Mariano Rajoy

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Mariano Rajoy (2016)
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Mariano Rajoy Brey [ maˈɾjano raˈxoi̯ bɾei̯ ] (born March 27, 1955 in Santiago de Compostela ) is a conservative Spanish politician .

Rajoy has been a member of the Congreso de los Diputados since 1989 and held various ministerial posts under Prime Minister José María Aznar from 1996 , from 2000 to 2003 as Deputy Prime Minister. After Aznar renounced another candidacy in 2003 elected general secretary and top candidate of the Partido Popular (People's Party, PP), Rajoy became chairman of the PP after his defeat in 2004 against José Luis Zapatero of the Socialist Labor Party and until 2011 opposition leader in the Congreso. In his third candidacy , Rajoy won a comfortable absolute majority in 2011 as a result of the effects of the financial crisis that had persisted since 2008 and was Prime Minister of Spain from December 21, 2011 to June 1, 2018 . In the 2015 parliamentary elections , his party lost massive votes, which is why, in the absence of parliamentary partners , he passed on the mandate to form the government to the socialist Pedro Sánchez and remained in office with his cabinet for almost a year, until he was the fourth after the early elections in 2016 in October of that year Ballot the re-election with a minority cabinet succeeded. On June 1, 2018, Rajoy lost his office as prime minister after a vote of no confidence in parliament. On June 5, 2018, Mariano Rajoy resigned as party leader of the PP.


Mariano Rajoy Brey was born on March 27, 1955 as the eldest of the four children of the lawyer and later President of the Provincial Courts ( Audencia Provincial ) of León and Pontevedra , Mariano Rajoy Sobredo and his wife Olga Brey López († 1993) in Santiago de Compostela , Province A. Coruña , Galicia , born (other siblings: Mercedes, Enrique and Luis). His grandfather was the legal scholar Enrique Rajoy Leloup (1882-1966; professor of civil law at the University of Santiago de Compostela), who was one of the authors of the Galician Statute of Autonomy of 1936 and was expelled from the university during the Franco regime.

The professional tasks of the father, Mariano Rajoy Sobredo, resulted in the family moving frequently to Piedrahíta ( province of Avila ), Santiago de Compostela , Piedrahita, Carballino ( province of Ourense ), Oviedo ( Asturias ) and finally León . Mariano Rajoy was five years old when his father took over the management of a local court in León. In León, Mariano Rajoy first attended the Colegio Las Anejas de León , then the private high school, the Colegio Sagrado Corazón de los Jesuitas . When Mariano Rajoy was 15 years old, the family moved - again because of the father's occupation - to Lerez in the province of Pontevedra. His father had been appointed President of the Provincial / Regional Court of Pontevedra ( Audiencia Provincial de Pontevedra ). In Pontevedra, Rajoy passed the Abitur at a public school. He began studying law at the University of Santiago de Compostela , which he graduated with honors in 1977. After graduating, he began his professional career as a civil servant at various state property offices (including Padrón , Villafranca del Bierzo and Santa Pola ).

In 1981 he became a member of the Alianza Popular , which later became the Partido Popular , which was a conservative Spanish people 's party . In the same year he was elected to the Galician parliament . In 1983 he became a councilor in the city ​​of Pontevedra , and in 1986 president of the parliament of the province of the same name. He has been a member of the Spanish Parliament since 1989 . As a longtime companion of the party chairman José María Aznar , who was elected in 1990 , he became minister for public administration after the election victory of the Partido Popular in 1996, then minister of education in 1999 and minister of interior in 2001. He successfully led the election campaign in 2000; The Partido Popular won an absolute majority of the parliamentary seats in the election on March 12, 2000 (183 of 350 seats).

After José María Aznar's announcement that he no longer wanted to run for the office of Prime Minister ( Presidente del Gobierno ) in the 2004 election campaign , Rajoy was surprisingly chosen by Aznar as the top candidate of the PP and was a PP candidate in the Spanish parliamentary elections on March 14, 2004 for the office of the Spanish Prime Minister. Despite the scandal surrounding the fall of Prestige and the unreserved support of US policy in the Iraq war , for which the Partido Popular received much criticism, Rajoy's polls were very good. It was only because of the heavily criticized misleading information policy of the conservative government after the terrorist attacks on several trains in Madrid immediately before election day that the mood changed: The Spanish Socialists ( PSOE ) surprisingly emerged victorious from these elections. Rajoy became the opposition leader.

Opposition leader

Mariano Rajoy (right) and Ángel Acebes (2008)

In October 2004, he was officially elected to succeed Aznar as party chairman at the People's Party conference. Although Rajoy was originally included in the moderate wing of his party, he pursued a tough policy of confrontation with the Zapatero government as an opposition leader . In particular, he criticized the talks between the government and the Basque underground organization ETA , which it had started following a ceasefire declaration by ETA in March 2006; also the reform of the Statute of Autonomy of the Region of Catalonia , the introduction of same-sex marriage and the legalization of the residence status of illegal immigrants . However, Spanish newspapers often saw Ángel Acebes (General Secretary of the PP) and Eduardo Zaplana (parliamentary group leader of the PP) as the real driving forces behind the hard line of the PP .

