The Ensign is a military rank of the Bundeswehr , the Armed Forces and former German armed forces . The ensigns of the National People's Army also represented their own rank and career group. In the Bundeswehr, the term "ensigns" is also a collective term for several similar ranks.
In former or foreign-language armed forces there are often ranks that are similar or whose word origin can be traced back to the historical name for the bearer of the troop flag , as in German , and which are therefore often also referred to as ensign. However, these ranks are only rarely comparable with the ensigns in the German Armed Forces or in the Federal Army.
The word "ensign" comes from the Old High German faneri , the Middle High German venre and the early New High German venrich and is therefore related to the modern word " flag " in the sense of a troop flag that the ensign once had to wear. In the cavalry , the rank designation "cornet" developed analogously , which goes back to the French designation cornette ( German : cornets , rider's flag or standard ). The Spanish corneta is related . In the English language , related ranks in which ensign occurs can be traced back to the identical English word ensign (Latin: signum sign) for the troop flag. The word origin of the Russian and Polish rank designations Praporschtschik and Chorąży can also be explained analogously.
|Rank group||NCOs with portepee|
|NATO rank code||OF-D|
|Rank Army / Air Force||Ensign|
|Marine rank||Ensign at sea|
|Abbreviation (in lists)||Fähnr (FR)|
|Grade||A 7 according to BBesO|
The rank of ensign is determined by the Federal President with the order of the Federal President on the rank designations and the uniform of the soldiers on the basis of the Soldiers Act .
Authority to command and positions
In the Bundeswehr, the ensign is a NCO rank , which, according to the Central Service Regulations (ZDv) A-1420/24 “Ranks and Rank Groups”, belongs to the rank group of NCOs with portepee . Because they belong to the rank group of NCOs with portepee, ensigns can issue orders within the limits set there to soldiers of the rank groups of crews and NCOs without portepee on the basis of § 4 ("Superiors relationship based on rank") of the Superiors Ordinance.
Cadets are cadets and are located while they perform this rank, generally in the study . Officer candidates in the careers of officers in the military service usually complete a two-year training course at a technical college with the qualification of state-certified technicians , state-certified business economists or state-certified educators . Some ensigns are attending an officers' school for officer training . In the "ordinary" troops, these ensigns are usually only used in the context of troop internships . Ensigns are then used, for example, as deputy platoon leaders , as group, troop or company troop leaders , as commander of armored combat vehicles and in staffs . Due to the listed and similar positions , ensigns can issue orders to all officially or professionally subordinate soldiers in the cases listed in the Supervisor Ordinance.
Appointment and remuneration
The decisive legal basis for the appointment as ensign is made by the Soldiers' Career Ordinance (SLV) and, in addition, the Central Service Regulations (ZDv) 20/7. A prerequisite for appointment to the rank of ensign is belonging to one of the officers' careers . To rank ensign to regular soldiers and ordered reservists are appointed. After a change from sergeants to a career as an officer in the military technical service , the previous rank is transferred to the rank of ensign. Most cadets have but first in rank cadet served. Officer candidates can be promoted to ensign in most careers 21 months (12 months in the careers of officers in the military technical service) after starting this career. Any service time in a previous career can be taken into account (but often only partially and to a limited extent). When a staff sergeant changes to the career path of officers in the military technical service, the appointment as ensign does not take place before he has served one year in the rank of staff sergeant.
The rank badge for ensigns shows an angle with the point upwards and a surrounding closed braid as a shoulder badge . To distinguish them from the rank insignia of sergeants, ensigns, like other officer candidates, also wear a silver-colored cord made of woven metal as a pull-over loop on all epaulets.
Until the centralization of the training in the responsibility of the army in 2006, army uniform wearers should successfully complete the lone fighter course 1 before being appointed ensign , even if this was not formally mandatory for the appointment. In the meantime, the course is only offered to soldiers from one of the branches of service who are generally considered to be combat troops or who require special qualifications in this area. However, soldiers in the troop service generally only complete the course after completing their studies. As a replacement for the lone fighter course 1, all other officer candidates and officers complete the course on survival operations . The Survival Mission course is run by the Officer Candidate Battalions.
Equivalent, subordinate and superior ranks
The rank of ensign is held only by army and air force uniform carriers . Officer candidates of the same rank wearing naval uniforms hold the rank of ensign at sea . Soldiers who are not officer candidates have the same rank of sergeant (for army and air force uniforms) or bosun (for naval uniforms). In the armed forces of the NATO the Sergeant is at all ranks with the NATO Code rank OR-6 equivalent to the Ensign in a separate category with the NATO Code rank OF-D is assigned.
