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Volkswagen Type 2 T2
Volkswagen Type 2 T2
Type 2 T2
Manufacturer: Volkswagen
Sales designation: Bus, van
Production period: 1967-2013
Previous model: VW T1
Successor: VW T3
Technical specifications
Designs: Minibus , box truck , flatbed truck
Petrol engines : 1.6–2.0 liters
(35–51 kW)
Length: 4420-4505 mm
Width: 1730-1765 mm
Height: 1960-2290 mm
Wheelbase: 2400 mm
Payload: 0.98 t
Perm. Total weight: 2.25-2.30 t

The VW T2 , more precisely VW Type 2 T2 and also known as the Bulli , was the second generation of the VW bus series produced by Volkswagen from 1967 after the previous model VW Type 2 T1 introduced in 1950 . The officially VW Transporter and in-house type 2 vehicle series is after the VW Beetle , internally referred to as Type 1, the second series of the VW plant for civil use and is continued with the VW T5 / T6 to this day. From 1967 to 1979 a total of 2,533,188 Type 2 T2s were manufactured at the VW plant in Hanover . The last car left the line on October 31, 1979. The successor was the VW T3 . The VW Microbus , developed as a concept vehicle by Volkswagen in 2001, is reminiscent of the Type 2 T1 / T2 models in its retro design , but did not go into series production.

vehicle description


Rarely in their original condition: Numerous buses have been converted and individually designed - or have since been restored.

Compared to the predecessor model, the new front with a curved, continuous windscreen (called “bay window” in English) and integrated ventilation grille for the interior without the V-shaped “bib” of the predecessor is one of the visible innovations. The air for the engine cooling is sucked in through flared side openings at window height on the rear corners of the car. The door windows are crank windows, the vent windows were special equipment. The window area was doubled. The bus has two large instead of three small windows on the sides (not counting the window in the driver's door). The body is 20 cm longer with the same wheelbase and width. In the driver's cab it runs parallel and straight, in contrast to the slightly retracted and strongly rounded driver's cab of the T1. Like the Beetle, the windshield washer works pneumatically .

In the interior, the van has a continuous sheet metal dashboard with a plastic cover and an instrument insert with a speedometer, fuel gauge and clock (optional equipment), additional air outlets, a radio and loudspeaker recess and a glove compartment with lid (optional equipment). In contrast to the previous model, the sliding side door became standard.

landing gear

The front wheels are suspended from a crank axle with a stabilizer; the axle beam is the only chassis component taken from the T1. The rear swing axle with countershaft ( portal axle ) of the predecessor was replaced by a trailing arm axle . The ground clearance was reduced from 240 mm to 185 mm. At the front, the T2 is sprung with two transverse square torsion bars consisting of individual leaves, at the rear there is also a transversely installed round torsion spring bar per wheel. The wheels are steel disc wheels with undivided drop center rims of size 5JK × 14 and tires of size 7-14.8 PR. The brake is operated hydraulically, the brake drum diameter is 250 mm on all wheels. The brake system was manufactured by Ate alongside VW . Until July 1972, the car had a Ross steering with a two-part tie rod, then a Gemmer steering (roller steering) from the Friedrichshafen gear factory . The T2 was built as a left-hand drive as well as a right-hand drive.

Power transmission

The T2 is only available with rear-wheel drive as standard . A lock-synchronized four-speed gearbox with the differential and a single-disc dry clutch from Multi-Disc and Clutch Construction (Type ET 12) or from Fichtel & Sachs (Type KM 200) are installed directly on the rear axle, with the engine behind it. Shifting takes place with a shift lever next to the driver's seat, which is connected to the transmission via a linkage. The oil capacity of the gearbox housing is 3 liters.

T2 with four wheel drive

In 1975, VW Commercial Vehicle Development, headed by "Transporter-Mayer" (Gustav Mayer, 1925–2014, from 1952 to 1985 at Volkswagen Commercial Vehicles), built the first prototype of an all-wheel-drive T2 with selectable front-wheel drive . Mayer managed to cross the Sahara with the vehicle . The VW engineer Henning Duckstein also drove an all-wheel drive T2 in Algeria through the Eastern Great Erg from Debdeb (near Ghadames ) to El-Oued, which is considered impassable for wheeled vehicles . A series production of the technology was rejected by the board of directors and the all-wheel drive did not come onto the market until the end of 1984 with the successor model T3 under the name " Syncro ".