On September 10, 2007, Rajoy was chosen by the party executive as the PP's top candidate for the parliamentary elections to be held in March 2008 . The central themes of his campaign were initially the development of the Spanish economy, later immigration. After the PP had become only the second largest group in the elections, despite winning votes, Rajoy announced that he would continue to hold the post of opposition leader and possibly run again as the PP's top candidate in the 2012 elections. His plan to be confirmed as chairman of the PP at a party congress in June 2008 met with opposition from the conservative wing of the party. The President of the Madrid Region , Esperanza Aguirre , and the Valencian politician Juan Costa made ambiguous announcements as possible opponents. After several weeks of heated discussion, both of them declared that they would not run for lack of sufficient party support. At the party congress on June 21, 2008, he was finally able to assert himself and was confirmed as chairman with a loss of 14 percentage points with 84 percent and was named early on as the top candidate for the 2012 elections, which were later brought forward to November 20, 2011 and the PP won under his leadership.

Head of government

Anti-corruption demonstration in Madrid

On December 20, 2011, the Spanish Parliament elected Rajoy as the new Prime Minister. He received 187 of the 350 votes (the PP has 186). In his government program, Rajoy announced a rigid austerity policy. On December 21, 2011, he presented his government cabinet and on December 30, he adopted the first austerity measures . In response to the drastic cuts and labor market reforms, a general strike took place in Spain on March 29, 2012 . At the beginning of April 2012, he announced further austerity measures in the health and education sectors. The Rajoy government has struggled with the Spanish national debt , a crisis in Spanish banks and high youth and adult unemployment . Through structural reforms, especially reforms on the labor market, Rajoy and his Minister of Economics increased the competitiveness and productivity of the Spanish economy and thus the country's exportability. They achieved a decline in unemployment and the highest economic growth in the euro zone from 2015 to 2017.

In the 2015 parliamentary election , which resulted in a shift away from the previous two-party system to four medium-sized parties, Rajoy only achieved a simple majority and was only in office for almost a year from December 20, 2015 because he was unable to do one Form coalition. After the failure of the socialist Pedro Sánchez, who stood for election in parliament, there was another parliamentary election in 2016 . After tough negotiations, Rajoy was re-elected to a minority government on October 29 against the backdrop of a threatened third new election, supported by the opposition Ciudadanos and several small parties, as well as by the abstention of the socialists. On November 3, 2016, he presented his government cabinet.

In the conflict over Catalonia's aspirations for independence , the Spanish constitutional court declared an independence referendum to be unconstitutional and invalid due to the indivisibility of the Spanish nation and the sole competence of the Spanish government or parliament to regulate the holding of referenda. Rajoy has affirmed several times since 2014 that he would "under no circumstances" allow secession . He therefore ordered the legal and police suppression of the referendum unilaterally called by the regional government on October 1, 2017 , which led to controversial police measures and further heated up the mood in Catalonia. After the Catalan Prime Minister Carles Puigdemont signed a document known as the Declaration of Independence on October 10, 2017 , but postponed the independence efforts in order to be able to negotiate with the central government, Rajoy announced on October 21, 2017 that the Catalan regional government would be disempowered and new elections for the 21. December 2017 . In these, the separatist parties defended an absolute majority in the Catalan parliament.

As part of the so-called belt affair , a far-reaching corruption and party donation scandal in which the judiciary had been investigating a system of illegal influence and party financing in municipalities and regions controlled by the PP since 2009, judgments were announced at the end of May 2018: high-ranking party officials of the PP were announced sentenced to long prison terms and the PP itself was found complicit; this led to a motion of no confidence by the opposition led by the PSOE against the government led by Rajoy. On June 1, 2018, Rajoy lost the vote of no confidence when his previous allies, the Basque nationalists from the PNV , who had supported Rajoy's budget a few days earlier, voted against him; he was voted out by 180 of 350 votes (169 for Rajoy, one abstention). His successor as Prime Minister was the socialist Pedro Sánchez , whose party only has 84 seats in parliament and whose new minority government has to rely on the tolerance of Unidos Podemos , PNV and various separatist parties.

Further career

After being voted out of office as prime minister, Rajoy returned to his post at the Santa Pola Real Estate Agency. In October 2018 he moved to a post in the Madrid Commercial Register.

Private life

Rajoy has been married to Elvira Fernández Balboa since 1996 and has two sons. He has had a full beard since sustaining facial injuries in a traffic accident at the age of 24 in 1979.


