Jazz trombone

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The term jazz trombone describes the role played by the trombone in jazz .


Jazz and especially swing are responsible for the greatest technical developments since the beginning of the 20th century and produced a large number of outstanding trombonists, in Germany above all Albert Mangelsdorff and Conny Bauer , in the USA musicians like Kid Ory , Jack Teagarden , Trummy Young , Tommy Dorsey , Glenn Miller , Ted Heath , Kai Winding , JJ Johnson , Carl Fontana , Curtis Fuller , Bill Watrous , Urbie Green , Frank Rosolino , Wycliffe Gordon and Robin Eubanks .

The origins and lines of tradition of the jazz trombone

The trombone began as a rhythm and harmony instrument: in the early days of jazz it was little more than a blown double bass ; it gave the melody instruments the harmonic ground over which they could move freely. In the big bands , trumpets and trombones were grouped together in the brass section , opposite the reed section , the saxophone section .

The jazz critic Joachim-Ernst Berendt saw in Kid Ory (1886–1973) the greatest trombonist of New Orleans jazz (Ory built on Zue Robertson , whose playing is only occasionally documented). Other trombonists of this early direction were Honoré Dutrey (1894–1935) and Preston Jackson (1902–1983). In the first edition of his jazz book from 1953, Berendt saw these musicians and the white trombonist George Brunies from four main lines of trombone playing in jazz music.

Juan Tizol (1943)

Important trombonists of modern jazz

Albert Mangelsdorff

Bill Harris (1916–1973) is an important link between swing and bebop. Under the influence of Harris (and JJ Johnson) were many trombonists in the post-war period as Quentin Jackson , Urbie Green , Melba Liston , Jimmy Cleveland and Frank Rehak , which in many big-band projects of Oliver Nelson , Miles Davis / Gil Evans or Quincy Jones participated .

JJ Johnson is considered to be the most important trombonist in bebop ; later he shaped the style with his successful cooperation with trombonist Kai Winding (1922–1983) as Jay and Kai and the Four Trombones project with Winding; Eddie Bert , Willie Dennis and Urbie Green . Due to an increasingly slender tone and a hitherto unimagined mobility, the trombone could now approach the saxophone in its playing possibilities.

Bob Brookmeyer (1929–2011) as a cool jazz musician influenced by Barry Harris, established the valve trombone in modern jazz. Curtis Fuller (* 1934) is an important trombonist of hard bop , especially in his playing in the Art Farmer / Benny Golson Jazztet around 1960, provided with an unmistakable personal style. Slide Hampton (* 1932) followed the legendary Miles Davis Capitol Orchestra ( Birth of the Cool ) with his octet in 1959 .

Jimmy Knepper combined the influences of old trombonists such as JC Higginbotham , Jack Teagarden, Lawrence Brown and Dickie Wells with more modern ways of playing and set new accents in trombone playing alongside JJ Johnson. He was in the Charles Mingus Bands, a. a. at Tijuana Moods , The Clown , Mingus Ah Um and Nostalgia in Times Square .

Grachan Moncur III (* 1937) is considered the first trombonist to step out of the shadow of JJ Johnson in the mid-1960s. He was more interested in sounds and sounds than instrumental technique. Another avant-garde jazz trombonist is Roswell Rudd (1935–2017); Richard Cook and Brian Morton describe him as one of the most imaginative trombonists since JJ Johnson. Julian Priester (* 1935) was formative as a jazz rock trombonist in the Herbie Hancock Sextet; he played u. a. also in the piano-less Max Roach Quintet. George Lewis (* 1952) emerged as an outstanding trombonist from the Chicago AACM circle. There had also Joseph Bowie (born 1953); he carried the free jazz trombone into funk jazz .

Annie Whitehead

The German Albert Mangelsdorff (1928–2005) is considered to be the innovator of trombone playing. He developed the multiphone trombone playing by playing several voices. Eje Thelin (1938–1990), Mangelsdorff, Willem van Manen and Paul Rutherford (1940–2007) stand for the European tradition of playing the trombone. This line of tradition influenced younger trombonists such as the Austrian Christian Radovan , the English Annie Whitehead , the Germans Hannes Bauer and Nils Wogram and the Dutch Wolter Wierbos .