In the sergeant's careers , the sergeant is in accordance with No. 127 f. ZDv 20/7 between the lower rank Stabsunteroffizier or Obermaat and the higher-ranking Oberfeldwebel or upper Bootsmann arranged (first grade designation for each Army and Air Force Uniform; second grade designation for each Marine Uniform). For the purposes of the presidential order on rank designation and uniform of soldiers applies to the classification of the cadets same, even if cadets after in the category provided for officers transport order is usually above the rank cadet led then in the rank Oberfähnrich ( Reserve officer candidates usually to lieutenant ).
|Lower rank||Higher rank|
Ensign to the Sea
Rank group : Teams-NCOs-NCO-NCOs-Lieutenant-Captains-Staff officers-Generals
As cadets, the similar-sounding ranks ensign, sometimes unofficially Midshipman , Midshipman and Midshipman summarized. Sometimes this is done in contrast to the term sergeant ranks (or boatmen ) for all non-commissioned officers with portepee who are not among the officer candidates or who do not have one of the aforementioned ranks.
- Ensign -
Suit 75/03 | Skirt collar | Plate cap
|NATO rank code||OF-1|
|Rank Army / Air Force||Ensign|
|Abbreviation (in lists)||Guide|
In the Austrian armed forces the ensign is counted among the officers , but is still in training as a lieutenant as a " military academician ". In this respect, this officer candidate rank has a hybrid position. There are no further officer candidate ranks in Austria .
The rank of ensign is awarded to one-year volunteers after twelve months from entering service. If an officer candidate fails at the Theresian Military Academy during the eight-semester (since September 2008: six-semester) academy training (including internships), he will be dismissed with the rank of sergeant . Accordingly, only the military academics to be trained carry the rank of ensign . The promotion to a full officer and lieutenant takes place at the end of the four-year (since September 2008: three-year) training. Outwardly, the individual years are differentiated by means of yellow crossbars above the rank badge (ensign star): One bar indicates the first year, four bars the fourth, the final year.
Classification: recruits - batches - NCOs - officers All ranks at a glance: Army ranks
British armed forces
According to the NATO rank code , the Officer Designate is the rank designation of the armed forces of the United Kingdom that is equivalent to the ensign of the German Armed Forces . However, the ensign is etymologically related in English . Until 1871 Ensign was the lowest officer rank in the infantry regiments of the British Army . Today this corresponds to the second lieutenant . The task of these officers was to carry the regiment's flag . From the 16th century the word ensign had two meanings: on the one hand the flag itself and on the other hand the bearer of that flag. In the Trooping the Color ceremony , the flags of the regiments are carried by different ranks, which today still have the task - but not the rank - of ensign .
United States Armed Forces
Etymologically related, however, is completely analogous to the origin of the word in the British armed forces, the rank designation Ensign . In the US Navy , the Ensign rank replaced the rank of "Passed Midshipman " in 1862 , a midshipman who had already completed his training. In the NATO rank code system, he has level OF-1 and is therefore also the equivalent of a sea lieutenant in the German Navy . An officer with the rank of Ensign is typically still in the extended two-year special training after he has already received his officer license. After this training, he usually serves as an officer in a division in which he leads a group of petty officers and crew ranks . But even the use as a division officer is actually still for training. It is designed to familiarize the junior naval officer with the duties and responsibilities, systems, programs, and policies of day-to-day service with the assistance of the division chief petty officer .
Because of their shoulder markings , Ensigns are often called "butterbars" (German for about butter bars). The longest-serving ensign on board a ship of the US Navy or a naval flight squadron receives extra-large shoulder badges , in which the word "BULL" is often engraved. This officer is also called "Bull Ensign" . According to tradition, this Ensign is responsible as a mentor for the other junior Ensigns in the unit. Together with the youngest Ensign, the "JORG" ( Junior Officer Requiring Guidance "young officer who needs guidance") or "George", who acts as the Vice President of the fair , he is responsible for the formalities of the military dinner during a " Fair night ”.