The T2 has as the T1-cylinder an air-cooled Otto - Boxer engine whose displacement compared to the predecessor of 1493 cm 3 to 1584 cm 3 was increased. This was achieved by increasing the cylinder bore from 83 to 85.5 mm with the same stroke of 69 mm. The enlarged engine has an output of 47 hp (35 kW) - 3 hp more - and is suspended at three points in the rear; an additional rear cross member was installed for this. The four individual cylinders are made of gray cast iron and have no liners. The split crankcase is made of light metal. The pistons are cast from light metal and provided with a steel insert; each has two piston rings and an oil control ring. The pistons were manufactured by Mahle , Karl Schmidt and Nüral. The power is transmitted from the pistons to a forged crankshaft with four bearings in plain bearings via connecting rods with a double-T shaft cross-section in plain bearing shells. An underlying, spur gear-driven camshaft controls the hanging valves via mushroom tappets, push rods and rocker arms. There is one inlet and one outlet valve per cylinder. Each cylinder bank has a common, removable cylinder head made of light metal for two cylinders.

The motor has pressure circulation lubrication with a gear oil pump, in front of which a screen filter is installed. The oil pan has a capacity of 2.5 liters. The sucked in air is cleaned with an oil bath air filter. The engine is cooled with a fan, the fan speed is 1.9 times the crankshaft speed. The fuel is with a diaphragm pump to a tank from the downdraft carburetor Solex 30 PICT promoted. It is ignited with battery ignition . The fuel is filtered with metal sieves, one in the fuel tank and one in the fuel pump. In the engine compartment there is a 12 V battery with a charge capacity of 45 Ah, which is charged by a 355 W Bosch alternator driven by a narrow V-belt. The starter is operated electromagnetically; he makes 515 W.

From August 1970, the engine output was increased to 50 hp (37 kW). Furthermore, an oil cooler with a separate air supply from the blower box was installed. In the old version, the oil cooler had obstructed the cooling air supply to the third cylinder on the front left, which could lead to overheating of this cylinder and serious engine damage ( piston seizure and / or torn off of the exhaust valve plate ). The thermal relief brought greater stability to the engine when driving at full throttle on the motorway.

Body styles

The T2 was available from the factory as:
(prices model year 1969 / August 1968)

  • Panel van with 5 m³ load space, 4.1 m² loading area and 1.225 m high sliding door (1.06 m wide): 7195 DM (with high roof and 6.2 m³ load space: 8195 DM; same with 1.57 m high sliding door: 8505 DM )
  • Kombi (panel van with windows): 7550 DM (without rear bench seat), from model year 73 also with high roof
  • Flatbed truck with 4.3 m² loading area (2.7 × 1.57 m) and 0.7 m³ of cargo space underneath - 0.34 m high, 1.3 m wide and 1.6 m deep ("vault"): 6,995 DM (Tarpaulin and bow extra, 4.7 m³ load space)
  • Large wooden platform with 5.2 m² wooden loading area from Westfalia (2.82 × 1.85 m), "safe room" like platform: 7500 DM
  • 6-seater double cabin with 2.9 m² loading area (1.85 × 1.57 m), without "vault", (with rear bench seat removed: 1.8 m³ loading space or 1.4 m² area): 7,995 DM ( Tarpaulin and bow extra)
  • Minibus ("VW Passenger Transporter") with 7 seats: 8,490 DM, eight-seater: 8540 DM, nine-seater: 8590 DM
  • Minibus L (with opening windows in front, clock, steel cranked roof, knobbed carpet, etc.), with 7 seats: 9700 DM, eight-seater ("Clipper L"): 9750 DM, nine-seater: 9800 DM

There was also the T2 in different equipment variants as a camperbus from Westfalia.

With the start of series production of the T2, VW briefly introduced the name “Clipper L” for the well-equipped bus, which should be in the tradition of the special model of the T1 series (“Samba Bus”). After objections from the airline PanAm , which used the name for their aircraft, the name Clipper had to be given up again. Other models with an independent name did not appear again until the 1980s for the T3.

In the last model year 1979, the cheapest van cost DM 14,540 as a panel van, DM 15,260 as a station wagon, DM 14,435 as a flatbed and DM 17,075 as a bus.

