from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

legal form Sociedad anónima ( joint stock company )
founding May 9, 1950
Seat Martorell , Spain
  • Carsten Isensee,
Number of employees 12,626 employees
sales 10.202 billion euros (2018)
Branch Automobile manufacturer , automobile industry

Seat pavilion in the Autostadt Wolfsburg
Luca de Meo, CEO of Seat SA from 2005 to 2020

Seat SA ( proper spelling : SEAT ) is an automobile manufacturing company founded in 1950 with headquarters in Martorell . Today it belongs to Volkswagen AG .

Founded on May 9, 1950 as S ociedad E spañola de A utomóviles de T urismo, SA (“Spanish Society for Cars”) in the industrial park of Barcelona , the Zona Franca . 51 percent of the financiers of the 600 million pesetas were the state holding company Instituto Nacional de Industria under Franquism , 42 percent Spanish banks and seven percent Fiat . After the factory opened on June 5, 1953, the first car, a Seat 1400 based on the Fiat 1400 , rolled off the production line of the state-owned automobile factory on November 13 .

In 1982 a cooperation with Volkswagen AG began , which gradually developed into a complete takeover of Seat by Volkswagen by 1986. Seat has been part of the Volkswagen Group since 1986 .

All vehicles up to 1984 were manufactured under license by the Fiat Group and therefore almost identical in construction to models from the Fiat and Lancia brands . The bodies were also largely identical. This is a concept that Seat largely pursued with the production of the Exeo ( Audi A4 ), Toledo ( Škoda Rapid ) and Alhambra ( VW Sharan ) models .

Vehicles for other brands are also manufactured in Seat plants, for example the Q3 model for Audi in Martorell and the Polo model for Volkswagen in Pamplona . The Ateca and Toledo models are manufactured and partially developed by Škoda Auto in the Czech Republic.

On March 10, 1983, the Spanish brand began selling in Germany under its own name, initially through an import company, until in 1986 Seat founded its own subsidiary, Seat Deutschland GmbH .


1950 to 1982 - foundation and cooperation with Fiat

Factory building in the Zona Franca
1000 Pesetas share in SEAT SA dated October 6, 1978

The Sociedad Española de Automóviles de Turismo SA (SEAT) was founded on May 9, 1950 by the Instituto Nacional de Industria (industrial institute) with a share capital of 600 million pesetas (3.6 million euros). The industrial institute held a majority of shares of 51 percent, other shareholders were six Spanish banks with 42 percent and Fiat with seven percent. When Seat was founded, the foundation stone was laid for the first plant in the Zona Franca industrial area in Barcelona, ​​which opened on June 5, 1953.

The first model was a Seat 1400 A, five of which were produced per day at the beginning. With the Seat 600, the young brand presented the Spanish counterpart to the VW Beetle in 1957. With the Seat 600, many Spaniards were able to afford their own vehicle for the first time.

In 1964, the Barcelona administration moved to a new administration building in the Spanish capital, Madrid. Seat now has over 10,000 employees.

During this phase, Seat, as a state-owned company, was largely geared towards the domestic market, which was protected by high import tariffs until the 1970s and in which it was the undisputed market leader. Due to this orientation and the license requirements of Fiat, the export business was insignificant until the early 1970s, before the first exports were made mainly to the Benelux countries and Finland. As early as 1973, Seat exported more than 78,000 units to other European countries. In the same year, Seat began building the Centro Technico in Martorell, Spain, and became rally champion in Spain. In order to further expand vehicle production, Seat took over the Leyland Authi plant in Pamplona, ​​Spain, in 1974 and relocated the production of the Seat 124 there.

During these decades, Seat only built Fiat vehicles under license . The brand logo was based on that of Fiat, with the difference that squares were used instead of slanted diamonds. Competitors on the domestic market were all licensees or joint ventures of foreign companies, including Renault (in Spain Fasa ), Citroën , Land Rover  / Suzuki (in Spain Santana (Metalúrgica de Santa Ana) ). The reason for this was the enormous tariffs on foreign new vehicles during the Franco era and limited import quotas. This made the import of foreign new cars almost impossible. The Spanish market for independently developed product lines would have been very small. Most popular model of Seat during this period was the Seat 600 , lovingly Seiscientos or Catalan Siscents called. Almost all Spanish taxis at that time were Seat 1500 , or Milquinientos for short .

