The noun hybrid ( neuter : "the hybrid") and the adjective hybrid refer to something bundled, crossed or mixed. These terms of Greek origin (derived from ὕβρις, -> hýbris , arrogance or presumptuousness ) have their way through the Latin ( hybrida , bastard, half-breed or wicked child ) and others. a. found in the English and German languages.
According to recent etymological studies, the negative connotations of the ancient and modern Greek word stem ὕβρις, which are largely associated with the concept of hybridity, can not be borrowed from the Homeric epics , but only experienced their change in meaning later in the linguistic development of ancient Greek: instead, the use of the word there creates a value-neutral one Meaning in the sense of power close.
In general, a hybrid is understood in technology as a system in which two technologies are combined with one another.
The prefix hybrid emphasizes a whole made up of different types or processes. The specialty is that the brought together elements already represent solutions in themselves, but by bringing them together, new desirable properties can arise.
Even if the bringing together of different subsystems is practically a principle of systems , systems tend to avoid such hybrid solutions. Because the hybrid type means that double or multiple solutions are used for the same function, each with a different internal structure.
Systems secure their continued existence, however, rather from 1. the multiple use of the same parts for the same function ( redundancy ) or 2. the combination of different subsystems for different purposes.
In motor vehicles, bumpers are made from a combination of plastic (glass fiber reinforced polyamide) and metals (steel or aluminum). The hybrid construction enables, on the one hand, the efficient production of complex, highly resilient geometric structures and, on the other hand, weight savings and, in the case of bumpers, better driving behavior through optimized weight distribution of the vehicle. The different materials are joined, for example, by hybrid joining, the combination of several joining processes (example: spot welding ).
Drives and motors
Hybrid drive systems consist of a combination of at least two different and separate energy storage and drive systems.
- The first hybrid vehicles were probably steamships with sails (coal / wood on a water wheel / propeller and wind on sails).
- A hybrid electric motor vehicle is a motor vehicle with two redundant storage and drive systems, one of which acts on an electric motor. The variant wrongly called hybrid, consisting of a combination of two storage systems, with diesel, gasoline or liquid gas as the main energy source (with a combustion engine and electrical generator for energy conversion) and an electricity storage device in the form of an accumulator or double-layer capacitor , is very common . Both storage systems act on only one drive system, an electric motor. Real hybrid electric vehicles have a combination of an internal combustion engine acting on a differential gear and a power generator (e.g. fuel cell) and / or accumulator acting on wheel hub electric motors.
- Depending on the system structure, hybrid drives can be divided into serial hybrid drives, parallel hybrid drives and power-split hybrid drives (mixed hybrid drives). Hybrid vehicles can also be classified according to their degree of hybridization: micro-hybrid, mild-hybrid, full-hybrid and plug-in-hybrid.
- The hybrid cars sold in Europe usually have a gasoline engine and an electric motor. According to studies, hybrid vehicles have gained in importance in Germany since the emissions scandal . This is confirmed not least by the increased demand from private car buyers and corporate customers for hybrid cars from leading manufacturers such as Toyota (as of January 2018).
- Hybrid rocket motors are a mixture of solid and liquid propulsion .
- CODOG drives are a hybrid form of propulsion for ships.
Electronics and computers
- In automation technology , “hybrid systems” are systems that have continuous and discrete states.
- Hybrid electronics or hybrid circuit refers to electrical circuits that use both analog technology and digital technology in one component.
- Accordingly, hybrid computers are computers that have analog and digital components.
- Hybrid microprocessors
- In the hybrid drive or hybrid hard drive (HHD) is a conventional hard disk drive having a flash memory in combination.
- In high-frequency technology, the term “hybrid” is used as a short form for a 90 ° hybrid coupler from the group of branch line couplers .
- In communication technology, hybrid is used as a short form for telephone hybrid (connection device).
- In high-voltage technology, hybrid switchgear is described as one that is designed for overhead line applications and cable systems. In a hybrid line , different types of electricity are routed together with other media as an overhead line on a common mast linkage or in a common cable.