Model history

T2a (August 1967 to July 1971)

The very first series of the T2a was built from August 1967 to August 1968. From August 1968 to mid-1971 this T2a, which had only been modified in a few technical details, was continued to be built. This model series can be recognized by the successor model (T2 a / b or T2) on the front section with the indicators below and the side running boards on the bumper as well as on the rounded rear section with the oval tail lights. The geometry of the open rear frame group of the T2a corresponds to that of the T1, but has been lengthened a little at the front and rear. A large part of this model series (with the popular Westfalia equipment) was primarily sold on the US market and became a symbol of the local flower power movement.

T2a / b (model year 1972)

(August 1971 to July 1972)

VW T2 Box (1971)

This type is a hybrid form as an intermediate model with body parts of both the T2a and the T2b (large taillights, indicators at the bottom front, larger "ears" for air intake of the engine, front disc brakes). He is also often referred to as a hybrid in the VW Bulli scene .

T2b (August 1972 to July 1979)

As early as the 1971 model year (mid-1970), further improvements were introduced to the T2, which mainly related to the chassis components and vehicle safety:

  • Reinforced frame group with fork-shaped deformation element at the front (Y-beam) and protruding double front apron under the bumper (cross rail with damping properties) , to absorb longitudinal forces in the event of an impact, as well as closed rear frame section also with reinforcing plates,
  • Front disc brakes as standard (manufacturer Ate, correspond to those of the Mercedes-Benz W 114/115 ("Stroke-Eight"), hence the new bolt circle 5x112 of the wheels) with enlarged axle body and thus longer spring travel and wider track, as additional equipment with brake booster ( for flat motors from mid-1971 series),
  • wider drum brakes at the rear, thus widening the track width by approx. 4 cm,
  • new five-hole steel wheels, recognizable by the flat hubcaps and the new wheel design, round holes around the hubcap,
  • split safety steering column ,
  • Seat belts for driver and front passenger seats as standard as well
  • Three-point suspension of the engine-transmission block with modified installation geometry, resulting in higher ground clearance and longer spring travel, also at the rear.
  • Acoustic damping through rubber-mounted drive unit, tank bulkhead and engine compartment lining
  • additional mounting hatch in the luggage rack above the engine compartment (only for flat engine)
  • Body: angular rear section and wide bumpers, large rectangular rear lights, wider engine compartment flap, rearward-moving fuel filler flap, flared front fenders , internal steps at the front, rectangular indicators integrated in the cooling air grill, inwardly cranked rain gutter, flatter roof (due to higher ground clearance)
  • Additional electric fan for heating and improved hot air flow in the passenger compartment (special equipment).

The revision of the rear was necessary because from mid-1971 the flat engine (CA series) developed from the engine of the VW 411/412 with a two-carburetor system was in the program for an additional charge , which from 1700 cc displacement 66 hp (62 hp with the one offered from 1972 Three-speed automatic). Later the flat engine was enlarged to 1800 cm³ displacement (68 HP) and finally to 2000 cm³ (70 HP). The top speed increased from 110 km / h to up to 130 km / h. The fuel consumption of the flat engines was significantly higher - around 14 liters / 100 km was common in practice. The larger engine was not offered for the flatbed truck.

The fan wheel for the fan cooling was located directly on the crankshaft in the flat engine, which considerably improved the engine cooling. The flat engine, which is 20 kg heavier than the standard 50 HP engine, had an air throughput of 800 liters / second at nominal speed; the 50 HP motor with the high blower box only 620 liters / second. From mid-1972 onwards, the flat-engine vans had an upper cover in the hold to make the two carburettors easier to reach. The external characteristic of the flat-engine models was the tailpipe on the right-hand side of the vehicle.

The most noticeable change to the T2a is the front section with the rectangular indicators that have been integrated into the ventilation grille at the top. The thicker bumpers were given the nickname "railroad tracks".

In mid-1971, the vans were also given a socket in the engine compartment for the VW diagnostic system introduced in 1968. With a new service concept from August 1977, the connection was dropped again for all VW models.

From 1974 the panel van was initially available with a reinforced chassis and thus an increased payload of 1.2 tons; the following year also the station wagon.

Since 1978, two automatic three-point seat belts have been fitted to the front of all vans as standard.

In the case of the minibus and minibus L models, initially referred to by VW as the Clipper L (see above), the two-tone version initially only had the roof color as far as the rain gutter (model 1968–72), and from 1973 to below the body bulge (belt line). The name "Clipper" has established itself among T2 fans for buses up to the 1972 model. One speaks of the Clipper N (normal) if it is a bus without chrome trim, of a Clipper L (luxury) if it is a bus with chrome trim. From January 1968, a steel sliding roof was available on request for both the simple Kombi Type 23 and the Type 22/24 (Clipper).

