Sovetsk (Kaliningrad)

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flag coat of arms
coat of arms
Federal district Northwest Russia
Oblast Kaliningrad
Urban district Sovetsk
head Natalia Soroka
First mention 1365
Earlier names Tilsit (until 1946)
City since 1552
surface 43.8  km²
population 41,705 inhabitants
(as of Oct. 14, 2010)
Population density 952 inhabitants / km²
Height of the center 10  m
Time zone UTC + 2
Telephone code (+7) 40161
Post Code 238750-238769
License Plate 39, 91
OKATO 27 430
Geographical location
Coordinates 55 ° 5 '  N , 21 ° 53'  E Coordinates: 55 ° 5 '0 "  N , 21 ° 53' 0"  E
Sovetsk (Kaliningrad) (European Russia)
Red pog.svg
Location in the western part of Russia
Sovetsk (Kaliningrad) (Kaliningrad Oblast)
Red pog.svg
Location in Kaliningrad Oblast
List of cities in Russia
Tilsit northeast of Königsberg and north of Insterburg ( Insterbg. ) On a map from 1908.
Tilsit City Council (September 7, 1914)
Germ cell Tilsits (W. Thalmann)
Tilsit between Deutscher Straße and Memel
Tilsit, market square with town hall and Schenkendorf monument (1930)
Row of houses in Sovetsk (2008)

Sowetsk ( Russian Советск (pronunciation: [sɐˈvʲɛtsk] ), also transcribed as Sowjetsk ; German  Tilsit , Lithuanian Tilžė ) is a city in the Russian Oblast Kaliningrad , directly on the Lithuanian border. It has 41,705 inhabitants (as of October 14, 2010).


Sowetsk is located at the confluence of the Tilse ( Russian Тыльжа / Tylscha , Lithuanian Tile ) with the Memel ( memelis, mimelis "quieter, slower"; Russian Neman, Lithuanian Nemunas ) and is therefore a border town to Lithuania . The former place name Tilsit (formerly also Schalauerburg) comes from the river Tilse, whose name is derived from Prussian- Schalauisch tilse "swampy" (Lithuanian tilžti "to stand under water, swell, soften, soak up with water"). The Schloßmühlenteich was created in 1562 when they were dammed.

Sovetsk is administratively directly subordinate to the oblast ( irrespective of the rajon , i.e. independent of a district) and forms its own urban district.


Tilsit coat of arms (1905)

The trade center of the region called Tilsit developed from a Lischke by the end of the 15th century. Duke Albrecht granted him town charter in 1552. During the Seven Years' War the city was occupied by Russian troops from 1758 to 1762. Tilsit gained world historical importance in the Fourth Coalition War , when France concluded the Peace of Tilsit with Russia and Prussia in 1807 . The city was able to develop economically until 1914, unaffected by armed conflicts. It became an important location for the timber industry after the rafting industry had already fed the city in the Middle Ages . Tilsits cheese , the Tilsiter , became world famous .

In 1658, perhaps as early as 1313, the first ship bridge was built over the Memel . The first stone bridge was completed in 1767. The roads to Königsberg and Memel were built in 1832 and 1853. At Heinrich Kleffel's instigation , Tilsit was connected to the Prussian Eastern Railway in 1865 . The Tilsit – Memel railway went into operation in 1875.

In the 19th and 20th centuries Tilsit was the seat of numerous Lithuanian associations; because half of the inhabitants in the surrounding area spoke the Lithuanian language at that time . Nevertheless, in 1921, of the more than 1,000 Lithuanians living in the city, only 42 voted to join Lithuania.