Other modern armed forces
According to the NATO rank code , the following ranks of other armed forces are comparable with the German rank of ensign:
- France → French aspirant with the salutation "mon lieutenant" (female: "lieutenant")
- Italy → Italian Allievo Ufficiale II
- Russia → Russian Курсант / cadet
In the armed forces of Hungary , what was often referred to in the translation because of the similarity to the ensign career of the National People's Army ( see below ) as the "career group of the ensigns", which included the Zászlós (ensign) and Törzszászlós ( staff ensign) , was different after 1989 to other former Warsaw Pact states and expanded them in 1990 to include the Főtörzszászlós (senior staff ensign). According to the NATO rank code , none of these ranks can be compared with a rank of the Bundeswehr. The two lower ensign ranks are classified as OR-8, the Főtörzszászlós as OR-9 and are therefore comparable with the warrant officers in the NATO rank code system .
In the army of Poland there is the rank of chorąży (means standard bearer). As chorąży and chorąży sztabowy , the two degrees are located exactly between the officers and the NCOs. In contrast, the term podchorąży (sub-ensign) is to be understood as an officer student (candidate).
Imperial and Imperial Army
In war bunch of mercenaries the ensign of the carrier was field banner around which company or troop gathered. The ensign appointed by the colonel had to be considered particularly reliable and brave and swore to defend the flag to the death. Under all circumstances he was forbidden to let go of the flag or let it fall to the ground. In the war books of the Thirty Years' War it is stated that one should wrap oneself in the flag or hold one's teeth if one should no longer have arms.
The nimbus of the flag, which is the last thing to fall and then has to remain in the troop under all circumstances, arose from the fact that in combat the - often brightly colored - banners were the most important way of determining the position of troop units for centuries, they were in the thickest turmoil and sometimes still to be seen in the smoke. Held up, they showed where and whether the troops were still there, because if the ensign had fallen, one could assume that the ensign's mercenaries were also dead or at least incapable of fighting. Flags that got into enemy hands had a disastrous effect, they were immediately misappropriated to mislead the apparently own troops, which led them to certain doom and ultimately could be decisive for the outcome of a battle.
In a regulation from 1726 for Saxony it can be read: The Fähndrich position is the first and lowest senior officer charge that is generally entrusted to a young, qualified person. In itself it is an aristocratic charge [...] The function of an officer consists in the fact that he must above all lead the flag entrusted to him on the march and march, and defend such a thing down to the last drop of blood ...
The ensign as the lowest rank of officer corresponded to the cornet in the cavalry . A peculiarity in the artillery was the junker who never had to carry a flag (the artillery did not carry any standard). Instead, he commanded a gun (obsolete: "piece"); his status fluctuated depending on the army between that of an ensign and that of the free corporal.
Royal French Army until 1791/92
In the French army of the Ancien Régime there were different names for the standard-bearers of the cavalry , the dragoons and the infantry , since the flag of the infantry Drapeau, that of the cavalry Ètendard, but the dragoons Guidon .
- Cavalry :
- In the cavalry, the ensign was named Cornette with the rank of Sous-lieutenant until 1762 . That year it was replaced by Porte-étendard . After the army was redesigned in the course of the revolution , the name Cornette was reintroduced in 1792 .
- The regiment Colonel général cavalerie had a special position. The name Cornette was retained here. In contrast to the rest of the cavalry, he had the rank of Capitaine 2 e classe , but received a much higher salary .
- Infantry :
- The ensign of the infantry was called from May 26, 1527 to December 10, 1762 "Enseigne" or "Enseigne-drapeau" afterwards Porte-drapeau . The regiment owner's body flag (drapeau colonelle) was rolled up and carried by an elite soldier from the regiment's oldest company. Once it was rolled out, it was taken over by an officer in the rank of Sous-lieutenant, the Officier porte-drapeau
- The standard of the dragoons was called guidon and was led by a porte-guidon .
Armed forces of the German Empire
In the army of the German Empire , the portepee ensign no longer had the rank of officer (as it had been up to 1806), but was at the head of the non-commissioned officers without portepee , so ranked before the sergeants . These changes were due to the army reorganization in the Prussian army in 1807. There, the transformed Ensign of officer rank a career officer candidates in the sergeant rank (Avantageure / aspirants from 1899: cadet , now enlisted rank); the Avantageur / Fahnenjunker was selected by his future head of the regiment and was initially promoted to portepee ensign (officially ensign since 1899 ) after six months at the earliest and at his own discretion based on a certificate of service . In Prussia, the ensign took the place of the abolished free corporal (who had been granted the ensign's patent since 1763, enjoyed the rank of officer and therefore, as portepee ensign , wore the silver officer's portepee on the team saber). At the same time, in Prussia in 1807 the terms cornet and piece junker were completely dropped .
