The driver's cab is the part of the truck body that forms the space for the driver and accompanying persons. The term driver's cab or driver's cab is also common . The comparable facility in rail vehicles is called a driver's cab .
The cab for the truck
The cab is usually closed and can be heated. Its primary function is to enable the driver to drive the vehicle safely. In addition, there are many facilities that the driver can use during his rest breaks or rest periods , such as a lounger.
The cab of the truck is called the driver's cab by all truck manufacturers, specialist magazines and books on commercial vehicles . Depending on what the vehicle is used for, the use of the driver's cab varies. In the case of construction site vehicles or vehicles in local freight transport , the driver almost exclusively uses the driver's cab for driving. On the other hand, the truck is both a place of work and living space when the long-haul truck drives several days . However, the regulations of the Workplace Ordinance for work and break rooms do not apply to driver's cabs. There is a set of rules of the employers' liability insurance association on "Berths in driver's cabs and rest rooms of vehicles as well as roof sleeping cabins " (BGR 136). The relevant accident prevention regulations include rules on safety, ventilation of the driver's cab and the driver's view. In 1966, “driver's cab guidelines” were issued for the first time on the basis of Section 30 StVZO and have been amended several times since then.
Early role models
Heinrich Büssing was a pioneer in the construction of the good, large driver's cab :
“The service of the driving staff is responsible and exhausting, especially when driving over long periods of time. Therefore, for many reasons, it is imperative to ensure the best possible working conditions in the driver's cab, often in their home, for the drivers and accompanying personnel. "
This self-made order was put into practice and that is why old or retired long-distance drivers still rave about the Büssing Commodore underfloor with its large, high Büssing & Sohn wooden cab. It can be said of this Büssing truck concept, with its underfloor engine removed from the driver's cab , that it has been a role model for truck manufacturers in terms of freedom from noise, comfort and ergonomic design up to the present day.
European legal regulations
The driver's cab is a "functional space" of a truck cabin for the driver of trucks up to a total depth of 2.35 m in the external dimension. Since May 1, 1965, guidelines, such as guideline 85/3 / EEC for truck lengths, dimensions and weights, have been agreed within the EEC by the EC Council of Transport Ministers . These had to be incorporated into national legislation, e.g. B. in Germany in the Road Traffic Licensing Regulations Abs. 4 Satz 1 Nr. 4 StVZO. Now it was made possible for the transport companies or the forwarding agents as well as the vehicle manufacturers to constantly increase the length of the loading space within the overall length of the truck. This led to the shortening of the cab and thus had negative consequences for the comfort and safety of the driver.
Therefore, from 1989 onwards in the EU, efforts were made to change the guideline regarding how long a road train may be in order to create a healthy, always satisfactory ratio of occupied traffic area and economically optimal use of transport space. An acceptable compromise was reached by fixing only the loading area and the total length of the truck and the length of the drawbar . In the EC Directive 91/60 of February 4, 1991 it was decided that from the rear edge of the cab there may only be 16 meters of usable total length. The maximum permitted truck length was increased from 18 to 18.35 m, with the length of the loading area being allowed to be up to 15.65 m. For safety reasons, these short-coupled trucks are allowed (to this day) to lengthen somewhat while cornering, but without the intervention of the vehicle driver or other people.
It was now up to the haulier to decide how large the driver's cab would be for the driver, at a possible 2.35 m depth. This ordinance came into force on December 31, 1991 and a transition period was set for old trucks until December 31, 1998 for the larger loading areas within the overall length of the truck.
On September 29, 1995, the EU Council of Transport Ministers decided to amend Directive 91/60 as a partial harmonization for "Dimensions and total weight of vehicle combinations" in domestic transport in the European Community. The permissible total truck length, i.e. H. the loading area and the driver's cab have been increased from 18.35 m to 18.75 m. The clear distance between the superstructures, as the drawbar length, is now 0.75 m. For the cab, everything remained the same or the 2.35 m cab depth, whereby 10 cm must be deducted for the ISO standard 1726 (tilting device, exhaust, air intake, air and power connections), unless this was solved differently due to the design.