1982 to 2000 - expansion and takeover by Volkswagen

Barcelona (Zona Franca)
Factory premises in Martorell

In 1982, in the years of political and economic change after the end of Franquism ( Transición ) , Seat introduced a new corporate identity with the blue company logo . It came to a falling out with Fiat because Fiat did not want to participate in a capital increase for restructuring. The Seat Ronda and Seat Fura , which were largely identical to the Italian models Fiat Ritmo and Fiat 127 , were declared as independent models. Seat introduced the Ibiza as the first independently developed model. The relationship was limited to the chassis and some engines, but these were further developed independently of the licensor Fiat (with the help of Porsche). The foundation stone in Martorell was laid. Seat and Volkswagen signed a production and economic agreement on September 30, 1982. Seat began opening up the European market and in 1983 founded Seat Deutschland GmbH as its own import company for Germany.

In 1984, Seat began producing the VW Polo in Pamplona and the VW Passat at the Zona Franca plant, a result of the agreement agreed two years earlier. Seat also took over the marketing and sales of vehicles of the Audi and Volkswagen brands in Spain.

The cooperation with Volkswagen developed into a 75% stake. Seat Sport made its first appearance on the motorsport scene. Volkswagen increased its stake in Seat to 99.99 percent. The Sociedad Española de Automóviles de Turismo became Seat SA

In 1989, Seat laid the foundation stone for its new plant in Martorell in order to increase its production capacities, which after completion would be the most modern automobile plant in Europe. After 34 months of construction and an investment of 400 billion pesetas, the then King Juan Carlos and the then chairman of the Volkswagen group, Ferdinand Piëch, opened the plant on February 22, 1993. In the 1993 financial year, Seat posted a loss of 151 billion pesetas (1.8 Billion DM).

Seat supported the 1992 Summer Olympics in Barcelona as one of the sponsors. In addition, the first-generation Seat Toledo became the official Olympic car. In order to further increase the export share, Seat began entering the Brazilian market in May 1995 with the Seat Cordoba. Due to the company's financial problems, the workforce was reduced to 12,600 in the same year.

The brand's first Cupra model (Cup Racing) was presented at the 1996 Paris Motor Show as the Seat Ibiza Cupra. The Ibiza Cupra was supposed to be the street version of the Seat Ibiza Kit Car introduced that same year. Seat took part in the FIA ​​World Rally Championship with the Ibiza Kit Car and clinched victory in the two-liter class. In the following two years, Seat was able to continue the winning streak.

After a record loss in 1993, Seat again achieved an after-tax profit of 11.051 billion pesetas in 1997.

2000 to 2009 - Audi brand group

With a new design and sporty models, Seat takes a place in the Audi brand group . 2001 Seat goodbye with a victory at the Three Towns rally of the German Rally Championship from motorsport .

58,997 new Seat vehicles were registered in Germany in 2003, a market share of 1.76 percent. In addition to Germany, Seat also achieved the highest export growth in Great Britain , where a record result was achieved with 35,000 new registrations (+ 21 percent). In Spain , Seat grew by 3.2 percent with 148,100 new registrations. Seat also recorded significant growth in Croatia , Slovakia and Hungary . The company produced a total of 460,040 Seat vehicles at the Martorell plant and other production facilities of the Volkswagen Group , 2.1 percent more than in 2002. 460,151 vehicles were sold to end customers.

Seat returned to international motorsport with the Toledo Cupra at the FIA's European Touring Car Championships ( ETCC ) . In the same year, Seat launched a new brand cup concept. The Leon Supercopa championship is not only decided in the circuit race, but also includes long distance races and a mountain championship. Seat achieved a profit of 135 million euros in the 2003 financial year. The Altea is the first Seat to be developed since the Spanish brand was integrated into the new Audi brand group in 2002.

With 61,405 new registrations in 2004, the Spanish brand was at the previous year's level and achieved a market share of 1.81 percent in Germany. Since 4 December 2004, was Seat Toledo available in Germany, which like the Altea on the platform of the VW Golf is based.

SEAT Tango.jpg
Seat Tango, study at the IAA 2001
Seat Tribu.jpg
Seat Tribu, study at the IAA 2007
Seat IBE (6) .JPG
Seat IBE, Geneva Motor Show 2010
Seat 20V20 (12) .JPG
Seat 20V20, Geneva Motor Show 2015
Seat el-Born Geneva 2019 1Y7A5953.jpg
Seat el-Born Concept, Geneva Motor Show 2019

On March 1, 2005, the prototype of the new Seat Leon with 147 kW engine (200 hp) was presented at the Geneva Motor Show. Special features of the prototype are four cameras whose images on two monitors in the vehicle complement the rear-view mirrors and improve the all-round view.

In May, the Spanish brand achieved a market share of 2.1 percent in Germany. 6421 vehicles were newly registered, 6.8 percent more than in the same period of the previous year. From January to May the KBA recorded a total of 24,459 new Seat registrations. Seat's market share in 2005 was 1.8 percent.

After criticism from Seat dealers in Germany, there are changes to the company policy: The Spaniards are to build smaller, more economical models in the future; the annual target was reduced from 446,000 to 390,000 cars.

In 2007, Seat presented a study at the Geneva Motor Show, a four-wheel drive SUV called the Altea Freetrack. According to the Financial Times Deutschland , the series vehicle should be introduced in the same year and a sedan above the Seat Toledo based on the Audi A4 in 36 months at the latest. In addition, the parent company VW invested 4.5 billion euros in its subsidiary Seat. VW countered rumors that said VW wanted to sell its subsidiary Seat to Chinese investors. In the end, it was not sold.

On May 22, 2008, Seat presented the new Seat Ibiza (internal 6J) to the public. It is the first vehicle in the Volkswagen Group to be based on the new small car platform of the Polo that was coming at the time.

With the Seat Exeo , Seat introduced the sedan announced in 2007 based on the Audi A4 built from 2004 to 2008 . A station wagon has been on the market since summer 2009. The first prototype of the Ibiza ST called IBZ was at the IAA in Frankfurt, the mini-station wagon was launched in 2010.

2010 to today - new models and restructuring to the holding company

In May 2010, Seat SA celebrated its 60th birthday and brought the second generation of the Alhambra onto the market. In addition, the current Ibiza series has been expanded to include the Ibiza ST (SportsTourer). With the introduction of the Seat Mii at the end of 2011, Seat returned to the microcar class since the end of the Arosa series . The Seat Mii is an adaptation of the VW Up! and belongs to the New Small Family within the Volkswagen Group. At the Geneva Motor Show 2012, Seat presented the facelift of the Seat Ibiza and a near-series study of the next Seat Toledo . While the Ibiza could be ordered shortly after the presentation, the market launch of the Toledo based on the Škoda Rapid was not due to take place until early 2013. The third generation of the Seat Leon premiered on September 27th at the Paris Motor Show and hit dealerships on November 24th, 2012. The Leon is the first model with the new brand logo.

Due to continued poor sales figures and high losses, Volkswagen AG announced on April 15, 2013 that the previous President and CEO James Muir will be replaced by Jürgen Stackmann on May 1, 2013 . Also in May 2013, after just four years, production of the Seat Exeo without a successor ended. The Seat Toledo, which is produced by Škoda in the Czech Republic, and the Seat Leon ST serve as replacements . To expand the Leon series, the three-door Leon SC (May) and the Seat Leon ST station wagon (November) were introduced in 2013.