  • En confianza: Mi vida y mi proyecto de cambio para España. Editorial Planeta, Barcelona 2011, ISBN 978-8408106913 (in German: "In confidence: My life and my project of a change for Spain").
  • Una España mejor . Plaza & Janés, Barcelona 2019, ISBN 978-8401022739 .

Web links

Commons : Mariano Rajoy  - Collection of pictures, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. En confianza: Biografía. Mariano Rajoy Brey. In: Retrieved August 17, 2017 (Spanish).
  2. Juan José Mateo: Rajoy anuncia su dimisión como líder del PP y deja en manos de sucesor la renovación. June 5, 2018, Retrieved June 5, 2018 (Spanish).
  3. ^ Salvador Rodríguez: Mariano Rajoy Sobredo, Padre de Mariano Rajoy Brey. In: May 31, 2009, archived from the original on December 17, 2013 ; Retrieved October 15, 2017 (Spanish).
  4. José María Olmo: “De mi padre heredé el sentido de la justicia y del esfuerzo”. In: November 25, 2011, archived from the original on December 14, 2013 ; accessed on November 25, 2017 (Spanish).
  5. ^ JE Mencía: En la tierra de su infancia. In: November 14, 2011, archived from the original on April 12, 2013 ; Retrieved May 29, 2018 (Spanish).
  6. ^ Mariano Rajoy Sobredo . (Spanish)
  7. ^ Mariano Rajoy Brey . (Spanish)
  8. Enrique Rajoy Leloup . (Spanish)
  9. ^ A b Cuando Rajoy era Marianín . Diario de Leó December 19, 2011
  10. ^ Mariano Rajoy Brey . CIDOB (Centro de Estudios y Documentatión Internationales de Barcelona)
  11. ^ Mariano Rajoy Brey . CIDOB (Centro de Estudios y Documentación Internacionales de Barcelona)
  12. Mariano Rajoy in the Munzinger Archive , accessed on November 20, 2011 ( beginning of the article freely available)
  13. The Daily Bell: Mariano Rajoy ( Memento from April 11, 2013 in the web archive )
  14. ^ Mariano Rajoy Brey ( Memento from September 15, 2012 in the Internet Archive ); Retrieved October 3, 2012
  15. Koch goes to school . Zeit Online , February 13, 2008
  16. Costa se rinde y los suyos se escudan en la presión de los barones y el 'aparato' . El País , June 10, 2008 (Spanish)
  17. ^ Rajoy elected head of government in Spain. dpa , December 20, 2011, archived from the original on December 18, 2015 ; Retrieved July 22, 2013 .
  18. General strike partially paralyzes Spain .; Retrieved April 26, 2012
  19. Health and education affected - Spain's austerity package is getting tougher .; Retrieved April 26, 2012
  20. Spain nationalizes the country's fourth largest bank . Spiegel Online , May 10, 2012
  21. Crash with announcement . One in five Spaniards is unemployed, among the under-25s it is now almost every second . Spiegel Online , February 22, 2012
  22. Ute Müller: The unbelievable rise of the ex-crisis countries. In: May 22, 2017. Retrieved October 1, 2017 .
  23. Spain - as of September 2016. In: Foreign Office , 2016, archived from the original on September 10, 2016 ; accessed on October 11, 2017 .
  24. Conservative Rajoy elected Spanish Prime Minister .; accessed October 29, 2016.
  25. Rajoy introduces new cabinet . , November 3, 2016
  26. Referendum in Catalonia - incentive for the Spiegelfechter on, November 10, 2014, accessed December 25, 2017
  27. Thomas Urban : The Dream of the Republic , June 9, 2017.
  28. Rajoy's stubbornness drives Catalonia away from Spain (online article of the world of September 10, 2014)
  29. Referendum in Catalonia: rubber bullets against demonstrators (article on Spiegel-Online, October 1, 2017)
  30. Regional government classifies referendum as successful. In: . October 1, 2017, accessed December 15, 2019.
  31. Disempowerment of the regional government: Rajoy announces new elections for Catalonia In: , October 21, 2017 (accessed October 21, 2017).
  32. Barbara Galaktionow: Proponents of independence defend the absolute majority. Süddeutsche Zeitung of December 22, 2017
  33. Pedro Sánchez, presidente del Gobierno tras ganar la moción de censura a Rajoy . In: El País, June 1, 2018, accessed on the same day.
  34. ^ Profiles: Spain's Mariano Rajoy. In: February 4, 2013, archived from the original on October 22, 2017 ; accessed on October 22, 2017 (English).
  35. ^ Arturo Reboredo: El presidente sufrió un grave accidente de tráfico en 1979 a pocos metros del nuevo tramo. In: October 21, 2015, accessed May 31, 2018 (Spanish).
predecessor Office successor
José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero Prime Minister of Spain
Pedro Sánchez