Hybrid


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The noun hybrid ( neuter : "the hybrid") and the adjective hybrid refer to something bundled, crossed or mixed. These terms of Greek origin (derived from ὕβρις, -> hýbris , arrogance or presumptuousness ) have their way through the Latin ( hybrida , bastard, half-breed or wicked child ) and others. a. found in the English and German languages.

According to recent etymological studies, the negative connotations of the ancient and modern Greek word stem ὕβρις, which are largely associated with the concept of hybridity, can not be borrowed from the Homeric epics , but only experienced their change in meaning later in the linguistic development of ancient Greek: instead, the use of the word there creates a value-neutral one Meaning in the sense of power close.

use

Energy generation for a street lamp from wind and solar energy

technology

In general, a hybrid is understood in technology as a system in which two technologies are combined with one another.

The prefix hybrid emphasizes a whole made up of different types or processes. The specialty is that the brought together elements already represent solutions in themselves, but by bringing them together, new desirable properties can arise.

Even if the bringing together of different subsystems is practically a principle of systems , systems tend to avoid such hybrid solutions. Because the hybrid type means that double or multiple solutions are used for the same function, each with a different internal structure.

Systems secure their continued existence, however, rather from 1. the multiple use of the same parts for the same function ( redundancy ) or 2. the combination of different subsystems for different purposes.

Structural components

In motor vehicles, bumpers are made from a combination of plastic (glass fiber reinforced polyamide) and metals (steel or aluminum). The hybrid construction enables, on the one hand, the efficient production of complex, highly resilient geometric structures and, on the other hand, weight savings and, in the case of bumpers, better driving behavior through optimized weight distribution of the vehicle. The different materials are joined, for example, by hybrid joining, the combination of several joining processes (example: spot welding ).

Drives and motors

Hybrid drive systems consist of a combination of at least two different and separate energy storage and drive systems.

  • The first hybrid vehicles were probably steamships with sails (coal / wood on a water wheel / propeller and wind on sails).
  • A hybrid electric motor vehicle is a motor vehicle with two redundant storage and drive systems, one of which acts on an electric motor. The variant wrongly called hybrid, consisting of a combination of two storage systems, with diesel, gasoline or liquid gas as the main energy source (with a combustion engine and electrical generator for energy conversion) and an electricity storage device in the form of an accumulator or double-layer capacitor , is very common . Both storage systems act on only one drive system, an electric motor. Real hybrid electric vehicles have a combination of an internal combustion engine acting on a differential gear and a power generator (e.g. fuel cell) and / or accumulator acting on wheel hub electric motors.
    • Depending on the system structure, hybrid drives can be divided into serial hybrid drives, parallel hybrid drives and power-split hybrid drives (mixed hybrid drives). Hybrid vehicles can also be classified according to their degree of hybridization: micro-hybrid, mild-hybrid, full-hybrid and plug-in-hybrid.
    • The hybrid cars sold in Europe usually have a gasoline engine and an electric motor. According to studies, hybrid vehicles have gained in importance in Germany since the emissions scandal . This is confirmed not least by the increased demand from private car buyers and corporate customers for hybrid cars from leading manufacturers such as Toyota (as of January 2018).

Electronics and computers

software

  • With Hybrid Software is software that runs on various operating systems (z. B. a game that runs on Windows and Macintosh, whose data are but stored on the same CD / DVD) or and online components consist of combined with each other offline ( e.g. Euromobil).
  • With hybrid app (as German short for application) a technical application software for mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets and their operating systems is called, which can run on various mobile operating systems.
  • Hybrid encryption methods combine different encryption technologies.
  • In virtual reality , hybrid objects are understood to be objects that consist partly of real, partly of virtual components.