- Hybrid network, a network of fiber optics and copper coaxial cables (e.g. in Denmark)
- CDs with different file systems : Hybrid CD
- Hybrid DVDs (or CDs) with different media content
- Hybrid Fiber Coax : wire-based transmission of analog and digital signals with a large bandwidth
- Hybrid-SLI / Hybrid-Crossfire , whereby the GPU in the chipset is switched on to make SLI / Crossfire possible.
- With Hybrid Software is software that runs on various operating systems (z. B. a game that runs on Windows and Macintosh, whose data are but stored on the same CD / DVD) or and online components consist of combined with each other offline ( e.g. Euromobil).
- With hybrid app (as German short for application) a technical application software for mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets and their operating systems is called, which can run on various mobile operating systems.
- Hybrid encryption methods combine different encryption technologies.
- In virtual reality , hybrid objects are understood to be objects that consist partly of real, partly of virtual components.
- Wristwatches that have both an analog and a digital time display are called hybrid watches.
- In construction, composite systems and composite building materials are referred to as hybrids.
- Metal-plastic composite systems are hybrid components that are manufactured from metal and plastic using overmoulding and assembly technology .
- In architecture, a hybrid is a mixture of different forms, functions and processes.
- Hybrid player : A device that consists of a turntable and a CD player. Typically, hybrid players are used by disc jockeys when mixing music together.
- In the engineering of injection molding machines, such machines are called hybrid machines, which z. B. Use electric drives for the injection molding unit (injection unit) and hydraulic drives for the closing function (clamping unit)
- Hybrid piano
- Hybrid camera : Panasonic Lumix DMC-TZ7
- Hybrid set-top box : Digital receivers that can display Internet content on a television in addition to DVB reception ( Digital Video Broadcasting ) are known as hybrid set-top boxes. The hybrid receiver NanoXX OMEGA HD + also includes a media player for playing a wide variety of video file formats (including in the Matroska container format ) and combines other additional services in a single "add-on device", as the set-top box is also called.
- In building heating, hybrid heating stands for a system that combines several energy sources (e.g. heating oil , sun and wood )
- The hybridica is an international trade fair for the development and manufacture of hybrid components.
- Deutsche Post describes a message as a hybrid letter that , in the absence of an electronic mailbox, is printed as an E- Post letter , enveloped and delivered by postman (see also hybrid mail ).
- In road construction, hybrid construction methods refer to asphalt and concrete structures next to or on top of each other.
- Hermaphrodite coins are hybrid coins .
- botany and zoology , a hybrid (masculine) or better hybrid (feminine) is a living being that is the result of crossing parents of different breeding lines , races or species (also hybrid). These hybrids do not show a stable generation succession in reproduction. So are z. B. Mules cannot reproduce among each other. Plant hybrids such as B. certain high-yield seeds give back the parent plants when re-sown as field crops and must therefore be constantly re-crossed.
- In molecular biology , a hybrid is a process in which a complementary single strand is attached to a single strand of a deoxyribonucleic acid or ribonucleic acid as hybridization - see hybridization (molecular biology) .
- In chemistry and atomic physics , linear combinations of atomic orbitals are called hybrid orbitals .
- political science one speaks of hybrid systems - mixed systems. For example, the EU is neither an international organization like the UN , nor a federation like the USA - it is a mixture of both in terms of the sovereignty of its member states. A hybrid war is a flexible hybrid of the open and covertly applied regular and irregular, symmetrical and asymmetrical, military and non-military conflict means.
- In communication science , hybridization is used when several genres come together to form a new one. So z. B. the genre family Reality TV as a hybrid genre (example: soap opera + documentary = docu-soap ; gameshow + documentary = "reality gameshows").
- In cartography , the hybrid representation describes a view in which street and place names are drawn in an aerial photograph.
- In linguistics called hybrid with foreign words , the composition of different languages such. B. Local anesthesia (from Latin: locus = place + Greek: ἄν- = not + αἴσθησις = feeling).
- By "hybrid products" or "hybrid business models " are understood in business administration offerings also include both a (technical) property as a service component.
- In mathematics, a number system , which has both the properties of an addition and a place value system , is called a “hybrid system”.
- In medicine, hybrid operating rooms are used to describe combined operating theaters that can be used for complex diagnostics such as MRI or CT as well as for open procedures.