To reduce CO 2 emissions, SEAT SA inaugurated a 27.6 hectare solar park with 53,000 photovoltaic panels in November 2013 after three years of construction. The solar park extends over the entire plant in Martorell and thus avoids the emission of 7,000 tons of carbon dioxide. With solar power, 25% of Leon production is to be produced in a CO 2 -neutral manner in the future. At the balance sheet press conference on March 24, 2014, the development of an SUV was announced, which was officially presented as Seat Ateca on March 1, 2016 . The new model was developed by Seat in Martorell, while production is being commissioned by Škoda .

With the reintroduction of the Leon Cupra, Seat presented it in the spring of 2014 in the expansion stages with 265 and 280 hp (each as a 3 or 5 door). At the Paris Motor Show in October, Seat celebrated the 30th birthday of the Ibiza, which was also presented in Paris in 1984. Based on the Leon ST, the all-wheel drive vehicle Leon X-PERIENCE was presented in Paris. One year after the launch of the new Leon Cupra, the Seat Leon ST Cupra was presented in March 2015. In November, the Cupra 290 replaced the previous Cupra 280 version in all model variants.

In the course of personnel changes within the group, the previous CEO of Seat SA Jürgen Stackmann was appointed to the Marketing Board for Volkswagen Passenger Cars on September 25, 2015. On November 1, Stackmann was succeeded by the previous Marketing Director of Audi AG, Luca de Meo as CEO of Seat SA.As a result of a reorganization of the production sites within Audi AG, Seat will be responsible for the production of the Audi A1 at the Martorell headquarters from 2018. In return, the production of the Audi Q3 will be relocated from Martorell to Győr, Hungary.

In the 2015 financial year, Seat was in the black for the first time in 7 years. After taxes, a profit of 6 million euros could be reported.

In the run-up to the Geneva Motor Show in 2018, Seat announced that the sports models would be transformed into a new brand called CUPRA . In addition, the motorsport activities, which were previously run as Seat-Sport, will be transferred to the Cupra brand. At the Mobile World Congress 2018, Seat presented Xmoba, a new subsidiary that is supposed to provide services for future mobility. As a result of these spin-offs and start-ups, Seat SA is restructured into a holding company with the brands Seat and Cupra, as well as Xmoba and the SEAT Metropolis: Lab.

SEAT SA logos

The logos from 1950 to today


(As of 16 March 2020 | Source: )

Business area Surname Member since previous position
CEO Carsten Isensee (acting) January 7, 2020 s. u.
procurement Alfonso Sancha 1st September 2019 Head of Group Procurement Metal, Volkswagen AG
Finance, IT and organization Carsten Isensee June 1, 2019 Member of the Board of Management for Finance, Volkswagen Group China
Research and Development Axel Andorff 1st March 2019 Head of Product Concepts Electric Vehicle Architecture, Mercedes-Benz
staff Xavier Ros September 1, 2015 Member of the Board of Management for Human Resources, Volkswagen Autoeuropa Lda.
production and logistics Christian Vollmer 1st July 2018 Technical Executive Vice-President, SAIC Volkswagen
Law and governance Luis Comas Martínez de Tejada April 1, 2017 Executive Secretary, SEAT, SA, Volkswagen Audi España and Volkswagen Navarra
sales and marketing Wayne Anthony Griffiths September 1, 2016 Sales Manager Germany, Audi AG

Board of Directors

(As of April 6, 2019 | Source: )

Surname Main activity / other positions
Herbert Diess,


Chairman of the Board of Management, Volkswagen Aktiengesellschaft

Chairman of the Supervisory Board, Audi AG

Ingrun-Ulla Bartölke Head of Group Accounting, Volkswagen Aktiengesellschaft

Deputy Chairwoman of the Supervisory Board, Volkswagen Financial Services AG

Oliver Blume CEO, Dr. Ing.hc F. Porsche AG

Member of the Group Board of Management, Volkswagen Aktiengesellschaft

Luca de Meo Chairman of the Board, Seat SA

Member of the Supervisory Board, Ducati Motor Holding SpA

Member of the Supervisory Board, Lamborghini SpA

Bernd Osterloh Chairman of the General and Group Works Council, Volkswagen Aktiengesellschaft
Stefan Piëch Sole director and main shareholder, Your Family Entertainment AG

