sliding door

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Shoji in a traditional Japanese house

A sliding door , more rarely push door called, is a door that is opened by horizontally sliding. The difference to conventional doors is that no turning movement is required when opening. Therefore sliding doors do not need a swivel range.

Construction principle

A sliding door consists of one or more door leaves that are guided at the top or bottom, and therefore open to the side, but not open. The folding door can be seen as a special form of the sliding door .

The following construction principles are possible:

  • Related: The running machine is running in a located above the door track rail that carries the load. A guide rail is possible on the floor to prevent the doors from swinging too much.
  • Hanging: A door support profile runs on a chain , which is located in a track and transfers the load to many wheels, lower guide through a guide pin on the floor.
  • Standing: the treadmill moves on a guide rail on the floor. An upper guide is possible to protect the doors from tipping over. This can also be omitted with a free-standing sliding door .

Opening and closing can be done manually or via actuators ( electric , hydraulic or pneumatic ). Locking and unlocking are ensured by special sets of sliding door fittings , with which a heat and windproof construction is also possible. See also: lift and slide door

Classification according to EN 1527

Logo of the German Institute for Standardization DIN EN 1527
Area construction
title Locks and building fittings, fittings for sliding doors and folding doors
Brief description: Requirements and test methods
Latest edition 12.1998

The European standard EN 1527: 1998 Locks and building hardware - Hardware for sliding doors and folding doors - Requirements and test methods ( Building hardware - Hardware for sliding doors and folding doors ) regulates basic criteria that are placed on sliding doors in the building industry :

  • Door type (8th digit of the class code):
    • Class 1 = sliding door
    • Class 2 and 3 = folding door
  • Door weight: Four classes are available for <50 kg, 51–100 kg, 101–330 kg and> 330 kg
  • Fire resistance: suitability as fire / fire protection doors

In addition, it assigns classes for the opening and closing qualities:

  • Initial friction: 3 classes which - depending on the mass class - provide information about the force needed to move the door
  • Duration of functionality: 6 classes between 2,500 and 100,000 cycles in which the door can be pushed smoothly.

Areas of application


Compared to swing doors, sliding doors have the advantage that the weight does not act on a hinge on one side , but can be picked up above or below. Therefore sliding doors are particularly suitable for heavy goals . In addition, they do not need space in the direction of passage, but to the side. This is why sliding doors can also be used in very small rooms, for example in storage rooms. Sliding doors are also often used to partition niches or walk-in wardrobes. Sliding doors are often used, especially in the area of ​​"barrier-free living".

Folding doors are used as a structural element where opening is annoying or where opening dimensions go beyond a classic double door, for example as room dividers like the traditional Shōji of Japanese architecture .

On the one hand, the significantly more complex building hardware has a disadvantage, especially when it comes to tight exterior doors, but especially fire / fire protection doors, as well as the almost always present lower running or guide rails, which, if listed raised, can have a disruptive effect if sunk due to possible soiling are maintenance-intensive.

In the building, a distinction is made between sliding doors running in front of the wall and sliding doors running in the wall:

Sliding doors running in front of the wall
With this construction, a track is mounted on the wall, in which the sliding door is hung. This track is initially visible, but can be covered. To open it, the sliding door is pushed to the side and lies on the wall. The advantage of a sliding door running in front of the wall is that it can also be installed later.
Sliding doors running in the wall
This construction provides that the running rail for the sliding door is attached between two walls. If the door is open, it is invisible because it is pushed into the gap between the walls. In order to retrofit this sliding door construction, a so-called wall panel is attached in front of the existing room wall. Since this is quite complex, this type of construction is more suitable for new buildings.
Sliding doors with box systems
Even sliding doors with box systems disappear into the wall when they are opened. However, no second wall is necessary for this. Instead, built-in boxes made of metal are inserted into the existing wall. The built-in boxes are covered (e.g. with plasterboard walls) so that they are not noticeable. This construction is possible both for subsequent renovations and for new buildings. The installation boxes can be used in dry construction, but also in masonry (e.g. brick wall).

In furniture construction , sliding doors are part of the classic repertoire, from simple wooden or glass leaves in grooves to rolling systems for wall units that correspond to house doors .


Pivoting sliding door of a tram, low-floor construction

In the vehicle is estimated that all doors no explicit list have. This is why they are used, for example, in minibuses and public transport ( trolleybuses , trams ) - where the door-operating driver usually has no direct view of the door - because the risk of trapping a passenger is comparatively low. In addition, the technically less complex swing doors are used in vehicles .

Pneumatically operated pocket sliding doors were used in the ET 165 of the Berlin S-Bahn as early as 1927 . These are set back from the outer wall and slide into a pocket next to the door opening when opened. There are also external sliding doors , especially on freight wagons , but also on S-Bahn and U-Bahn , for example the 270 series of the Berlin S-Bahn. The predominant design in passenger coaches today is the pivoting sliding door, which, when closed, is flush with the outer wall. When it opens, it first moves outwards and then moves to the side. Swivel sliding doors can also be made pressure-tight; some of them also move vertically for locking (then referred to as a vertical pivoting sliding door ). Pivoting and sliding doors can also be found in automotive engineering, for example in VW buses .


Guide groove in Pompeii (1st century AD)

Sliding doors can already be found in Roman houses of the 1st century AD, as excavations in Pompeii in Italy have shown.

See also


See literature of the article Door # Literature

Web links

Commons : sliding door  - collection of pictures, videos and audio files
Wiktionary: sliding door  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations