization and seed formation . In the production of forage and food plants, shooting is undesirable if not the seeds, but rather the subterranean part of the plant (for fodder beet, sugar beet) or the leaves (for lettuce) are to be used.
Some species of plants only shot when temporarily exposed to low temperatures. In agriculture, therefore, choosing the right time to sow crops is important. Winter cereals must be sown before winter so that adequate vernalization is possible. Only then did the plants shoot after the dormancy in the next spring and form the desired seeds (grains). But seeds and plants can also be artificially vernalized.
Fodder beet and sugar beet are biennial plants, they usually didn't shoot until the second year after sowing. Due to unfavorable weather conditions after sowing (late frost, low soil temperatures), unwanted shoots can occur in individual plants in the year of sowing. These plants are called "shooters"; they are very disadvantageous in harvesting and processing.
The shot of garden lettuce is triggered by the length of the summer day. Lettuce is a long-day plant that shoots and forms seed pods when exposed to light for more than 12 hours per day. This shooting can be prevented by temporarily covering the lettuce crops with opaque materials or by darkening greenhouses.
Artificial release of the lap
In plant breeding, the shoot is occasionally created artificially by exposing the plants to low temperatures or artificial light for a certain period of time. Such measures allow the research work to be carried out regardless of the season.
- Roast beef , labeled with shot in Tyrol