from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

coat of arms
coat of arms
Federal district Northwest Russia
Oblast Kaliningrad
Rajon Slavsk
First mention 1292
Earlier names Heinrichswalde (until 1946)
City since 1946
surface 11  km²
population 4614 inhabitants
(as of Oct. 14, 2010)
Population density 419 inhabitants / km²
Height of the center m
Time zone UTC + 2
Telephone code (+7) 40163
Post Code 238600
License Plate 39, 91
OKATO 27 236 501
Geographical location
Coordinates 55 ° 3 '  N , 21 ° 41'  E Coordinates: 55 ° 3 '0 "  N , 21 ° 41' 0"  E
Slavsk (European Russia)
Red pog.svg
Location in the western part of Russia
Slavsk (Kaliningrad Oblast)
Red pog.svg
Location in Kaliningrad Oblast
List of cities in Russia

Slavsk ( Russian Славск ; until 1946 German Heinrichswalde , Lithuanian Gastos ) is a small town in the Russian Oblast of Kaliningrad . It is the administrative center of the local government unit Stadtkreis Slawsk in slavsky district . The place has 4614 inhabitants (as of October 14, 2010). The current name Slavsk is derived from the Russian word Slawa (fame), freely translated glorious city .

Geographical location

The village is located in the historic East Prussia region , 15 kilometers southwest of Tilsit ( Sowjetsk ) and the border with Lithuania .

The place is the center of the Elk Lowlands , a moor region on the Curonian Lagoon .


Heinrichswalde northeast of Königsberg and southwest of Tilsit on a map from 1908.

The place has been known since 1292. In 1657 Heinrich Ehrentreich von Halle (hence the place name) received it from the Great Elector. The manor, not far from the church built in 1686, became a domain in 1738 and was later privatized again. In 1785 Heinrichswalde is described as a village with a church, a windmill and 57 fireplaces (households).

In 1818 Heinrichswalde became the administrative center with the administrative center of the newly founded Prussian district Niederung (from 1938 elk lowlands ) in the administrative district of Gumbinnen . In 1939 the elevation to the city was initiated, but this was prevented by the outbreak of war. In 1891 it was connected to the Tilsit - Königsberg railway line , which contributed to the market town's economic boom. The dairy industry with cattle breeding, dairies and the production of Tilsit cheese flourished. Salty and sulphurous springs were discovered and a "salty and sulphurous sun and sun bath" was created. At the beginning of the 20th century Heinrichswalde was the capital of the Niederung district, had a Protestant church, a district court, a cement factory and was visited as a climatic health resort because of the nearby coniferous forests . Heinrichswalde was allowed to call itself "Climatic Spa" and "Garden City". It was a destination especially for the nearby Tilsit .

In 1945 Heinrich Walte belonged to the district Elchniederung in Administrative district Gumbinnen the province of East Prussia of the German Reich .

During the Second World War , Heinrichswalde was evacuated together with the Elchniederung district in October 1944 before the Red Army marched , initially only to the Heiligenbeil district. On January 20, 1945, Soviet troops occupied the place. The drainage systems were devastated and the surrounding land became swampy. The last landowner from the Bierfreund family perished on the run in 1945.

After the end of the war, Heinrichswalde was placed under Soviet administration by the Soviet occupying power together with the northern half of East Prussia in the summer of 1945 and assigned to the Kaliningrad Oblast; In 1946 the place received city rights under its current name.

Slavskoje gorodskoje posselenije 2008–2015

The location of the urban municipality Slavskoye gorodskoye posselenije in the middle of Slavsk district

The urban municipality of Slavskoye gorodskoye posselenije (ru. Славское городское поселение) was established in 2008. The city of Slavsk was the eponymous place and administrative seat of the municipality with a further six settlements and a total of 6266 inhabitants (as of 2010), who lived in an area of ​​106 km² (more than two thirds of them in the city of Slavsk). At the end of 2015, the community was dissolved and its places incorporated into the city ​​district of Slavsk .

Slavskoje gorodskoje posselenije included six settlements in addition to the city of Slavsk, which previously belonged to the Gastellowski selski okrug district .

Place name German name
Gastellowo (Гастеллово) Great Friedrichsdorf
Maiskoje (Майское) OF snails
Prigorodnoye (Пригородное) Sand river / Lindental
Priosjorje (Приозёрье) Argelothen / Argendorf
Sosnovoe (Сосновое) Waldkrug, Tilsit district
Sosnjaki (Сосняки) Peterswalde

Population development

until 1945
year number Remarks
1816 0 248 150 of them in the village and 98 on the manor
1852 0 862 711 of them in the village and 151 on the manor
1861 0975 in December, of which 868 in the village, 98 on the manor and nine at the mill
1885 1,592
1900 2,257 mostly evangelicals
1925 2,581
1933 3,180
1939 3,467
since 1945
year Residents
1959 3,862
1970 4,053
1979 4,410
1989 4,682
2002 5,172
2010 4,614

Note: census data

Economy and Transport

Heinrichswalde, building of the former Kreissparkasse in Friedrichstrasse

Slavsk has been on the Kaliningrad – Sowetsk (Königsberg – Tilsit) railway since 1891 and is accessible via the A 216 Russian trunk road (former German Reichsstraße 138 , now also European route 77 ) via the Nowokolchosnoje junction (Sandlauken , 1938–1946 Sandfelde) and also the R 513 reachable. In addition, side streets connect the city with Sowetsk and Gastellowo (Groß Friedrichsdorf) in the surrounding area.



