from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Raw venison from the deer

Venison (also venison, Wildbraet, Wilpert ) ( mhd. Wildbræt "meat wild") is the name given to meat from wild animals , which the hunting rights are so wild . A specific name for game meat in the English-speaking countries of Africa is " bushmeat ".

With the exception of seal meat , game meat is low in fat and also rich in proteins , minerals and vitamins .

Processing and meat hygiene

Even before the shot, but especially after the shot, the hunter is obliged to pay attention to meat hygiene . The shot must be applied in such a way that it is immediately fatal ( blade shot ) and contamination, for example from a woad wound shot , is avoided. Breaking open a hunted animal is part of game hygiene. The qualification for this takes place within the scope of the training for the hunting license and is one of the most important examination subjects for obtaining the legal hunting permit. With the exploitation of the hunted game, the hunter becomes a meat producer and trader, provided that he puts the meat on the market and is therefore subject to the strict provisions of the ordinance on hygiene requirements for the production, treatment and marketing of certain foods of animal origin ( Tier-LMHV). It is necessary to adhere to the cold chain, to carry out meat examinations, for example the trichinae check, and to make sure in general that the human health is ensured.

In hunting practice, a spatial separation when removing the fur, i.e. H. the "knock out of the ceiling" and the following processing required. The cutting usually takes place in a slaughterhouse set up for this purpose (cutting room). Here the floor and the walls must be washable up to a height of two meters and have a hot water connection with a sink. Protection from mice and insects through locks and fly screens is also necessary. A suspension device also prevents the venison from coming into direct contact with the floor or walls. In general, game should only be stored for a few days in an appropriate game refrigerator or a game cooling cell to mature .

Types of meat

  • Moose meat, deer meat , chamois meat and venison meat from wild animals are low in fat, whereas meat from wild animals is higher in fat. Male cloven-hoofed game hunted in the mating season has a strongly urinary smell and taste.
  • Wild boar meat is fatter than deer or roe deer. Wild boars can carry trichinae , which is why their meat is subject to trichinae inspection, which is carried out by an expert before the meat is consumed or sold.
  • Hare meat : the drumstick and back are excellent for roasting and braising.
  • Pheasant : Pheasant can also be prepared using traditional poultry recipes.
  • Partridge : Very tasty wild chicken.
  • Wild duck : Roasted, a popular holiday dish with red cabbage or the thrown breasts as schnitzel.
  • Ostrich : Fine-grained, tender and lean meat, which is suitable, for example, as a steak and fillet.
  • Kangaroo : The kangaroo meat is dark red and contains only two percent fat, so it is very lean. It can be grilled, stewed, boiled or fried; Due to the low fat content, however, it should only be prepared "medium", otherwise the meat will be very dry and hard.

Game dishes

Although wild schnitzel and wild pepper are the most common in European cuisine , there are many other ways to prepare game meat.

As starters :

As main course:

A traditional game dish is often served with spaetzle , red cabbage , hot fruits , chestnuts , cranberry sauce or chutneys .


Game meat from wild game is different from meat from game kept in enclosures. In an investigation, for example, increased total fat content was found in wild game animals , which can be attributed to the restricted freedom of movement and the additional feeding in the gate. Gatterwild is game, mostly fallow deer, red deer or wild boar, which is fenced in in a natural environment, but is fed with supplements due to the high animal density due to the lack of natural food. Game in the gate is not ownerless in contrast to game in the wild (depending on national legislation).

In the case of extensive gate keeping, on the other hand, it is ensured that fatty game meat is excluded and is thus equivalent to that of meat from wild game. By avoiding pesticides in gate maintenance z. B. if the Bavarian cultural landscape program is adhered to, the meat quality must be further increased.



If lead ammunition is used in hunting, there is a risk of increased lead contamination. The Federal Institute for Risk Assessment has made it clear in studies that normal consumers are unlikely to pose a health risk from the consumption of venison. Health risks are possible for risk groups such as pregnant women and children under seven years of age. The Swiss Federal Office of Public Health recommends pregnant women not to eat more than two servings of game meat per week.


The Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR) carried out a health assessment in 2018 and - based on the species and frequency of the infestation - estimated the risk of a parasitic disease from the consumption of infected game meat. The species of wild animals whose meat is typically consumed in Germany were considered: wild boar , roe deer , red deer and fallow deer . The institute included the following parasites and diseases caused by them in its assessment: toxoplasms (disease: toxoplasmosis ), trichinella (disease: trichinellosis ), sarcosporidia (disease: sarcosporidiosis), pork tapeworm ( disease: cysticercosis and taeniosis), small fox tapeworm ( Disease: echinococcosis ) and Duncker's muscle leech (possibly caused disease: larval alariosis).

If meat hygiene is only carelessly ensured or the meat is not prepared hygienically properly, these parasites can make people sick after consuming the meat. Except for high consumers, such as hunter families and their surroundings, who eat over 60 game meals a year, a German person eats on average one or two game meals a year with around 200 - 400 grams of game. Because of this small amount, the BfR assesses the risk of becoming infected with pathogens in this way as low.

An increasing trend towards the consumption of semi-raw venison with a pink core or raw sausage products can be observed. In order to reduce the health risk, especially pregnant women and people with a weakened immune system, the BfR recommends that game meat and products made from it only consume fully cooked.


Since the Chernobyl disaster , it has been pointed out that game from the areas affected by the radioactive contamination cannot be enjoyed without a certain risk.


Web links

Commons : Venison  - Collection of images, videos and audio files
Wiktionary: Venison  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations

Individual evidence

  1. Haseder, p. 893
  2. Haseder, p. 893
  3. ; Text of the Tier-LMHV
  4. ↑ Hunter 's language # blanket
  5. Gerald Rimbach, Jennifer Möhring, Helmut F. Erbersdobler: Food and goods knowledge for beginners . Springer-Verlag, 2010, ISBN 978-3-642-04486-1 , p. 71–72 ( [accessed April 13, 2019]).
  6. Minced Meat Ordinance
  7. ^ Atanassova, Ring and Altemeier, 1989
  8. Doctors newspaper , lead ammunition contaminated venison
  9. PlosONE Potential Hazard to Human Health ... (English)
  13. Swiss Federal Office of Public Health: accessed at , last on November 25, 2017
  14. ^ Federal Institute for Risk Assessment: Game Meat: Health Assessment of Human Pathogenic Parasites. December 21, 2018, accessed July 12, 2019 .
  15. Handelszeitung , 2006 edition - Chernobyl: Game and mushrooms exposed to radiation
  16. Stern , article from April 21, 2006 - 20 years of Chernobyl: Wild in Bavaria still irradiated -
  17. , article from July 29, 2010 - Federal government still pays for Chernobyl consequences - 424,650 euros per year for contaminated venison ( Memento from August 1, 2010 in the Internet Archive )