Member of the supervisory board, Porsche Automobil Holding SE

Josep Piqué Spanish politician and foreign minister a. D.
Mark Philipp Porsche Managing Director, FA Porsche Beteiligungen GmbH

Member of the Foundation Board, Ferdinand Porsche Family Private Foundation

Member of the supervisory board, MAN Truck & Bus AG

Hiltrud Dorothea Werner Member of the 'Integrity and Law' Group Board of Management, Volkswagen Aktiengesellschaft



Timeline of the Seat models from 1950 to today
Type 1953 - 1982 Fiat vehicles under license from 1982 cooperation and later part of VW
1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s 2000s 2010s 2020s
0 1 2 3 4th 5 6th 7th 8th 9 0 1 2 3 4th 5 6th 7th 8th 9 0 1 2 3 4th 5 6th 7th 8th 9 0 1 2 3 4th 5 6th 7th 8th 9 0 1 2 3 4th 5 6th 7th 8th 9 0 1 2 3 4th 5 6th 7th 8th 9 0 1 2 3 4th 5 6th 7th 8th 9 0
Microcar 600 / 600E panda Marbella
600 D / 800 Arosa [4] Mii [10]
Small car 850 133
127 For a Ibiza I (021A) Ibiza II [2] (6K) VW Ibiza III [6] (6L) Ibiza IV [8] (6Y) Ibiza V [14]
Compact class / lower middle class 124 Cordoba I [2] (6K / C) VW Cordoba II [6] (6L / C)
128 (3P) Ritmo Ronda Leon I [5] (1M) Leon II [7] (1P) Leon III [12] (5F) Leon IV [12]
Malaga Toledo I [1] (1L) Toledo II [5] (1M) Toledo III [7] (5P) Toledo IV [11]
Middle class 1430 131 Exeo [9] (3R)
1400 1500 132
Coupe 1200/1430 Sport Coupé Lancia Beta
124 Sport Coupé
Box van Trans Terra Inca (9KS) [2] VW
SUV Arona [14]
Ateca [13]
Tarraco [15]
Compact van Altea / Altea XL [7] (5P)
Van Alhambra I [3] (7MS) Alhambra II [3]  (7N)
  • Largely identical to a Fiat model
  • Further development of a Fiat model or based on it
  • In-house development by Seat
  • Identical to a Lancia model
  • Based on VW platform: [1]: PQ32 / A2 , [2]: PQ23 / A03 , [5]: PQ34 / A4 , [6]: PQ24 / A04 , [7]: PQ35 / A5 , [8]: PQ25 / A05 , [12]: MQB , [13]: MQB-A1 , [14]: MQB-A0 , [15]: MQB-A2
  • Largely identical to a VW model: [3]: VW Sharan , [4]: VW Lupo , [10]: VW up!
  • Largely identical to an Audi model: [9]: Audi A4 B7
  • Largely identical in construction to the Škoda model, based on the VW platform, developed by Škoda Auto : [11]: Škoda Rapid
  • VW: The model was also offered as a VW , more or less modified

    Fiat license builds

    In-house developments on a Fiat basis

    Models based on Volkswagen, Škoda and Audi


    Small car

    Compact class

    Sport utility vehicle

    High roof combination

    Middle class

    Seat motorsport models

    Seat Toledo Marathon


    Seat conversions from Emelba

    Corporate structure

    Seat SA positions itself through a realignment as a holding company (similar to Volkswagen AG) with largely independent units. As part of the core business, these consist of the two brands Seat and Cupra , as well as the Metropolis: Lab and Services.

    Seat also holds all shares in Volkswagen Group España Distribución SA, the sales organization of Volkswagen AG in Spain. The company is managed and organized by Porsche Holding , based in Salzburg. In December 2016, Seat sold the Spanish financial subsidiary Volkswagen Finance, SA to Volkswagen AG for 808 million euros.