From 1807, the minimum requirement for entry into the officer's career in the Prussian army was no longer aristocratic origin, but evidence of civil education in the form of a secondary school leaving certificate (the “one year old”).
In order to prevent abuse, for example through nepotism and inadequate qualifications of the applicants, the process was increasingly professionalized. Around 1900, applicants who were one-year old but did not have the Abitur had to take an aptitude test before the Higher Military Examination Board before starting their service. The questions asked were written and oral knowledge of a general school type: German language and literature, Latin, French, mathematics, geography, history, drawing. Failure to pass the exam could be repeated in whole or in part after about three months.
After passing the (portepee) ensign examination and with a positive service certificate, the promotion to (portepee) ensign took place . Then they attended war school for a year ; High school graduates who had studied at a technical university, mining or forestry academy for at least one year were exempt from this. With the passing of the officer's examination, the (portepee) ensign obtained the authorization to carry the officer's side rifle ( sword , saber ) and moved up to the non-commissioned officers with portepee . As a so-called "sword ensign" he was now in front of the deputy sergeant , but behind the budgetary sergeant . Before being promoted to lieutenant , the officer corps had to give its consent in an electoral process ( co-optation ).
The (portepee) ensign wore a sergeant's uniform and initially the men’s side arm (bayonet or team saber), but with the officer's portepee . The headgear was provided with the officer's cockade. After passing the officer's examination, the portepee ensign wore the officer's sword on the team's paddock. The NCO stress on the collar was eliminated. An officer's overcoat could now also be worn for small and off-duty duties, but with the crew shoulder flaps.
Austrian half of the empire
In the Austro-Hungarian army , the lowest officer rank Ensign was renamed in 1838 in sub-lieutenant 2. Fee Class (1849 lieutenant 2nd class, from 1867 second lieutenant , since about 1868 Lieutenant ). Reintroduced in 1908 as an officer candidate rank, ensign replaced the term cadet officer deputy, which was systemized in 1869 . Ensigns and deputy cadet officers completed their training in the Austro-Hungarian army as pupils of the less renowned kuk cadet schools . In contrast to the cadet officers' deputy, the ensign was no longer at the head of the corps of non-commissioned officers, but as an "officer of the soldier class" belonged to a separate class. In contrast, the graduates of the more prestigious military academies were "retired" as lieutenants at the time - and thus as finished officers.
See also: Military Education (Austria, 1900) .
Badge of rank (" Distinction ") was from 1868 to 1918/1923 and then again from 1933 to 1938 a 1.3 centimeter wide gold braid on the collar ends, followed by the lieutenant's star (since 1933 with a shiny copper button behind it). Before the introduction of their own cadet ranks in 1869, the officer aspirant performing officer service differed from the other candidates by the bare officer's sidearm (these were given gold braids in 1869 for their collar positions). The sidearm adorned the yellow and black portepee of the NCOs, but in silk. As headgear for barracks and field service as well as for the exit, the officers' black cap was allowed, with the decorations (rose or “cockade”, loop clip and cord) made of imperial yellow, black incised silk (instead of gold web). For the parade as well as on Sundays and public holidays, however, the shako (foot troops, artillery, hussars) or the helmet (lancers, dragoons) of the sergeant and sergeant was mandatory. The imperial yellow double braid, split lengthways in the middle, was made of silk (instead of sheep's wool). The borderless dragoon helmet was an exception: the indiscriminate design for ensigns and sergeants featured a triple fluting of the yellow metal side edge of the helmet crest.
Hungarian half of the empire
At the time of the Austro-Hungarian dual monarchy, the Zászlós in the Honvéd Army was the equivalent of the ensign in the troops of the Austrian half of the empire . As an "officer in training" he was already one of the officers.
Reichswehr, Wehrmacht and Waffen-SS
After 1918, the names Portepee-Fähnrich, Degen-Fähnrich, etc. used in the Empire were dropped. Initially in the Reichswehr , later also in the Wehrmacht , the ensign or the ensign at sea was now at the head of the NCOs without portepee . In terms of disciplinary law, however, he was equal to the NCOs with Portepee . In December 1920, a second ensign rank was created with the Oberfähnrich or Oberfähnrich zur See , this time before the sergeant major . This was adopted in the Wehrmacht. In the Waffen-SS there were the ranks of SS-Junker , SS-Oberjunker , SS-Standartenjunker and SS-Oberstandartenjunker for candidate leaders .