See the main articleEvangelical Church Heinrichswalde (Niederung district)

Church building

The Evangelical Lutheran Church of Heinrichswalde on ul. Sowetskaja was built in the neo-Gothic style with a towering tower that looks far into the country from 1867 to 1869 . The previous building, a half-timbered church, was from 1686–1694. Carvings from the old church were carried over to the new one. The entire interior of the church was destroyed in 1945 and afterwards, and the building itself was in a state of disrepair. After 1990 it was renewed with considerable German help, especially by the Elchniederung district community. Unfortunately, parts of the interior have already been stolen and windows destroyed. The church was taken over in 2011 by the Russian Orthodox Church , which however gave it up again and on March 6, 2013 left it to the city tourist information center for no consideration.


Heinrichswalde was a parish with 30 affiliated places until 1944. The parish was founded on February 27, 1686 and initially belonged to the Tilsit Inspection, until 1945 to the parish Niederung / Elchniederung within the church province of East Prussia of the Church of the Old Prussian Union . The population was completely evacuated in 1944. After 1990 a small evangelical congregation made up of Russian Germans formed again, which took over the former evangelical parish church in 1993, but gave it up again in 2011 because the building maintenance exceeded the congregation's financial means. The Protestant service no longer takes place in the church, but only in a barn that has been converted into a community hall. The community managed to save the baptismal font from the church of the village of Inse on the Curonian Lagoon in the Elk Lowlands, which disappeared during the Soviet era , and to set it up in the barn. Slavsk is the parish seat and gives its name to one of the four church regions in the Kaliningrad provost of the Evangelical Lutheran Church of European Russia .

Former Evangelical Church (photo 2011)


In 1995 the Russian Orthodox Church in Slavsk built its own house of worship and is located at ul. Sovetskaya. It was consecrated to Saint John of Kronstadt . The local parish belongs to the Kaliningrad and Baltiysk diocese of the Russian Orthodox Church.


There is also a Roman Catholic church in the form of a simple building that was probably used as a residential building at ul. Sowetskaja. The church is dedicated to Saint Francis of Rome .


A small German-Russian museum has been created in the village , which shows memorabilia from former German residents.



  • Daniel Heinrich Arnoldt : Brief messages from all preachers who have admitted to the Lutheran churches in East Prussia since the Reformation . Königsberg 1777, p. 144
  • August Eduard Preuss : Prussian country and folklore or description of Prussia. A manual for primary school teachers in the province of Prussia, as well as for all friends of the fatherland . Bornträger Brothers, Königsberg 1835, p. 524 .
  • Kühnast: News on property, livestock, population and public taxes of the localities in Lithuania according to official sources . Volume 2, Gumbinnen 1863, pp. 95-96.

Web links

Commons : Slavsk  - collection of pictures, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. a b Itogi Vserossijskoj perepisi naselenija 2010 goda. Kaliningradskaya oblastʹ. (Results of the 2010 all-Russian census. Kaliningrad Oblast.) Volume 1 , Table 4 (Download from the website of the Kaliningrad Oblast Territorial Organ of the Federal Service for State Statistics of the Russian Federation)
  2. ^ Johann Friedrich Goldbeck : Complete topography of the Kingdom of Prussia . Part I, Königsberg / Leipzig 1785, Complete Topography of the Littthau Cammer Department, p. 51.
  3. a b Meyer's Large Conversation Lexicon . 6th edition, 9th volume, Leipzig and Vienna 1907, p. 111.
  4. By the Закон Калининградской области от 30 июня 2008 г. № 261 «Об организации местного самоуправления на территории муниципального образования" Славский городской округ "» (Law of the Kaliningrad Oblast of 30 June 2008, Nr. 261: On the organization of local self-government in the field of municipal formation "city circle Slawsk")
  5. ^ Results of the All-Russian Census 2010.
  6. Alexander August Mützell and Leopold Krug : New topographical-statistical-geographical dictionary of the Prussian state . Volume 2: G – Ko , Halle 1821, p. 162, paragraphs 1983–1984.
  7. ^ Kraatz: Topographical-statistical manual of the Prussian state . Berlin 1856, p. 279.
  8. ^ Kühnast: News on property, livestock, population and public taxes of the localities in Lithuania according to official sources . Volume 2, Gumbinnen 1863, pp. 95-96.
  9. ^ A b c Michael Rademacher: German administrative history from the unification of the empire in 1871 to the reunification in 1990. elchniederung.html # ew33endrheinrichs. (Online material for the dissertation, Osnabrück 2006).
  11. Walther Hubatsch : History of the Protestant Church in East Prussia. Volume 2: Pictures of East Prussian churches. Göttingen 1968, p. 92, fig. 373
  12. Кирха Хайнрихсвальде - The Heinrichswalde Church at (with photos from 2012/13)
  13. Andrey Konstantinow: The Russian Orthodox Church returns the former Protestant church of Heinrichswalde to the citizens ., Moscow, March 7, 2013
  14. Walther Hubatsch: History of the Protestant Church in East Prussia. Volume 3: Documents. Göttingen 1968, p. 482
  15. ^ Evangelical Lutheran Provosty of Kaliningrad ( Memento of August 29, 2011 in the Internet Archive )
  16. Храм в честь Святого Праведного Иоанна Кронштадтского The Church in honor of St. John of Kronstadt (with current photos)
  17. Римско-католческая церковь Святого Франциска Roman Catholic Church of St. Franziska (with current photos)
  18. Воронков Андрей Геннадьевич , (Russian)