    Production sites

    country Companies Location Models /
    number of pieces
    2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
    SpainSpain Spain Seat SEAT SA Martorell Ibiza 160,887 145.041 153,633 160,451 149,988
    + 6.48%


    Leon 71,295 114,568 157.087 169,455 163,228
    + 0.05%


    Arona Production from the end of 2017 17,527

    + 100%



    Audi Q3 106,829 104,474 112,815 134.170 135,847


    Audi A1 Production from the end of 2018 16,526

    + 100%

    GermanyGermany Germany VW Volkswagen AG Wolfsburg Tarraco 2,660

    + 100%

    AlgeriaAlgeria Algeria Seat SOVAC Production
    (multi-brand plant)
    Relizane Ibiza




    Start of production assembly of kits
    PortugalPortugal Portugal VW Volkswagen AutoEurope Palmela Alhambra 19,393 19,990 22,612 27,925 31,214
    + 11.77%
    33,638 + 7.20


    SlovakiaSlovakia Slovakia VW Volkswagen Slovakia Bratislava Mii 26,409 25,489 25,845 24,516 18,720

    + 3.80%

    Czech RepublicCzech Republic Czech Republic Škoda ŠKODA AUTO as Mladá Boleslav Toledo 5,000 21,771 16,541 19,728 18,029


    Kvasiny Ateca n / A. 35,883
    + 100%

    + 53.70%


    + 17.22%

    All vehicle production in Volkswagen AG factories 428.145
    + 0.66%
    + 6.85%

    + 3.08%

    1. As of June 2017, production of the Ibiza "SC", "ST" and "Cupra" will be discontinued
    2. Including 10,854 pieces of the Exeo and 27,478 pieces of the Altea series
    3. Including 4,681 pieces of the Exeo and 21,284 pieces of the Altea series
    4. Including 19,142 pieces from the Altea series
    5. Including 13,001 pieces from the Altea series

    Company headquarters and Martorell plant

    After the Centro Técnico opened in 1975, preparations began in 1989 for the construction of the new production plant in Martorell, Catalonia. One of the largest plants in the Volkswagen Group with a capacity of 500,000 vehicles per year was built on a floor area of ​​2.8 million square meters in 34 months. Martorell is the second largest plant in Europe and one of the ten largest plants in the world. When it opened in 1993, by then King Juan Carlos and Chairman of the Board of Management of Volkswagen AG Ferdinand Piëch, the entire company moved from Barcelona, ​​30 kilometers away, to Martorell. Seat and Volkswagen invested 1.47 billion euros in the development of the area (2.18 billion euros adjusted for inflation) (as of 2018) . With the model change of the Leon in 2012, Seat invested 800 million euros in converting the production lines to the MQB.

    Pamplona plant

    In 1974, Seat took over the production plant of the manufacturer Leyland Authi in Pamplona, ​​Spain, to relieve pressure and create additional capacities . From 1976, Seat produced the Seat 124 there. As part of the step-by-step connection between Seat and Volkswagen, production of the second generation of the VW Polo began in 1984 as part of a cooperation agreement. In 1993, Fábrica Navarra de Automóviles SA was founded, which Seat renamed as Volkswagen Navarra, SA in 1994 as the owner.

    Vehicle collection

    At the location in the Zona Franca , an industrial area at the port of Barcelona , Seat maintains a collection of various series vehicles, prototypes and racing cars of the brand in building number 122 , which has not been open to the public so far (as of August 2011). From 2006 to 2008, SEAT models were also assembled at Volkswagen of South Africa in South Africa.

    Seat Components

    As a part of Seat SA, Seat Componentes produces components for the entire Volkswagen Group in the Martorell and Barcelona (Zona Franca) plants.


    Engines for use in Seat vehicles are assembled within vehicle production at the Martorell plant.