- A hybrid bond has advantages for the investor on the one hand due to an interest premium compared to conventional bonds, on the other hand he has to bear a higher risk, since these bonds are processed subordinately in the event of the company's insolvency.
- Hybrid capital : capital instruments that cannot be clearly classified as equity or debt capital , for example because they bear losses, but which can also be terminable. In a comment on the decision of the EU Commission on the question of liability at the German Landesbanken , Bernd Ziesemer writes in the Handelsblatt : "The idea of" equity-like "balance sheet values (vulgo hybrid capital) is one of the more recent inventions of the financial industry." combine different types of securities, e.g. E.g .: bonds that are combined with an insurance contract.
- “Hybrid buyer behavior” is the name given in marketing when buyers do not show any firm ties to brands or businesses, but rather switch between categories of offers. Example: An Aldi buyer can also buy his jacket from Armani. Or a couple spends the 300 euro cheap holiday in Turkey and a few weeks later a wellness weekend for 400 euros in a 5-star hotel in the Black Forest.
- “Hybrid strategy” is the term used in economic strategy to refer to the approach of wanting to achieve both price / cost leadership and differentiation at the same time. After Porter's U-curve, only either or is possible. In between there is hardly any more income. The Internet and globalization meanwhile allow a large number of customers to be addressed, making cost leadership possible. In addition, modern websites allow products to be digitally configured, i.e. individualized, which amounts to differentiation. Ultimately, both approaches are linked to a so-called hybrid strategy.
Sport and culture
- In golf , a "hybrid" (or rescue) is a club that tries to combine the length of a stick with the playability of an iron.
- In tennis , a hybrid is a string in which a different string is used for the main string than for the cross string.
- The motto of the 2005 Ars Electronica Festival was “Hybrid - living in paradox” and was dedicated to the rapid processes of dissolution and merging in art, technology and society.
- Hybrid Theory is an album by Linkin Park .
- Hybrid (band) are two British music producers who combine electronic rhythms with classical-symphonic elements such as string arrangements.
- The hybrid platform (spelling without a hyphen) is a joint project of the Berlin University of the Arts and the TU Berlin , which has been serving the interdisciplinary exchange between art, science and technology since 2011 .
- Csaba Földers: Kontaktdeutsch: On the theory of a variety type under transcultural conditions of multilingualism. Gunter Narr Verlag, Tübingen 2005, ISBN 3-8233-6160-0 . ( foeldes.eu ) (PDF; 2.8 MB)
- Kien Nghi Ha: Hype about hybridity. Cultural difference consumption and postmodern exploitation techniques in late capitalism. (Cultural Studies, Vol. 11). transcript Verlag, Bielefeld 2005, ISBN 3-89942-309-7 .
- María do Mar Castro Varela, Nikita Dhawan: Postcolonial Theory. A critical introduction. transcript-Verlag, 2005, ISBN 3-89942-337-2 .
- Alexander Nikolaev, 2004: The Etymology of Ancient Greek ὕβρις. In: scholar.harvard.edu. In: Glotta , Journal for Greek and Latin Languages , 80, pp. 114–125.
- Hofmann, P., “Hybridfahrzeuge”, Springer-Verlag , Vienna 2014, Chapter 2: Definitions and Classification of Hybrid Concepts, p. 23, DOI 10.1007 / 978-3-7091-1780-4_2
- Study "Autotrends 2018": Only seven percent still want to buy a diesel. automobilwoche.de, May 29, 2018, accessed on June 20, 2018 .
- Energy - Mobility - What will move us in the future. helmholtz.de, June 18, 2018, accessed June 20, 2018 .
- Toyota: “Hybrid drive is increasingly becoming a growth driver - also in the fleet market”. ecomento.de, February 19, 2018, accessed on June 20, 2018 .
- Hybrid components: the best of both worlds. In: umformtechnik.net
- Lifescience.biz - Development and management of hybrid business models in health and wellness / Life.biz.
- Frank M. Drost: New rules for securitisations and hybrid capital. In: Handelsblatt , March 24, 2010.
- Hybrid Capital: A Core Question of Modern Capitalism. ( Memento from October 18, 2010 in the Internet Archive ) In: Handelsblatt , January 7, 2010. 6:00 am
- The hybrid platform TU Berlin.de