First World War

When the deployment of Russian troops was reported at the beginning of the First World War , many Tilsiters fled to Königsberg and Berlin. Lord Mayor Eldor Pohl obliged the city councils and city councilors to remain. On August 20, all men who were fit for work were brought to Koenigsberg on barges to save them from threatened deportation to Russia. A pioneer command of the Prussian army was supposed to blow up the Königin-Luise-Brücke . Pohl averted the demolition through telephone calls with the General Command of the I. Army Corps . All military personnel left the city. On August 25, 1914, a Cossack patrol negotiated with the mayor and his representative on the street. The next day Russian infantry and a few squadrons of Cossacks moved in with their entourage and took up quarters in the empty dragoon barracks . The soldiers belonged to the Tauroggen border troop and knew the city. There was a ban on alcohol and a curfew . Pohl and City Councilor Teschner had to report to the city commandant, Lieutenant Colonel Bogdanow, every day. The city police were allowed to continue to act. Completely closed, the city only learned of the Battle of Tannenberg after the Russians had withdrawn. On August 30th, the Russian 43rd Infantry Division under Lieutenant General von Holmsen entered Tilsit. A contribution of 40,000 marks was imposed on the city. Eleven city representatives were to be taken hostage in the tsarist empire . Instead, the wine merchant Paul Lesch suggested dividing the city into twelve districts, for which every hostage should be held liable with head and fortune. Grand Duke Nikolai Nikolajewitsch and General Paul von Rennenkampff agreed. It stayed peaceful. Advancing from Königsberg and Memel on September 12, 1914 , Prussian troops captured all 6,000 Russians. The artillery captain Fletcher prevented the Queen Luise Bridge from being blown up. The square in front of the German Church was named after him.

Interwar period

After the war, the Lithuanian occupation of the Memelland had a negative impact on the Tilsit economy because the city had lost an important part of its hinterland.

From 1895 to 1945 Tilsit was an independent urban district in the Gumbinnen administrative district in East Prussia in the German Empire . The administration of the Tilsit district, later Tilsit-Ragnit , was also in Tilsit.

Second World War

Tilsit was attacked by Soviet long-distance pilots on June 22 and 23, 1941 and in June 1942 . The city ​​suffered the first heavy Soviet bombing raid during the Second World War at night on 20/21. Endured April 1943, which was followed by further major attacks in July and August 1944. In July Tilsit was evacuated, initially women with children. In October 1944 the front had advanced as far as the Memel. Tilsit was declared a front-line town and the rest of the civilian population was largely expelled. The tram, which has been operated by E-Werk und Straßenbahn Tilsit AG since 1900 , ceased operations. After a heavy artillery bombardment, which - together with the heavy bombing damage - destroyed the city up to 80%, Tilsit was taken by Soviet troops on January 20, 1945. Due to the Potsdam Agreement , the city and the northern parts of East Prussia became part of the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic of the Soviet Union, subject to a peace treaty .

Soviet Union

Since 1946 the now Soviet city has been called Sowetsk (translated roughly council city, from Soviet "council"). Northern East Prussia with Sovetsk was hermetically sealed off as the Kaliningrad Oblast for military reasons. The previous German resident population was expelled until 1947 unless they fled towards the end of the war . Mainly Russians from central Russia and from the area of ​​today's Volga federal district as well as Belarusians were settled.

Russian Federation

After the collapse of the Soviet Union , Kaliningrad Oblast became a Russian exclave between Poland and Lithuania and Sovetsk became a border town on the Russian-Lithuanian border formed by the Memel. At the same time, the cordon off the Kaliningrad Oblast was lifted, making Sovetsk accessible to foreign visitors.

Monument of the Peace of Tilsit (2011)

Population numbers

year Check-
1782 7,701 without the garrison
1802 7,669 including the military, of which 1,492 in the suburb of Freiheit and 872 in the suburb of Meervisch (also Mehlvisch )
1875 19,753
1880 21,400
1885 22,422
1890 24,545 thereof 23,249 Protestants, 565 Catholics and 516 Jews
1900 34,539 including 32,375 Evangelicals and 859 Catholics
1910 39,013 of which 36,028 Evangelicals and 1,202 Catholics
1925 50,834 thereof 48,201 Evangelicals, 1,406 Catholics, 106 other Christians and 544 Jews
1933 57.286 thereof 54,243 Evangelicals, 1,671 Catholics, 22 other Christians and 538 Jews
1939 56,573 thereof 51,693 Evangelicals, 1,702 Catholics, 1,088 other Christians and 298 Jews
1946 approx. 6,500
1959 31,941
1970 38,456
1979 40.181
1989 41,881
2002 43,224
2010 41,705

Districts and suburbs of Tilsit in German times



The Christian faith already gained a foothold in the Tilsit area during the time of the order . In the pre-Reformation period - in 1515 - the last Grand Master Albrecht founded a new monastery in Tilsit in order to serve our poor ignorant and unbelieving subjects for salvation and bliss on the edge of his dominion . But the Reformation gained more and more influence and the monastery system came to an end. The Commander of Ragnit (Russian: Neman) saved the Tilsit monastery clock from the demolition of the building . In 1525 Albrecht confessed to the Reformation and officially converted to Lutheran teaching.