Wycliffe Gordon (* 1967) is known for his recourse to the jazz tradition. Modern creative jazz trombonists include Ray Anderson , Steve Turré , Craig Harris , Art Baron and Robin Eubanks .

Other well-known jazz trombone performers are Shannon Barnett (* 1982), Conny Bauer (* 1943), Günter Bollmann (* 1973), Lou Blackburn (1922–1990), Marty Cook (* 1947), Frans Van Dyck (1923– 2018), Carl Fontana (1928–2003), Curtis Fuller (* 1934), Gerhard Gschlößl (* 1967), Conrad Herwig (* 1959), Nils Landgren (* 1956), Matthias Muche (* 1972), Ludwig Nuss (* 1961), Frank Rosolino (1926–1978), Stefan Lottermann (* 1965), Jiggs Whigham (* 1943) and Britt Woodman (1920–2000).

Important albums of the jazz trombone since the LP era

Conny Bauer ( Club W71 2007)
  • Ray Anderson: Heads and Tales ( Enja , 1995)
  • Ray Anderson / Lew Soloff : Where Home Is (Enja, 1998)
  • Bob Brookmeyer & Jimmy Giuffre : Traditionalism Revisited ( Blue Note Records , 1957)
  • Bob Brookmeyer: The Dual Role of Bob Brookmeyer (OJC, 1954–1955)
  • Vic Dickenson: Gentleman of the Trombone (Storyville, 1975)
  • Curtis Fuller: Curtis Fuller with Red Garland (OJC, 1957)
  • Curtis Fuller: Blues-ette ( Savoy Records , 1959)
  • Wycliffe Gordon: What You Dealin´ With (Criss Cross, 2001)
  • Bill Harris / Ben Webster / Jimmy Rowles : Bill Harris and Friends (OJC, 1957)
  • JJ Johnson: The Eminent Jay Jay Johnson (Blue Note, 1953–1955)
  • Jimmy Knepper: I Dream Too Much ( Soul Note , 1984)
  • George Lewis: Homage to Charlie Parker ( Black Saint , 1979)
  • Albert Mangelsdorff: Purity (Mood, 1990) (solo)
  • Grachan Monchur III .: Evolution (Blue Note, 1963)
  • Jackie McLean / Grachan Moncur III .: Destination ... Out! (Blue Note, 1963)
  • Roswell Rudd: Flexible Flyer (Black Lion, 1974)
  • Archie Shepp with Grachan Moncur and Roswell Rudd: Mama Too Tight ( Impulse! Records , 1966)
  • Kai Winding / JJ Johnson: The Great Jay and Kai (Impulse, 1960), Nuf Said (Rhino, 1955)
  • Jazz Club Mainstream - Trombone (Verve anthology with * Dickie Wells, Trummy Young, Jack Teagarden. Vic Dickenson, Bill Harris, JJ Johnson, Kai Winding, JC Higginbotham , Quentin Jackson , Carl Fontana , Claude Jones , Benny Morton , Urbie Green, George Matthews )


Web links

Individual evidence

  1. Joachim-Ernst Berenst 1953, p. 126
  2. John McCusker Creole Trombone: Kid Ory and the Early Years of Jazz University Press of Mississippi 2012, pp. 71f.
  3. a b Andre Asriel Jazz; Aspects and Analyzes Berlin 1984 (4th edition), p. 383
  4. cit. according to Kunzler, p. 387.
  5. cf. Horst Weber / Gerd Filtgen, p. 98.
  6. see Kunzler, p. 637.
  7. see Kunzler, p. 807.
  8. cf. Kunzler p. 730.
  9. cf. Cook & Morton
  10. The selection of the albums was based on The Penguin Guide to Jazz by Cook / Morton and the Jazz - Rough Guide by Ian Carr et al. a.