National Peoples Army
The ensign was the fourth highest rank in the rank group of ensigns in the National People's Army . The ensign careers formed an independent career group based on the model of other armed forces of the Warsaw Pact ( see below ) , which was located between the NCOs and the officers. So it was not about officer candidates, as the name suggests if you know the ranks of the Bundeswehr and Wehrmacht. Officer candidates were referred to as officer students in the National People's Army and had different ranks .
Ensign soldiers were mainly recruited from senior, highly qualified NCOs with portepee or applicants with a higher school or university degree who were appointed ensigns directly after completing a two-year training course. This training was carried out within the armed forces , for example for the NVA air forces at the MTS of the LSK / LV . Previously serving as a non-commissioned officer was desirable, but rather rare towards the end of the 1980s.
Chief of Staff
Other Warsaw Pact forces
In most of the Warsaw Pact armed forces, a further, multi-level rank or career group was introduced between the career and rank groups of officers and non-commissioned officers by the early 1970s. These were usually referred to as ensigns (in Romania as "military masters"). The first country with this career since 1957 was Hungary . Bulgaria alone decided not to set up such a career group.
Soldiers in this rank group were considered specialists in their careers. Traditionally, candidates with a high school diploma could apply for a career as an ensign . A training period of two years was typical. As a rule, there was no provision for onward transport to the officer. Also were NCOs rarely included in this career.
In 1957, the name of this career in Hungary was based on the Zászlós (ensign) rank, which came from the Honvéd Army and was used continuously in the Hungarian armed forces until 1945 . The career group of the Zászlósok comprised the two ranks Zászlós and Törzszászlós ( staff ensign ). In the National People's Army , this rank group was given the traditional name of ensigns ( see above ). In Russian this rank group was referred to as Praporschtschik . Some other Slavic-speaking states of the Eastern Bloc took this name from Russian, or something similar. In Poland this group was called Chorąży . Similarly, in Romania, the five-tier career group of "military masters " ( Romanian : Maistri militari ), from Maistru militar classa IV to the highest ranking Maistru militar principal, was introduced.
Translation and comparability
The Polish and Russian-language names, like the German word Fähnrich, go back etymologically in the respective language to the troop flag or its bearer. Since all the rank designations listed were comparable in the Warsaw Pact and the Slavic terms also had the same etymological meaning, the terms could be translated as ensign in the German Democratic Republic . In the Federal Republic of Germany, however, the retention of the foreign-language words is often preferred, since an identical translation is misleading due to the fact that it cannot be compared with the military rank of ensign. In Anglophone armed forces, on the other hand, there is a rank group with the warrant officers , which showed a certain comparability with the rank groups described in the Warsaw Pact.
- Left: Rank badge on the shoulder flap of the jacket of the service suit for army uniform wearers of the engineer force . Right: Rank badge on the shoulder flap of the jacket of the service suit for Air Force uniform wearers.
- Army and air force uniform wearers of this rank group are unofficially summarized as sergeant ranks. Non-commissioned officers with portepee who hold appropriate ranks for naval uniform bearers are also unofficially referred to as boatmen .
- The promotion to senior ensign takes place for the officer candidates in the career paths of the officers of the troop service when recruited with the lowest rank, as a rule after 21 months of service.
- ZDv 20/7 on the basis of Career Ordinance ( Ordinance on the Careers of Soldiers (Soldiers' Career Ordinance - SLV) . March 19, 2002, Section 44 ( online [accessed on March 25, 2014] Newly drafted by Bek. V. 19 August 2011 I 1813. Last amended by Art. 2 Paragraph 5 G of April 8, 2013 I 730). ) the Soldiers '
- The soldiers take the lone Tutorial 1 ie generally in rank midshipman , lieutenant or lieutenant part
- Not to be confused with the special forces survival course
- Dragoons were not part of the cavalry or the infantry, but were an independent military force
- Hartmut Bagger , Command Staff of the Armed Forces I 3, Federal Ministry of Defense (Ed.): ZDv 37/10. Suit regulations for soldiers in the Bundeswehr . July 1996. Reprint from October 2008. Bonn July 16, 2008, 4 labels, p. 539 ( digitized version [PDF; 3.5 MB ] Reprint October 2008 replaces first edition from July 1996). Digitized version ( memento of the original from September 19, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- The Federal Minister of Defense (ed.): ZDv 14/5. Soldiers Act . DSK AV110100174, change status July 17, 2008. Bonn August 21, 1978, rank designations in the Bundeswehr, p. B 185 (not to be confused with the Law on the Legal Status of Soldiers (Soldiers Law) ).