The oldest congregation in the city, which was rejected in its founding in the pre-Reformation period, was that of the German Church (also called "Stadtkirche", "Deutschordenskirche" or "Alte Kirche"). The community of the Lithuanian Church (also called "Country Church") was established in the time of Duke Albrecht . It was separated from the German Church on July 29, 1686 and made independent. In 1925 the Lithuanian community had 8,800 members.

Front view of the former Kreuzkirche in Tilsit, which has now been converted into a factory

In 1645 an evangelical chapel was built in Tilsit, and in 1898 the Reformed Church was built, whose congregation first held their prayers in the castle and from 1703 in a prayer room. In 1925, the Reformed church had 800 members. The town parish, which in 1925 already comprised more than 45,000 parishioners, got an additional church with the Kreuzkirche (also called "New Church") in 1911. While there were five pastors' posts at the German Church before 1945, two pastors held office at the Lithuanian Church and one clergyman at the Reformed Church.

As a result of the flight and expulsion of the local population and the restrictive religious policy of the Soviet Union , church-Protestant life in Tilsit came to a standstill after 1945. Today the city is located in the catchment area of ​​the Evangelical Lutheran congregation in Slavsk (Heinrichswalde), which was newly established in the 1990s and belongs to the provost of Kaliningrad (Königsberg) of the Evangelical Lutheran Church of European Russia .

German Church (Stadtkirche)
Interior view of the Tilsit German Church
Former Tilsit Reformed Church. Only the tower has been preserved.

The church was built on the site of an earlier church that was consecrated in 1534 but was demolished in 1598 due to dilapidation. Between 1598 and 1612 it was built as a three-nave brick building without a choir. The tower with its triple dome, resting on eight oak balls, was not completed until 1702. The church had a rich interior. The organ came from the workshop of Burghart Wiechert from Paderborn and was built in 1575. In 1755 a new plant was installed, which was renewed and expanded in 1880.

The German Church no longer stands today. After gradual destruction in the war and post-war period (the wooden interior was used as firewood), the building was demolished in 1965. In its place is an empty square today.

Lithuanian Church (Country Church)

The Lithuanian Church was built in 1757 by the master builder Karl Ludwig Bergius . It was a building with an oval floor plan with a tower-like roof turret. Inside, Tuscan pillars on pedestals supported the wooden barrel vault. A simple pulpit altar stood on the east wall . The organ from the Sauer workshop in Frankfurt (Oder) was inaugurated on September 9, 1860. This church is also no longer standing today. After a fire, it was demolished in 1951/1952.


The foundation stone for the construction of the Kreuzkirche was laid on May 16, 1909 . It was designed by the architect Karl Siebold in Bethel near Bielefeld . The church was built in the neo-Gothic style from exposed brickwork. The tower, which rests on a field stone foundation , stood to the side and formed the extension of the stepped gable wall, was covered with a pointed helmet . The church building was consecrated on February 6, 1911 and survived the war unscathed. In the 1970s, however, it was used as a factory hall and converted for it. The roof was removed and new windows were broken into the masonry. The former church building is now surrounded by other company buildings.

reformed Church

The Tilsiter Reformed Church was built between 1898 and 1900 based on a design by the Kapitzke government building council . It was a slate-roofed brick building in the neo-Gothic style with a tower standing on the side. To the left of the triumphal arch the pulpit stood on a winding column, the altar table was kept simple - in keeping with Reformed tradition. The organ was made by August Terletzki from Elbing (now in Polish: Elbląg).

Like the parishes of the Germans and the Lithuanian Church, the Reformed Church belonged to the Church Province of East Prussia of the Church of the Old Prussian Union . However, it was not incorporated into the Tilsit (-Ragnit) church district, but belonged to the German Reformed inspection of a separate Reformed church district .

Damaged in the war, the building deteriorated more and more in the years that followed. In 1975 the nave was torn down and a club building was built in its place. Only the tower has remained to this day.

Evangelical chapel

A chapel built in 1645 was demolished in 1771 and rebuilt in 1774 as a plastered brick building with a turret. The plain interior had a flat wooden ceiling. The pulpit was to the left of the altar. In 1878 the building was repaired, and from 1896 it served as an auxiliary church for the municipality. The organ came from Eduard Wittek from Elbing.

