Attempts to set walking pace
Walking pace is the speed that can usually be achieved in the “step”, that is, when walking in which the ground is touched by at least one leg (for two-legged friends) or three legs (for four-legged friends) at any time. The walking pace therefore depends on the length and frequency of the stride of the living being. Generally and roughly, people understand walking pace to be a speed of 1 meter per second or 3.6 km / h .
In the military - depending on the country - a marching speed between 100 and 120 steps / min with a step length of 75 cm to 100 cm, which corresponds to 4.5 km / h to 7.2 km / h, applies as a fast march . Such a fast march can hardly be compared with a normal walking pace of an ordinary pedestrian.
In addition to sources from the highly specialized field of accident reconstruction, both related and alternative data sources were examined in a study of the movement behavior of pedestrians in road traffic. According to evaluations by Eberhardt and Himbert, on which numerous other studies are based, the walking speed of a healthy, unhindered adult moves under normal conditions (road without incline, no head or cross wind, normal road surface, age group between 20 years and 65 years, male / female, without luggage etc.) between 1.35 m / s and 1.65 m / s (4.86 km / h to 5.94 km / h), with the measurements being carried out over a distance of only 10 m have been. It is doubtful that these very short speed measurements can be transferred to longer distances. The walking speed should be lower on average.
Definition in road traffic
The walking speed for road traffic is not defined as a fixed value. According to various judgments by the Higher Regional Courts of Brandenburg (Az. 1 Ss (OWi) 86 B / 05 ), Cologne (Az. VRS 68, 382 ) and Karlsruhe ( 1 Ss 159/03 ) it is a maximum of 7 km / h. The Austrian Supreme Court set “walking speed” for vehicles at 5 km / h.
Deviating from this, there were judgments and comments such as that of the Hamm Higher Regional Court , which assumed 10 km / h, the Leipzig District Court, which assumed a walking speed of 15 km / h (Az .: 215 OWi 500 Js 83213/04 ) or Hentschel , der remarked that these low values [4 and 10 km / h] "could not be reliably measured using a speedometer", and that walking pace should be understood as a speed (in traffic) that would be well below 20 km / h. The driving license test guideline evaluates under point 1.5.2. Driving past school and public service buses that stop at bus stops with hazard lights, with "more than walking speed but not more than 20 km / h" as a repetitive error.
Union law defines walking speed as a maximum speed of 10 km / h.
In the guidelines for traffic light systems (RiLSA), a clearing speed of 1.2 m / s (4.3 km / h) with a fluctuation range of 1.0 to 1 is specified for the calculation of the clearance time for pedestrians at intersections indicated by traffic lights .5 m / s (3.6 km / h to 5.4 km / h) assumed. In Austria, a value of 1 m / s (3.6 km / h) is required for the traffic light clearance time at pedestrian crossings. In Switzerland one assumes 1.2 m / s (4.3 km / h). In the Netherlands, a value of 0.8 m / s (2.9 km / h) is applied for slowly clearing pedestrians, which is used to determine the minimum green time. For fast pedestrians, 1.2 m / s is calculated.
The term comes from the time of horse-drawn carriages. So is z. B. in § 34 cab transport regulations for Berlin (source: The Prussian police penal laws with the addition of the special ordinances issued for the administrative district of Potsdam and the city of Berlin. Ed. FHSydow, 1851, Title III., Page 95) stipulates that the coachman when unoccupied Droschke (ie when driving empty) "must always go at a step"; only when driving outside the curtain wall, empty wagons are allowed to "also drive at a trot". As soon as passengers were in the carriage, they could trot within the curtain wall, unless a sign saying “Always take a step” indicated otherwise.
Road traffic regulations
In Germany, walking speed is required in certain situations on public roads, in others it results in certain regulations.
It is the maximum speed for passing public and school buses that stop on the same lane and that have switched on the hazard warning lights at the stop , regardless of the direction of travel. Public transport is only allowed to be passed at walking pace on the right side of the passenger changeover - in Austria on the side on which it takes place.
It is also the maximum speed in the traffic-calmed area (§ 42 StVO, sign 325.1). If driving traffic uses sidewalks (§ 41 StVO, sign 239) or pedestrian zones (§ 41 StVO, sign 242.1), for example when released by the additional sign 1022-10 "Cycle free" , this may not drive at more than walking speed.
According toParagraph 1, No. 3, you do not need to wear a seat belt when driving at walking speed such as reversing and driving in parking lots.
Rail vehicles may only be moved at walking pace by human strength, other animals, road vehicles and motor vehicles.
When level crossings are secured by the driver or guard, as well as in the event of a defective whistle device at level crossings, in front of which the whistle must be heard, the level crossing may only be driven at walking speed until the first vehicle has reached the middle of the street.
If a hot runner was detected on a train by a hot runner detection system and it was stopped at the entry signal of a train station, it may only enter the train station at walking speed if it is to be examined there (instead of directly at the entry signal).
Disrupted fallback switches may only be used at walking speed towards the tip.
In many production halls of railways, rail vehicles are only allowed to travel at walking speed, with a maximum speed of 5 km / h, in some cases 7 km / h or 3 km / h being prescribed.
In some railway companies , as a tightening of the regulations that apply to all companies, it is mandatory to drive at maximum walking pace when driving in "poor weather" when driving on sight.
- What is walking pace? Journal for Damage Law , 03/2018, pages 126–130.
- Hentschel / König / Duration: Road traffic law. 45th edition, on § 42 StVO, paragraph 181, Munich 2019, ISBN 978 3 406 72437 4 .
- Sebastian Perkul: Walking speed in km / h - that's how fast pedestrians move , Helpster. Retrieved August 2, 2017.
- Bettina Bartels, Christian T. Erbsmehl: Movement behavior of pedestrians in road traffic , FAT series 267, Research Association for Automotive Technology. Retrieved August 2, 2017.
- Peter Hentschel: Road traffic law. 38th edition. CH Beck Verlag, Munich 2005, ISBN 978-3-406-52996-2 , p. 873.
- Examination guidelines
- Regulation No. 2658/87, Explanation, OJ 2005, C 1, page 3
- It shines red! ab5zig, Vienna Seniors' Association. Retrieved August 4, 2017
- Improvement of the conditions for pedestrians at traffic lights, reports of the Federal Highway Research Institute, Verkehrstechnik Heft V217, November 2012, pp. 11-18. Retrieved August 4, 2017.
- Abs. 4 StVO (DE)
- Abs. 2 StVO (AT)
- Abs. 2 StVO (DE)
- §45 paragraph 4 number h FV-NE (= DB-Ril 438, page 67. Retrieved on August 2, 2017.)
- §53 paragraph 13 FV-NE
- DB-Ril 408.2691 or §44 Paragraph 11 FV-NE
- DB-Ril 408.2671 Section 2 Paragraph 7 or 408.4816 Section 1 Paragraphs 2 and 3
- DB-Ril 408.2341A01 Section 4 Paragraph 6 Number i "Post" or DB-Ril 408.2341A02 Section 5 Number m "Post"
- DB-Ril 408.2553 Section 2 Paragraph 1
- Appendix 16 Paragraph 22 FV-NE
- DB guideline 418.3312