- Agreed English texts. STANAG 2116 . NATO standardization agreement (STANAG) . NATO codes for grades of military personnel. 5th edition. 1992 (English, NATO Rank Codes - 1992 [accessed March 25, 2014]).
- The Federal President (Ed.): Order of the Federal President on the rank designations and the uniform of the soldiers . BPresUnifAnO. July 14, 1978 ( gesetze-im-internet.de [PDF] Order of the Federal President on the rank designations and uniforms of soldiers from July 14, 1978 ( Federal Law Gazette I p. 1067 ), last amended by Article 1 of the order of 31. May 1996 ( BGBl. I p. 746 ) has been changed).
- Federal Minister of Defense ; Command Staff of the Armed Forces IV 1 (Ed.): Abbreviations for use in the Bundeswehr - German Abbreviations - ZDv 64/10 . Bonn January 19, 1979 ( ucoz.de [PDF] as of September 17, 1999).
- Appendix I (to § 20, paragraph 2, sentence 1) Bundesbesoldungsgesetz orders of A and B . ( Online [accessed on March 25, 2014] Federal salary regulations (BBesO) only apply to professional and temporary soldiers and are an annex to the Federal Salary Act (BBesG)).
- The Federal Minister of Defense (ed.): Law on the legal status of soldiers (Soldiers Act - SG) . Bonn March 19, 1956, § 4 para. 3 (2) - ( gesetze-im-internet.de [PDF; accessed on March 25, 2014] Newly drafted by notice of May 30, 2005 I 1482. Last amended by Art . 1 G of April 8, 2013 I 730).
- The Federal Minister of Defense (ed.): ZDv 14/5. Soldiers Act . DSK AV110100174, amendment status July 17, 2008. Bonn August 21, 1978, The Superiors Ordinance, p. A 12 1 (not to be confused with the Ordinance on the Regulation of Military Superiors (Superiors Ordinance - VorgV) ).
- Federal Minister of Defense (Ed.): Ordinance on the regulation of the military superior relationship (Superior Ordinance - VorgV) . June 4, 1956, § 4 ( online [accessed on March 25, 2014] Last amended by Art. 1 No. 2 V of October 7, 1981 I 1129).
- Federal Minister of Defense (Ed.): Ordinance on the regulation of the military superior relationship (Superior Ordinance - VorgV) . June 4, 1956 ( online [accessed on March 25, 2014] last amended by Art. 1 No. 2 V of October 7, 1981 I 1129).
- Ordinance on the Careers of Soldiers (Soldiers' Careers Ordinance - SLV) . March 19, 2002 ( online [accessed on March 25, 2014] revised by notice of August 19, 2011 I 1813. Last amended by Art. 2 Par. 5 G of April 8, 2013 I 730).
- Note also:
- The Federal Minister of Defense ; Personnel, Social and Central Affairs Department (Ed.): ZDv 20/7. Provisions for the transport and for the recruitment, acceptance and admission of soldiers . Bonn March 27, 2002, Art. 635 ( PDF ( memento of October 26, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) [accessed on March 26, 2014] DSK AP210100187, reprint January 2008). [[Central Service Regulations | ZDv]] 20/7. Regulations for the transport and for the recruitment, takeover and admission of soldiers ( memento of the original from October 26, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- The equivalent, higher and lower ranks are given in accordance with ZDv 14/5 B 185, cf. The Federal Minister of Defense (ed.): ZDv 14/5. Soldiers Act . DSK AV110100174, change status July 17, 2008. Bonn August 21, 1978, rank designations in the Bundeswehr, p. B 185 (Not to be confused with the Law on the Legal Status of Soldiers (Soldiers Act) . The order of the ranks shown in the info box does not necessarily correspond to one of the regular rank sequences provided for in the Soldiers' Career Ordinance , nor does it necessarily correspond to the rank hierarchy described in the Superiors Ordinance a managerial relationship ).
- Kabinettsordre Kaiser Wilhelm II. , Published in the Army Ordinance Gazette on January 1, 1899. The aim was to replace foreign words with German expressions.