Church district Tilsit-Ragnit / Diocese Tilsit

Since the Reformation, Tilsit has been a central location for neighboring parishes and their parishes . In 1789 the Tilsit inspection included eleven parishes: Coadjuthen (now Lithuanian: Katyčiai), Heinrichswalde (Russian: Slawsk), Kallningken (Prochladnoje) mit Inse (Pritschaly), Kaukehmen (Jasnoje), Lappienen (Bolschije Bereschki), Neukirch (until 1770) : Joneykischken, now russian: Timirjasewo) Piktupönen (Piktupėnai) Plaschken (Plaškiai) Tauroggen (Tauragė) and the German Church and the Lithuanian Church in Tilsit (Sovetsk).

In 1854 the church district boundaries were drawn differently. The Tilsit inspection comprised only six parishes, four of which were on the other side of the Memel : the German and Lithuanian churches of Tilsit, as well as Coadjuthen , Piktupönen , Plaschken and Willkischken (Lithuanian: Vilkyškiai). Sixty years later - in 1916 - were part of the Diocese of Tilsit eleven parishes on both sides of the Memel: New Argeningken (Nowokolchosnoje) Coadjuthen , Laugszargen (Lauksargiai) Nattkischken (Natkiškiai) Piktupönen , Plaschken , Pokraken (Leninskoye), jerking (Rukai ), German Church and Lithuanian Church in Tilsit (Sowetsk) and Willkischken . Up until the 1920s there were still almost 5,000 Lithuanian-speaking residents in the Tilsit area. Apart from two congregations, Lithuanian was also preached in all churches.

In the course of the formation of a new Tilsit-Ragnit district , changes to the territories of the previous church districts Tilsit and Ragnit (now in Russian: Neman) were necessary. Parishes north of the Memel were incorporated into the Heydekrug and Pogegen church districts in 1923 . In view of the resulting loss of a total of ten parishes, the common church district Tilsit-Ragnit was founded , but because of its size it was divided into two superintendent districts. While the diocese of Ragnit had nine parishes with 47,500 parishioners, there were five in the diocese of Tilsit with a total of 63,400 parishioners. The status of 1945 was the parishes:


The first Catholic place of worship was the "Drangowskinne" church on the Drangowski hill south of Tilsit. In 1701 the consecration took place by the Bishop of Warmia. Regular services have been held since 1732 with permission. The chapel in Drangowski was demolished in the middle of the 19th century after a Roman Catholic church was built in Tilsit between 1847 and 1851. After the Second World War, this served as a waste collection point. The nave was demolished in the 1960 / 1970s to extract building materials. The tower was blown up in 1983.

In 1992 the Roman Catholic Church got the property back and built a new church on the old foundations, which was consecrated in 2000.

The Russian Orthodox Church in Sovetsk

The congregation of the Russian Orthodox Church, which was newly established in Sovetsk in the 1990s, was initially temporarily housed in a cemetery chapel, but construction of its own house of worship began in 1996. The “Church of the Three Holy Hierarchs” is the worship center of the growing Orthodox community in Sovetsk. It belongs to the diocese of Kaliningrad and Baltijsk of the Russian Orthodox Church.


The first Jewish cemetery in Tilsit was established in 1825. In 1842 a newly built synagogue was inaugurated. After almost 100 years of existence, it was set on fire on November 9, 1938 . While 265 Jews were still living in Tilsit in 1843, there were already 780 in 1895 and 797 in 1928. The last 300 Jews were deported in 1942 and murdered near Minsk.

Schools before 1945

Reports from the years 1804, 1864 and 1874 are available about the older history of the school system in Tilsit. In addition to the civil schools, there was a garrison school for the children of NCOs and military officials until 1919 .

In 1939, Tilsit had 40 school education institutes in the city and the surrounding area, including 19 elementary schools, eleven technical schools (eight private), three vocational schools and the provincial deaf-mute educational institution. Some school buildings are still in use today, some by the Russian military.