The cab construction
When designing and equipping the driver's cab, the focus must be on economically rational considerations in order to be able to use the space available for the loading area in the best possible way. The design depends on the use and the special needs of the entrepreneur. Driver's cabs are built in a self-supporting single-shell construction, with a pressed steel frame being clad with galvanized steel sheets on both sides. Many of the former sheet metal or steel cladding parts of the driver's cab are made of plastic in order to save weight, among other things. Under the floor of the cab are the two side members of the chassis, where the four-point suspensions with air or rubber-metal are located. The influence of fuel consumption is incorporated into the design using the latest findings that are tested in the wind tunnel for aerodynamics . Most of the cabs have a roof and side spoiler , although somewhat narrower and lower cab dimensions are also produced in series, which are then a little cheaper. In the technical construction of the COE driver's cab, a tilting device is important in order to access the units so that maintenance and repair work can be carried out, with regular external checks being possible.
The designer must be within the scope of possible external dimensions: (L × W × H) 2.35 m × 2.50 m × 4.00 m, where for the MAN-TGX-XXL cab, for example, only 2.28 m × 2.44 m × 2.46 m outside of the cabin. The inside dimensions are only 2.12 m (front window - rear wall) and from one door window to the other there is 2.33 m, and in the interior height, due to the 0.11 m high engine tunnel, only 2.00 m of space is left for the driver . In the case of heavy truck types, large cabs have the advantage that the resale of the used truck is taken into consideration. The decisive factor is whether the truck is used for local transport with a short driver's cab without a couch or for long-distance goods transport with a long cabin with a couch.
The latest occupational medical findings must be taken into account for all types of cab . Ergonomics , safety and comfort play a major role, and easy entry and exit, including two easily accessible handles, are also important. A good view of the traffic situation must not be impaired. From the point of view of employee protection , it is necessary to minimize the high psychological and physical stress on the driver, which can result from heat and cold, restricted freedom of movement, high responsibility of the driver, time pressure and high traffic volumes. The driver's cab should therefore offer the driver a comfortable, spacious and safe workplace.
The designs are modernized approximately every 4 years in a facelift for all truck series through numerous detail improvements on the front of the vehicle, which the general public can see on the radiator grille, sun visors and headlights. Aerodynamic optimizations make it possible to improve the value , and the interior noise level is also reduced. Depending on the type, a weight reduction is achieved in the new series. All of these improvements enable lower fuel consumption.
Critics criticize the low level of safety in the cab in rear-end collisions . According to accident research, the steel structure alone does not guarantee adequate protection. As early as the summer of 1989, a study was carried out on behalf of the Research Association for Automobile Technology (FAG) in Munich and it was determined that the strength tests for driver's cabs urgently needed to be revised. To this day, the designers of the trucks and the driver's cabs still adhere to the ECE- R29 ( Economic Commission for Europe ). These tests were introduced in 1998 and have been in effect since 2000. In the frontal impact test with a pendulum mass of 1,500 kg ± 250 kg, the impact energy is tested up to 45,000 Nm. The strength of the roof must withstand a static load of up to 10 t and the strength of the rear wall must withstand a static load of 2,000 N / m².
Since there is still a safety risk in the cab doors and window pillars of the Coe cabs and the so-called Sweden test would have to be introduced for all European cabs, the crumple zone would then be in the rear part of the cab in the area of the loungers. In the Sweden test, the cab must withstand impacts with a weight of 1 t on a 3 m long pendulum from all directions (e.g. window spar) without major deformations. The cab roof has to withstand the pressure from above with 15 t without major deformation. A reinforced front section and side protection in the doors are mandatory; the doors must not open by themselves. An energy-consuming steering wheel mounting is one of them. During the test it must be ensured that the drivers have enough survival space available. Thanks to the modern distance warning and automatic brake systems, it is possible that a rear-end collision can be reduced or, in some cases, completely eliminated.
The large cab and the sleeping cabin
All European truck manufacturers have been building large cabs since 1991, such as: IVECO "Stralis-AS" , Renault "Magnum AE" , Volvo FH "Globetrotter XL" , MAN "TGX-XXL" , Mercedes-Benz Actros (proven) - "Megaspace LS" , Mercedes-Benz Actros (new) - "Gigaspace" , Scania R- "Topline" and DAF XF 105- "Super-Space-Cab" .
In 2002, the Swedish truck manufacturer Scania launched a 1.3 m extended “eXc” large-capacity cab for its “Topline” cab onto the European market, thus creating a much larger space for the driver than in conventional cabs, including one large sleeping cabin. However, the larger driver's cab means that less loading space is available, which is an economic disadvantage.