Others

Natural sciences

Other sciences

economy

  • A hybrid bond has advantages for the investor on the one hand due to an interest premium compared to conventional bonds, on the other hand he has to bear a higher risk, since these bonds are processed subordinately in the event of the company's insolvency.
  • Hybrid capital : capital instruments that cannot be clearly classified as equity or debt capital , for example because they bear losses, but which can also be terminable. In a comment on the decision of the EU Commission on the question of liability at the German Landesbanken , Bernd Ziesemer writes in the Handelsblatt : "The idea of" equity-like "balance sheet values ​​(vulgo hybrid capital) is one of the more recent inventions of the financial industry." combine different types of securities, e.g. E.g .: bonds that are combined with an insurance contract.
  • “Hybrid buyer behavior” is the name given in marketing when buyers do not show any firm ties to brands or businesses, but rather switch between categories of offers. Example: An Aldi buyer can also buy his jacket from Armani. Or a couple spends the 300 euro cheap holiday in Turkey and a few weeks later a wellness weekend for 400 euros in a 5-star hotel in the Black Forest.
  • “Hybrid strategy” is the term used in economic strategy to refer to the approach of wanting to achieve both price / cost leadership and differentiation at the same time. After Porter's U-curve, only either or is possible. In between there is hardly any more income. The Internet and globalization meanwhile allow a large number of customers to be addressed, making cost leadership possible. In addition, modern websites allow products to be digitally configured, i.e. individualized, which amounts to differentiation. Ultimately, both approaches are linked to a so-called hybrid strategy.

Sport and culture

  • In golf , a "hybrid" (or rescue) is a club that tries to combine the length of a stick with the playability of an iron.
  • In tennis , a hybrid is a string in which a different string is used for the main string than for the cross string.
  • The motto of the 2005 Ars Electronica Festival was “Hybrid - living in paradox” and was dedicated to the rapid processes of dissolution and merging in art, technology and society.
  • Hybrid Theory is an album by Linkin Park .
  • Hybrid (band) are two British music producers who combine electronic rhythms with classical-symphonic elements such as string arrangements.

Interdisciplinary

See also

literature

  • Csaba Földers: Kontaktdeutsch: On the theory of a variety type under transcultural conditions of multilingualism. Gunter Narr Verlag, Tübingen 2005, ISBN 3-8233-6160-0 . ( foeldes.eu ) (PDF; 2.8 MB)
  • Kien Nghi Ha: Hype about hybridity. Cultural difference consumption and postmodern exploitation techniques in late capitalism. (Cultural Studies, Vol. 11). transcript Verlag, Bielefeld 2005, ISBN 3-89942-309-7 .
  • María do Mar Castro Varela, Nikita Dhawan: Postcolonial Theory. A critical introduction. transcript-Verlag, 2005, ISBN 3-89942-337-2 .

Web links

Wiktionary: Hybrid  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations

Individual evidence

  1. Alexander Nikolaev, 2004: The Etymology of Ancient Greek ὕβρις. In: scholar.harvard.edu. In: Glotta , Journal for Greek and Latin Languages , 80, pp. 114–125.
  2. Hofmann, P., “Hybridfahrzeuge”, Springer-Verlag , Vienna 2014, Chapter 2: Definitions and Classification of Hybrid Concepts, p. 23, DOI 10.1007 / 978-3-7091-1780-4_2
  3. Study "Autotrends 2018": Only seven percent still want to buy a diesel. automobilwoche.de, May 29, 2018, accessed on June 20, 2018 .
  4. Energy - Mobility - What will move us in the future. helmholtz.de, June 18, 2018, accessed June 20, 2018 .
  5. Toyota: “Hybrid drive is increasingly becoming a growth driver - also in the fleet market”. ecomento.de, February 19, 2018, accessed on June 20, 2018 .
  6. Hybrid components: the best of both worlds. In: umformtechnik.net
  7. Lifescience.biz - Development and management of hybrid business models in health and wellness / Life.biz.
  8. Frank M. Drost: New rules for securitisations and hybrid capital. In: Handelsblatt , March 24, 2010.
  9. Hybrid Capital: A Core Question of Modern Capitalism. ( Memento from October 18, 2010 in the Internet Archive ) In: Handelsblatt , January 7, 2010. 6:00 am
  10. hybrid-plattform.org
  11. ^ The hybrid platform TU Berlin.de