High schools
Royal Lithuanian Provincial School - State High School
Tilsiter Realgymnasium with Oberrealschule
Queen Luise School - Lyceum
Middle schools
Herzog-Albrechts-School (for boys)
Cecilien School (for girls)
Private school for girls
Technical and vocational schools
Higher business school
Commercial school
Business Vocational school
Commercial vocational school
Housekeeping School
Girls Vocational School

Political officials

Mayor and Lord Mayor until 1945

Head of civil administration 1946–1947

  • 1946–1947: each. I. Swerev (Е. И. Зверев)

Party secretaries of the WKP (B) / KPdSU 1947–1991

  • 1947–1948: each. I. Swerev (Е. И. Зверев)
  • 1948–1953: KP Marzew (К. П. Марцев)
  • 1953–1962: Boris Gawrilowitsch Michailow (Борис Гаврилович Михайлов)
  • 1962–1966: KP (?) Bondarewa [Babejewa] (К. П. (?) Бондарева [Бабаева])
  • 1966–1972: BS Nefedow (Б. С. Нефедов)
  • 1972-1973: Ju. P. Petrov (Ю. П. Петров)
  • 1973–1987: Iwan Iwanowitsch Petuschkow (Иван Иванович Петушков)
  • 1987–1991: PN Marin (П. Н. Марин)

Chairwoman of the City Council 1947–1991

  • 1947-1949: W. Je. Pavlov (В. Е. Павлов)
  • 1949–1950: AN Kopylow (А. Н. Копылов)
  • 1950–1952: Wassili Wassiljewitsch Besfamilny (Василий Васильевич Бесфамильный)
  • 1952: FI Polyakov (Ф. И. Поляков)
  • 1953–1960: NK Medwedski (Н. К. Медведский)
  • 1960–1962: KM (?) Babejewa (К. М. (?) Бабаева)
  • 1962–1965: A. Yes. Lukyanenko (А. Я. Лукьяненко)
  • 1965–1966: BS Nefedow (Б. С. Нефедов)
  • 1966–1983: Charis Sadykowitsch Janbuchtin (Хафиз Садыкович Янбухтин)
  • 1983–1985: Ju. A. Swerev (Ю. А. Зверев)
  • 1985–1989: AA Stepanow (А. А. Степанов)
  • 1990–1991: WW Besdeneschnych (В. В. Безденежных)


  • 1991–1993: WL Ponomarenko (В. Л. Пономаренко)
  • 1993–1998: Wladimir Wiktorowitsch Lissowin (Владимир Викторович Лисовин)
  • 1998–2007: Vyacheslav Nikolajewitsch Swetlow (Вячеслав Николаевич Светлов)
  • 2007–2011: Viktor Eduardowitsch Smilgin (Виктор Эдуардович Смильгин)
  • 2011–2015: Nikolai Nikolajewitsch Voishchev (Николай Николаевич Воищев)
  • since 2015: Natalja Wiktorovna Soroka (Наталья Викторовна Сорока)

Heads of administration

  • 2011–2015: Vladimir Evgenyevich Lutsenko (Владимир Евгеньевич Луценко)
  • 2015–2020: Nikolai Nikolajewitsch Voishchev (Николай Николаевич Воищев)
  • 2020: Alexandr Nikolajewitsch Burych (Александр Николаевич Бурых) (i. V.)
  • since 2020: Andrei Sergejewitsch Sergejew (Андрей Сергеевич Сергеев) (i. V.)

Twin cities

  • GermanyGermany Kiel , since 1953/1992

Culture and sights

The art nouveau houses , the theater, the Königin-Luise-Brücke (border crossing to Lithuania) and the Gorodskoje osero (city lake ; formerly a castle mill pond ), a former large mill pond from the time of the order, are well worth seeing in the city center . The city's original churches were largely destroyed in World War II and their ruins torn down in the post-war period. The former synagogue was converted into a Russian Orthodox Church. Another large Russian Orthodox church in traditional Russian architectural style was completed in November 2007. There is also a new building for a Roman Catholic church for the Lithuanians living in the city , which was ceremoniously consecrated on August 20, 2000. The building of the lodge to the three patriarchs, built by Erich Mendelsohn in 1925/26, survived the Second World War .

With the income from a lottery, the city administration wants to renew the Jakobsruhe Park and make it attractive. Fountains, bike paths, garden cafes, the cleaning of the ponds and the rebuilding of Queen Luise's monument should serve this purpose.

The brick complex of the Actienbrauerei, built in 1871, was at least partially demolished in 2010, although the Russian administration had included the brewery, which had been inactive since 1944, in the list of listed buildings. The owner of the property justified the demolition with safety concerns.

Efforts to rename the city

Since 2006 there has been a citizens' movement for renaming the city in Tilsit . In 2009, the mayor at the time stated that around 50% of the population were in favor. The old name is already part of the current names of a local radio station ( Tilsitskaja Wolna "Tilsiter Welle") and the city theater (Tilsit-Teatr). In addition, the earlier city arms are used again. However, the city administration has not yet issued any official declarations of intent to rename it.

In 2018 the director of the City History Museum was dismissed because, in the opinion of the authorities, she had emphasized the city's German past too much.

sons and daughters of the town

In chronological order

18th century

19th century

20th century

Honorary citizen

In chronological order

Economy and Infrastructure

Port area in Tilsit (1930s)

Today there are pulp and food industries in Sovetsk . The Tilsit pulp factory, founded in 1897, was a branch of the Waldhof AG pulp factory from 1907 until the Second World War . The city has a river port , several shipyards and one of the most important road border crossings between Russia and Lithuania on the Kaliningrad - Riga route .

There are rail connections to Chernyakhovsk (Insterburg) , to Kaliningrad and to nearby Neman ( Ragnit , goods traffic only). The railway connection to neighboring Lithuania has been closed.

Tilsiter cheese

Preparation of Tilsit cheese, East Prussia, 1930s . Source: Federal Archives

There were already cheese dairies during the time of the order, because 17 villages were called Milchbude at the same time. The Tilsiter cheese is a result of improved recipes by Dutch Mennonites , Salzburg residents and immigrants from Switzerland . After the Great Plague in the first half of the 18th century, they had immigrated to the depopulated northern East Prussia as religious refugees or followed the calls of the Prussian rulers. The round red-brown cheese wheels were 10 cm high and approx. 25 cm in diameter. They were wrapped in parchment (later in tinfoil) and sent ten in wooden rolls. Cheese is only occasionally still produced in small businesses in Sovetsk under the name “Sowjetskij” or “Tilsitskij”.

See also


The city was in the spring of 1939 a. a. The setting for Veit Harlan's feature film Die Reise nach Tilsit , based on the story of the same name by Hermann Sudermann , who had graduated from secondary school in the city. Numerous external shoots of the film were completed in the old town of Tilsit, which created a small cinematic monument to the former Tilsit.

Even after 1945 the city served as a feature film set, e.g. B. in the Soviet war film Встреча на Эльбе (German title: Encounter on the Elbe ) from 1948/1949. In this film about the Second World War, the then still seemingly intact cityscape of Tilsit was captured several times. The clash between US armed forces and the Red Army on the banks of the Elbe in Torgau was shot here on the banks of the Memel. The visually fully preserved German Church and the spire of the former town hall are also clearly visible here .

The protagonist in Bernhard Schlink's novel Olga worked as a village teacher in the country north of Tilsit for almost 30 years until she became deaf after an illness and had to move to Wroclaw. Initially sent "to the end of the world" at the beginning of the 20th century through a forced transfer from the school office initiated by a schemer, Olga soon took part in the city's cultural life and regularly reads the Tilsiter Zeitung (Chapter 12). In 1910 her friend and secret lover gave a lecture on the Arctic to the "Tilsit Patriotic Society for Geography and History" (Chapter 18). Schlink describes the East Prussian landscape very well.