The two-driver crew
Due to the regulations on driving and rest times as well as the Working Hours Act (ArbZG) and to prevent truck theft, it is often necessary to use the trucks with a two-driver crew. The long common daily presence in the driver's cab requires a high degree of mutual tolerance. In order to optimize the framework conditions for two people, the truck manufacturers try to adequately dimension and equip the driver's cab . This is an important aspect in the case of a double crew, when two truck drivers are together in a relatively narrow workplace for approx. 15 to 24 hours, sometimes for five consecutive days.
A prudent fleet manager would do well to optimize the framework conditions and, for example, to buy the long-haul driver's cab sufficiently large. A coffee maker, heater , air conditioning, auxiliary air conditioning , refrigerator, digital radio with DVD -Change, television with DVD-Video , CB radio , as well as additional storage compartments in and around the truck are standard and contribute significantly to the motivation in order than in road haulage To be active truck drivers. The raised roof above the windshield on the long-distance driver's cabs should be used to equip storage cupboards with compartments where a microwave oven should be available for tours lasting several days.
Due to StVZO incl. The driver's cab guideline, it is forbidden to place or hang anything in the free field of vision of the driver, especially since the approval will then expire. All control instruments must be glare-free and clearly visible (which is facilitating the trend towards instrument clusters that began in cars), and the controls such as switches, etc., must be accessible to the driver without shifting his body. On and in the driver's cab, the financial or social attitude of the transport company can often be seen. For example, for long-distance transport, a narrow cab economy version without extras in the interior has been ordered as the simplest series production. In many cases, the passenger's seat is then designed without air suspension and without additional back cushions and armrests. Transport companies that do not provide full equipment with a large driver's cab then have a hard time finding suitable professional drivers . When ordering a new truck, it is advantageous for the entrepreneur if he gives the truck drivers a say.Abs. 2
The development from the driver's seat to the large cab took a long time and resulted in many stages of development. The driver's seat is the ancestor of today's driver's cab. Back then, the coachman on his box had to cope with everyday transport and work without any comfort. While the cargo was stowed dry under the tarpaulin, the driver was exposed to the elements without protection.
The early years from 1896
The first officially known truck with a combustion engine was sold by Daimler to London on October 1, 1896 as a carriage without a drawbar, although this commercial vehicle was designed and built as early as 1891.
The driver's seat of the truck named “Phoenix” was in the middle on the front axle. The wheels had iron tires, and despite the coil springs, extreme vibrations were normal because of the poor roads. The first motorized trucks in Germany largely corresponded to the horse-drawn models, and the chauffeur continued to sit in the front on the open driver's seat.
The characteristic of the forward control truck, also Coe vehicle (Cab over engine), has now been lost. The engine with the radiator was relocated in front of the driver's seat. The steering crank was replaced by an inclined steering wheel , and the driver's workstation moved from the center to the right-hand side of the vehicle. Instead of iron-tyred wooden wheels, solid rubber tires became the standard almost everywhere. The truck designers were not interested in the "motor coach", because someone who came from the horse-drawn carriage had a low social status and therefore little importance was attached to ergonomics in the workplace.
First World War
Most of the then 825 trucks over five tons payload already had a roof over the driver's seat. You could still do without the front glazing because of the low speeds of approx. 20 km / h. In the meantime, all trucks had solid rubber tires and they had tried and tested pneumatic tires . Due to the increasing road damage, rubber tires for trucks were prescribed by the new "Motor Vehicle Traffic Regulations".
As a result of the subsidy programs to promote the purchase of lorries, the number of lorries in the German Reich had increased considerably from 1908 until the war years.
Due to the First World War, the development of the truck was promoted because of its military importance. During the war years, the truck industry produced more than 40,000 commercial vehicles, which in the broadest sense deserve to be called trucks. One also built u. a. a front glass as a windshield , but the side windows were still omitted. The driver's seat gradually moved to the left (until 1930). At MAN z. B. it was possible to close the side openings with side curtains in bad weather. In particular, the road dust from the truck in front made the drivers harder. When operating the trucks, many parts were standardized under pressure from the military. For example, the pedals were standardized in 1908.