T2b type 2150 "electric transporter" (1970s)

1979 approved " electric transporter ", presented in the PS.Speicher in Einbeck

In the 1970s, VW produced a "Bulli", also known as the T2b Type 2150 "electric transporter" and converted into an electric vehicle. At the beginning of the 1970s, the automotive industry was looking for alternative, environmentally friendly and future-oriented drives in view of the increased awareness of dwindling resources, not least due to the first oil crisis . One result of these considerations at Volkswagen was the first electric VW Transporter, which attracted a lot of media coverage: That was also wanted, because the engineers initially intended to provide food for thought with "10 to 20 vehicles" - especially with regard to independence from petroleum .

The Stadtwerke in Stade were the first to receive an electrically powered T2. If the ambitious Volkswagen project was successful, VW wanted to produce around 200 additional vehicles in a second stage, starting around 1974, so that further experience could be gained and development could be continued on an even broader basis.

T2c (from Mexico and Brazil)

At the São Bernardo do Campo plant (Brazil), the “mixed model” (T1 with the cab of the T2, also referred to as “T1½”) was replaced by the T2c in 1997, which was built with an air-cooled rear engine and G-Kat until December 2005 . The production tools came from Volkswagen de México at the Puebla plant , where the air-cooled 1.6-liter engine was replaced in model year 1988 by the water-cooled in-line four-cylinder engine with 1.8 liter displacement known from the Golf and Passat . At the same time, the Mexican T2, known there as “Combi” and “Panel” (panel van), received a large radiator grille made of black plastic and quite massive bumpers made of the same material. In the 1989 model year, the range was expanded to include the “Caravelle”, a luxurious bus variant with metallic paintwork and tinted windows. The 1991 models received the raised, angular roof for the first time - the most noticeable feature of the generation known as "T2c".

In 1995 production of the T2c in Mexico was stopped, but not sales. There, T2c imported from Brazil were offered, still with the water-cooled 1.8-liter engine. However, this variant was not available in Brazil. The sale of the T2c in Mexico only ended in 2001 when the T4 was introduced there.

The "Kombi" produced in Brazil until December 2013 does not have the plastic bumpers of the Mexican version, but the round metal bumpers of the "T1½", whose shape is reminiscent of that of the T2a. However, the integrated running boards are missing. The production of the air-cooled version of the T2c ended in December 2005 with the special series “Prata” (“Silver”).

Since 2006 the T2c in São Bernardo do Campo has been built with a water-cooled engine, for this purpose it - like the T2c produced in or for Mexico and the diesel version of the "T1½" available in the 1980s - was equipped with a radiator grille black plastic. The EA 111 engine ("development order") with 1390 cm³ in "TotalFlex" version is used; it can therefore be driven with gasoline or ethanol in any mixture. The power of the engine is given as 59 kW (80 PS), the achievable top speed of 130 km / h.

At the end of the production of the T2c in Brazil and thus of the second generation of transporters as a whole, a special series 56 Anos Kombi - Last Edition , limited to 1200 pieces, was offered.

The reason for the discontinuation was that airbags and ABS have been mandatory for new vehicles in Brazil since January 1, 2014. A postponement of this regulation discussed in mid-December 2013 was quickly rejected.

Technical specifications

VW Transporter T2 (1967-1979)