Web links

Commons : Sowetsk  - collection of pictures, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. a b Itogi Vserossijskoj perepisi naselenija 2010 goda. Kaliningradskaya oblastʹ. (Results of the 2010 all-Russian census. Kaliningrad Oblast.) Volume 1 , Table 4 (Download from the website of the Kaliningrad Oblast Territorial Organ of the Federal Service for State Statistics of the Russian Federation)
  2. On the deportation of German civilians from East Prussia to Russia see: Michael Schwartz : “Ethnic cleansing” in modern times. Global interactions between nationalist and racist politics of violence in the 19th and 20th centuries . De Gruyter, Berlin / Boston 2013, ISBN 978-3-486-72142-3 , p. 27.
  3. Paul Lesch: The Russians are coming. In: 8th Tilsiter Rundbrief. 1978/79, pp. 14-21.
  4. ^ Johann Friedrich Goldbeck : Complete topography of the Kingdom of Prussia . Part I: Topography of East Prussia . Marienwerder 1785, p. 31.
  5. EC Thiel: Statistical-topographical description of the city of Tilse . Königsberg 1804, pp. 14-15.
  6. a b c d e f g h i Michael Rademacher: German administrative history from the unification of the empire in 1871 to the reunification in 1990. tilsit.html. (Online material for the dissertation, Osnabrück 2006).
  7. a b c d e f census
  8. a b c churches in Tilsit at .
  9. Walther Hubatsch : History of the Protestant Church in East Prussia. Volume 1, Göttingen 1968, p. 5.
  10. Walther Hubatsch: History of the Protestant Church in East Prussia. Volume 3: Documents. Göttingen 1968, pp. 488-489.
  11. Friedwald Moeller: Old Prussian Protestant Pastor's Book from the Reformation to the Expulsion in 1945. Hamburg 1968, pp. 142–143.
  12. Evangelical Lutheran Provosty Kaliningrad ( Memento of the original dated August 29, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. . @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  13. Walther Hubatsch: History of the Protestant Church in East Prussia. Volume 2: Pictures of East Prussian churches. Göttingen 1968, p. 113, figs. 508–511.
  14. Walther Hubatsch: History of the Protestant Church in East Prussia. Volume 2: Pictures of East Prussian churches. Göttingen 1968, p. 114, fig. 512 a. 513.
  15. Walther Hubatsch: History of the Protestant Church in East Prussia. Göttingen 1968, p. 114, fig. 514 f.
  16. Walther Hubatsch: History of the Protestant Church in East Prussia. Volume 2: Pictures of East Prussian churches. Göttingen 1968, p. 114, fig. 516.
  17. Walther Hubatsch: History of the Protestant Church in East Prussia. Volume 3: Documents. Göttingen 1968, p. 508.
  18. Реформистская кирха Тильзита - The Reformed Church Tilsit at (with photos 2012/13).
  19. Walther Hubatsch: History of the Protestant Church in East Prussia. Volume 2: Pictures of East Prussian churches. Göttingen 1968, p. 114, fig. 517.
  20. Walther Hubatsch: History of the Protestant Church in East Prussia. Volume 3: Documents. Göttingen 1968, p. 419.
  21. Walther Hubatsch: History of the Protestant Church in East Prussia. Volume 3: Documents. Göttingen 1968, p. 430.
  22. Walther Hubatsch: History of the Protestant Church in East Prussia. Volume 3: Documents. Göttingen 1968, p. 438.
  23. Walther Hubatsch: History of the Protestant Church in East Prussia. Volume 3: Documents. Göttingen 1968, pp. 437 and 444
  24. The Catholic Church in the Tilsit district on
  25. ^ Jewish history in Tilsit at .
  26. Ruth Leiserowitz: Tilsit and its Jews. (PDF) Retrieved December 4, 2016 .
  27. EC Thiel: Statistical-topographical description of the city of Tilse . Königsberg 1804, pp. 147-167.
  28. ^ Ludwig Adolf Wiese : The higher school system in Prussia. Historical-statistical representation . Berlin 1864, pp. 63-65.
  29. Gerlach: On the history of the Tilsiter elementary school system. With an addendum from the same and an appendix from Dir. Kaiser. In: Old Prussian monthly. Volume 11, Königsberg i. Pr. 1874, pp. 648-661.
  30. Use of Tilsiter schools 1944 and 1994 In: 26. Tilsiter Rundbrief. 1996/97, p. 70.
  31. ^ Helmut Fritzler: List of Tilsit schools. ( Memento of the original from April 28, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. (City of Tilsit). @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  32. Preußische Allgemeine Zeitung (Das Ostpreußenblatt), No. 49, December 5, 2009, p. 13.
  33. Prussian Allgemeine Zeitung 32/2010 of 14 August 2010 .
  34. Kaliningrad: Between Regermanization and Tilsiter Peace. Article in Russland-Aktuell, October 21, 2009.
  35. ^ Official website of the city district .
  36. ^ Too much Bobrowski , in: Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung , December 12, 2018, p. 13.
  37. ^ Mourning for Horst Mertineit . Obituary in the Kieler Nachrichten on May 24, 2013
  38. Коган Павел Борисович , (Russian)
  39. Behr was a member of the Corps Littuania .
  40. Film fragment from Die Reise nach Tilsit, available at: from 1:09 and 2:35
  41. ( Memento of the original from July 16, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  42. Documentary: Back then in East Prussia, Part 2/2, available at: ( Memento from July 23, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) from 1:13:27.
  43. Bernhard Schlink: Olga
  44. ^ Bernhard Schlink: Olga . Diogenes, Zurich 2018, ISBN 978-3-257-07015-6 (320 pages).