Inflation period 1923–1925
In the meantime, some trucks were driving at speeds of up to 30 km / h, and the first trucks also had pneumatic tires. The first diesel trucks had been used by MAN and Daimler for testing in everyday use since 1923. Büssing tested the giant pneumatic tires he developed (with Continental ) on three-axle trucks. The invention of the overrun brake gradually made it possible to do without the brakeman's house in the trailer. A triangle on the roof of the cab was introduced without a law. This yellow triangle, illuminated from the inside, was flipped up when a trailer was being carried in order to indicate a possible danger from the trailer. There was not yet a sleeping cabin, and the employed truck drivers or the “captains of the country road” with their followers (lubricant maxes) stayed in the inns that were available as coach pubs on the country roads. Before starting the journey in the morning, extensive work had to be done on the truck every day: greasing, maintaining the engine and adjusting the brakes were the basic tasks. In 1925, the first trucks were fitted with a time - travel recorder ( tachograph ), a horn, a rear-view mirror , windshield wipers and side windows.
Great Depression 1929–1931
During this time, 80% of all trucks for company traffic were running. The first six-wheel long-haul trucks were on display. The cabs were made of wood and covered with sheet metal. Henschel & Sohn in Kassel had even developed a standard sleeping bed in the cabin for two drivers in 1929 and had it patented. Most truck drivers were self-driving entrepreneurs who did not allow themselves any comfort in the cab. The heater consisted of a carbide stove, and when it was cold a thick wool blanket was placed over the legs. Steering, clutching, and braking were hard work, and the vibrations from the roads were passed on directly to the driver. The driver still had to do without a sprung seat. The volume in the cab was harmful to health, but the trucks at least now had pneumatic tires and were also given a bumper with bumper bars.
Third Reich from 1933
The Hanomag in Hanover developed and built a cab-over truck with an underfloor engine. Paul Arendt as the "forefather" of the underfloor engine had already started in 1930 with the development of accommodating the engine outside the driver's cab. Together with Körting in Hanover, he designed the FD 6-cylinder underfloor engine to be installed in the Büssing truck. He was unable to realize his engine concept at Büssing, but with the help of Hanomag the first large underfloor truck type "HL 3.0" was built and presented to the public at the IAMA Berlin. Kenworth (USA) built a truck with a sleeping cabin and offered this as a special convenience.
The trucks had now gotten bigger, with long-distance trucks with three axles also being used as six-wheel trucks that were already 60 km / h fast. The truck snouts had grown longer, the tires larger, and so had the steering wheels; the turning circle was considerable. The wooden frame cabs were covered with sheet metal, and now all trucks also had side windows. The equipment with a wink, horn and dashboard lighting was highlighted in the advertising. In addition, a bunk was installed over the loading area at the rear of the driver's cab, a so-called “swallow's nest”, because the second driver should or had to sleep there during the journey. You drove mainly during the day, because the bad roads almost made it impossible to drive at night. When the truck was stationary at night, the second driver had to sleep on the front seat. However, this was only practiced in order to be able to save the accommodation allowance in view of the low earnings.
Due to many serious accidents caused by fatigue, the legislature had introduced a working time regulation for drivers, which was rejected by many drivers. The truck owners, who were 80% drivers at the same time, lived from hand to mouth and had to be able to repair almost everything on the truck themselves. H. the grease gun, the seventeen wrench and the oil can were part of daily routine. MAN now had dipped headlights, but only a windshield wiper on the driver's side. The side windows of the overland truck could also be cranked down. From October 1, 1938 (until approx. 1956), a so-called trailer triangle was stipulated in the "Automotive Guidelines" . After that, there should be a yellow foldable triangle on the cab roof from October 1st. However, this guideline was not included as a regulation in the Reichsverkehrsgesetz, whereby according to the guideline this yellow foldable triangle must be visible when the trailer is unfolded when it is illuminated at 100 m. Daimler-Benz and Krupp built a tachograph into their new trucks as standard. Truck manufacturer Sterling Trucks (USA) has already supplied a tilting cab.