1600 (1967-70) 1600 (1970-79) 1700 (1971-73) 1800 (1973-75) 2000 (1975-79)
engine 4-cylinder boxer engine (four-stroke)
Compression ratio 7.7: 1
Bore × stroke
in mm
85.5 × 69 90 × 66 93 × 66 94 × 71
Displacement 1584 cm 3 1679 cm 3 1795 cm 3 1970 cm 3
Nominal power according to DIN 70020
at min −1
34.5 kW
(47 hp)
36.8 kW
(50 hp)
48.5 kW
(66 PS)
45.6 kW
(62 PS) 1
50 kW
(68 hp)
51.5 kW
(70 hp)
Max. Torque according to DIN 70020
in min -1
104 Nm
(10.6  kpm )
106 Nm
(10.8 kpm)
113.7 Nm
(11.6 kpm)
115.6 Nm
(11.8 kpm) 1
129.4 Nm
(13.2 kpm)
141.2 Nm
(14.4 kpm)
A Solex downdraft carburetor Two Solex downdraft carburetors
30 PICT-2 34 PICT-3 34 PDSIT-2 / -3
Valve control OHV valve control (bumpers and rocker arms, central camshaft, spur gears)
cooling Air cooling with fan
transmission 4-speed gearbox, center shift 4-speed gearbox, center
shift from 1972 aW 1700 with 62 hp and three-speed automatic
(from 1973: 1800, from 1975: 2000)
Front suspension Crank arm axle with ball joints, 2 transverse spring bars (packages)
Rear suspension Trailing arm axle, transverse spring bars
Brakes Drum brakes all around (front and rear Ø 250 mm)
from autumn 1970: front disc brakes (Ø 278 mm), rear drums (Ø 252 mm)
body Self-supporting all-steel body with longitudinal and cross members
Tank capacity between 40 and 60 liters
Front / rear track 1385/1426 mm
wheelbase 2400 mm
Ground clearance 185 mm
Turning circle diameter 11.3 m
External dimensions (1970/1976) Length: 4420/4505 mm, width: 1765/1720 mm,
height: 1960 mm (bus), 2245 mm (platform with tarpaulin and bow), 2290 mm (high-volume box van)
Empty weight 1285 kg 1325 kg
payload 925-1000 kg 980 kg
Top speed 105 km / h 110 km / h 125 km / h 127 km / h 127 km / h
133 km / h (test value)
Fuel consumption according to DIN 70030 in
liters / 100 kilometers
10.4 N
12 to 13 N (test value)
11.4 N
14.3 N (test value)
9.6 to 16.0 N
13.4 N (test value)
12.9 N
Oil consumption in liters / 1000 kilometers 0.5-1.0

1 with 3-speed automatic

Film appearances

  • In the Kästner novel adaptation Pünktchen und Anton (1999) by director Caroline Link, a T2 (built in 1968) appears as a so-called "ice bus".
  • A T2b played a supporting role in the US tragicomedy Little Miss Sunshine by directors Jonathan Dayton and Valerie Faris from 2006.

Production numbers

year Production
in Germany
New registrations
in Germany
1967 141,569 ?
1968 228.290 66,918
1969 244,945 77,444
1970 257.873 80.354
1971 250,802 70,715
1972 259.111 75,392
1973 246.177 65,168
1974 174.121 48,330
1975 159,752 46,910
1976 169.494 52,565
1977 160,986 54,049
1978 154,436 57,062
1979 85,632 55.506
total 2,533,188 750.413


Web links

Commons : Volkswagen T2  - collection of pictures, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. a b c d Bernd Wiersch 2009: The VW Bulli: The transporter legend for people and loads. Delius Klasing, Bielefeld, ISBN 978-3-7688-2579-5 .
  2. A type that goes down everywhere on auto-motor-und-sport.de
  3. a b c d Schrader type chronicle, VW Transporter T2 1967-1979. 1st edition. Motorbuch Verlag, Stuttgart 2006, ISBN 3-613-02559-0 .
  4. a b Wilhelm Kramer: T2-Elektro-Transporter / He drove ahead of his time , press release from Volkswagen Commercial Vehicles of February 10, 2015 ( charged in the press kit for the opening of the Hanover exhibition ! Electromobility between desire and reality )
  5. Roland Röttges (responsible): VW T2b Type 2150 "Electric Transporter " on the page bullimuseum.eu of the interest group T2, Friends of the VW Bus 1967-1979 eV
  6. All information according to the Brazilian sales brochure VW Kombi 1.4 Total Flex, printed January 2007.
  7. Florian Meidenbauer: VW lets the last Bulli off the assembly line. In: Bild.de . August 16, 2013.
  8. Kombi Last Edition ( memento from September 26, 2013 in the web archive archive.today ) on the Kombi website of Volkswagen do Brasil
  9. The Last Edition Kombi 56. In: Brazil Bus T2c - t2-c.de. Retrieved December 4, 2016 .
  10. Christoph Stockburger: No exception rules: The Bulli is now off. In: Spiegel Online. December 19, 2013, accessed January 22, 2014 .
  11. Dieter Korp: Now I'm helping myself. Volume 31: VW Transporter and Bus - all models up to June '79. Motorbuch Verlag, Stuttgart, ISBN 3-87943-210-4 .
  12. 1968 Volkswagen unknown [Type 2 / T2] in Pünktchen and Anton, Movie, 1999. In: IMCDb. Retrieved January 8, 2020 .