    Today's components plant in the industrial area of ​​Barcelona, ​​the Zona Franca, was opened in 1953 as a vehicle production plant. Since the relocation of vehicle production to Martorell, body parts for main production have been manufactured on an area of ​​155,000 square meters.

    El Prat de Llobregat

    The factory of the former Seat subsidiary "Gearbox El Prat" produces transmissions for the Volkswagen Group.


    • Alexander Franc Storz: SEAT: all models since 1953 . Motorbuch-Verlag, Stuttgart 2006, ISBN 3-613-02534-5 .

    Web links

    Commons : Seat  - collection of pictures, videos and audio files

    Individual evidence

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    2. Seat Martorell plant turns 20 - Auto-Medienportal.Net. In: Retrieved October 22, 2016 .
    3. Volkswagen Group: Volkswagen Group SEAT Martorell celebrates its 20th anniversary. (No longer available online.) In: Archived from the original on October 22, 2016 ; accessed on October 22, 2016 . Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
    4. 90's - SEAT History | SEAT. In: Retrieved October 23, 2016 .
    5. New boss for Seat, accessed on April 18, 2013.
    6. Press release from Volkswagen AG on the Seat solar system
    7. Paris Motor Show 2014 , accessed on March 2, 2015.
    8. Advertising & Selling: W&V: Seat boss Jürgen Stackmann becomes VW marketing director. In: Retrieved October 4, 2015 .
    9. Production of the Audi A1 from 2018 at the SEAT plant in Martorell >> SEAT MediaCenter. (No longer available online.) In: Formerly in the original ; accessed on January 21, 2016 .  ( Page no longer available , search in web archivesInfo: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.@1@ 2Template: Toter Link /  
    10. Seat and Skoda: VW daughters write profits despite emissions scandal. In: Retrieved August 6, 2016 .
    11. Impressive appearance by SEAT and CUPRA . ( [accessed on March 6, 2018]).
    12. Mobile World Congress Barcelona 2018: Seat recognizes music. Retrieved March 6, 2018 .
    13. Board of Directors. Retrieved March 4, 2019 .
    14. Seat SA (Ed.): Annual Report 2018 .
    15. Seat SA (Ed.): Annual Report 2016 . S. 194 .
    16. ^ Empresa Información del Grupo Volkswagen Group Retail España. Retrieved March 16, 2018 (Spanish).
    17. Seat Annual Report 2012, page 103, ( Memento of the original from April 9, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. accessed on July 24, 2013. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
    18. Seat Annual Report 2013, page 81, ( Memento of the original from May 3, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. accessed on July 24, 2013. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
    19. Seat Annual Report 2014, page 97, ( Memento of the original from April 2, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. accessed on March 18, 2015. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
    20. Seat Annual Report 2015, pages 90-93,  ( page no longer available , search in web archivesInfo: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. accessed on March 18, 2016.@1@ 2Template: Dead Link /  
    21. Seat Annual Report 2016  ( page no longer available , search in web archivesInfo: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. accessed on March 27, 2017.@1@ 2Template: Dead Link /  
    22. Seat SA (Ed.): Annual Report 2017 .
    23. Seat SA: Annual Report 2018 . Ed .: Seat SA
    24. SEAT intensifies its activities in North Africa . ( [accessed on February 4, 2018]).
    25. Happy 25th birthday to SEAT Martorell . ( [accessed March 14, 2018]).
    26. Seat Martorell: Ten million vehicles in 25 years - Auto-Medienportal.Net. Retrieved on March 14, 2018 (German).
    27. SEAT Martorell plant celebrates its 25th birthday . ( [accessed on March 14, 2018]).
    28. 70's - SEAT History | SEAT. (No longer available online.) Archived from the original on April 25, 2017 ; Retrieved April 24, 2017 . Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
    29. Volkswagen Navarra. (PDF) Volkswagen AG, accessed on April 24, 2016 .
    30. Tom Debus: Time travel in the Zona Franca. Seat absurdities. In: FAZ.NET. Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung GmbH, August 16, 2011, accessed on January 10, 2013 .
    31. Proud History at