Second World War
On March 15, 1939, Colonel Adolf von Schell, as authorized representative for motor vehicles in the so-called Schell Plan , decreed a sharp reduction in the number of truck types from January 1, 1940. Only 19 instead of 114 truck types were allowed. The large three-axle trucks were no longer common, u. a. because they were not agile enough. The truck manufacturer Marius Berliet predicted that the truck had a great future as a semitrailer, but the first large front-wheel drive vehicles as blunt schnauzers were very impractical due to the engine in the driver's cab. The war-ready trucks, which were only allowed to be built in four classes from 1.5 to 6 tons, had to be off-road and agile. Most of the trucks were drafted for the war, for the most part including the drivers. Transport communities had to be formed in order to be able to maintain supplies to the population. Statutory liability insurance for trucks was introduced.
Development up to the European single market in 1992
New beginning 1945
After the Second World War, the few remaining trucks were in great demand and were used for reconstruction. The truck factories, such as B. MAN , Daimler-Benz or Büssing , assembled some trucks with sparsely equipped cabs from leftover stocks. Not too much changed in the equipment of the cabs until the early 1950s. The compressed air brake was a step forward and was now being installed everywhere, although it had been invented as early as 1923. You drove with a long nose, with the engine in front of the cab, and the heating was still a luxury, so that ice scraping was always necessary inside the cab. But they didn't want to do without the swallow's nest in the loading area, and the large bench on the passenger side was essential.
With the currency reform in June 1948, the generally limited truck construction ban was lifted by the occupying power. Henschel built a long schnauzer truck (140 hp) with a real long-distance driver's cab and two loungers. This truck had an easy-to-use double four-speed gearbox, with third and fourth gear already synchronized. There was a preselectable speed setting on the steering wheel, where 8 gears could be shifted by changing the gas without clutching. A spare wheel holder pull-out slide was also available, which made it much easier to change wheels.
As one of the first new Langschnauzer trucks, Krupp built its " Titan " as the "SW L 80" with the bimotor or two coupled three-cylinder engines, which together made 190 hp or 210 hp (1951) and enabled a top speed of 66 km / h . This truck had a large hood decorated with aluminum and a long-haul cab with loungers. The manufacturer of the driver's cab made of wood and steel was the Binz vehicle factory.
At the Geneva Motor Show, Henschel presented a new forward control truck "HS 190 S", which had two engines with 95 hp each interconnected. This truck, known as the “Bimot” (only three copies), had a curved blunt nose and was serviced through the so-called “cabinet doors” that could be folded down at the front. Henschel, a 140-horsepower front handlebar with large sleeper cab as "HS 140 T" (has been T ramfahrerhaus) built. This very spacious cab had a very long cabin and was equipped with four “reclining seats”.
The engine and machine factory Kaelble in Backnang , as one of the first truck manufacturers, also built a large, spacious forward control arm "K 631 F" with 150 hp. MAN is currently building its “F 8” truck with a 180-hp V8 engine with a typical MAN hood, of which only three were built in 1950. This F 8 was recognizable by the headlights embedded in the fenders and the relatively short bonnet became the MAN trademark, of which only 3,019 trucks were built until 1963. This MAN cab, which originated from the pre-war models, was criticized by the long-distance drivers as a little too narrow and was not improved until 1953.
Daimler-Benz built its heavy Mercedes-Benz truck "L 6600" with a long hood. The “six-sixer”, known as the post-war “bread and butter truck”, had a payload of 6.6 tons. This truck with its simple standard cab was just good enough to cope with the simplest needs of the driver and everyday transport was built according to the motto: "cheap, simple and good enough" . Therefore, the L 6600 could also be equipped with a special cab, e.g. B. from Wackenhut to be built. The Büssing truck no longer had the name NAG and the Braunschweig “ Burg-Löwe ” was used as the emblem .
Disappearance of the hooded truck from 1951 to 1960
The 150 hp regulation was lifted. In April, at the first post-war IAA , Büssing presented its huge twelve-ton, three-axle underfloor truck as the “12000 U” with 175 hp (later 180 hp / 66 km / h) as a front-wheel drive . Due to its large cab or truck dimensions and the high purchase price, the freight forwarders hesitated to buy this long-haul truck. Kaelble presented the large "K 832" truck with a long nose and 200 hp. MAN has now launched its flagship "F 8" with a nose for long-distance transport in large numbers. Kaelble and MAN had "only" planned a swallow's nest protruding onto the loading area as a bed. The trucks could, however, be converted and expanded into a large, deep driver's cab by a body shop.
The "8000 S" Langschnauzer truck built by Büssing was the best long-distance truck for the driver in its day, had 180 hp and drove 66 km / h. The most recently built Langschnauzer 8000 S can be recognized by the lower left bulge on the engine hood. The very sturdy bumper deserved even the name of shock spear, and limiting rods were not movable, some truck drivers additionally already cultivated rearview mirror there. The Büssing - & - Sohn cab was also available in a large, deep version for long-distance transport, although only self-driving entrepreneurs could afford this loading area reduction of approx. 60 cm. The large Büssing three-axle truck "12000 U" did not catch on and only 39 of them were produced. Büssing now built the 2-axle forward control truck "8000 U" with 180 hp (66 km / h). This truck had a payload of 7.8 t and the cab could be built and equipped by Büssing & Sohn , Ackermann , Eylert , Kässbohrer or Kögel . It was interesting that the same truck could be given a different look and interior design at least four times. Above all, the seat design was critical, whereby the driver, with the usual seats at the time, arrived at the destination overtired and with a damaged spine.
The “captain of the road” had a good image with the population because he was extremely important for the supply and reconstruction. It was basically worked through for seven days, and everything had to be loaded and unloaded and repaired by yourself. At the IAA, MAN presented its type “F 8” with a slightly wider driver's cab, which was now unrestrictedly suitable for long journeys and won a silver medal a year later in Paris. In the meantime, all long-distance trucks had a trip counter, remote thermometer, oil pressure manometer and compressed air manometer. MAN z. B. also had the fuse box on the dashboard and a small crank handle for the radiator blind and on the right side a large lockable embedded storage box and an extendable table u. a. for typing. A reading lamp and a sun visor should not be mentioned separately, because apart from the special cabs from other truck manufacturers, the MAN F-8 cab was a standard model for long-distance transport.
Now the lorry was only allowed to be 20 m long as a lorry and from 1952 onwards only one instead of two trailers was allowed due to the “Law for the Safety of Roads” (Traffic Safety Law) . From September 1st, a minimum speed of 40 km / h was prescribed on the motorways . Tachographs now had to be installed in the truck in which the driving and rest times were recorded on a diagram . Servo steering came only gradually and the transmission of the truck were generally not synchronized , so that between domes and intermediate acceleration of everyday life belonged truck drivers. The noise in the trucks was considerable, and with their 100–150 hp engines you could only drive between 60 and 69 km / h. The truck rearview mirrors were still very small and vibrated while driving. The windshields, which were still split, could be opened to the front in some types of trucks in order to let in fresh air.
Henschel had presented its “tram cab ”, the HS 170 T, as a forward control truck (8.7 t and 170 hp) at the IAA , but it was only built two years later in series. By spacious for those days Henschel - cab of the truck was from the Paris Salon get an award. The word “tram” stands for the construction of buses as a forward control and the similarity with a tram- railcar. The first large stump schnauzers were built in large numbers by Büssing as the "7500 U" and Daimler-Benz as the "LP 315", among others. a. because of the short delivery time. The large cabs of the Büssing 12,000 U and the 8000 U with the underfloor engines were, in contrast to other built forward control trucks, very spacious and quiet, but expensive.
One looked in vain for cab cabins that were comfortable and large enough as standard , although some truck manufacturers had special cabs built by bodybuilders, such as B. from Wackenhut , Schenk, Aurepa and Kässbohrer . Long-haul drivers who already had a real bunk built into the driver's cab and who allowed themselves “a long house” where the others only had a “swallow's nest” were envied. This bunk was still built a little way into the hold, where the truck driver then had to torture himself if he wanted to sleep. This sleeping place was not in great demand, not isolated and the second driver then had to sleep uncomfortably on the bench.
On March 16, the so-called Seebohm's Laws were passed , according to which from 1958 a truck trailer could only be 2.5 m wide, 4 m high and 14 m long. The total weight was limited to 24 tons, with 6 horsepower per ton. These laws were intended to protect the competitiveness of freight trains, but the German special route tended to endanger the competitiveness of the truck industry. The long schnauzer models and the manufacturers of heavy trucks such as Kaelble were particularly affected . For the old trucks there was a transitional period until 1960. Büssing and Daimler-Benz already had a front-link cab for long-distance transport as a custom-made or special cab. The type "LU 11" as a "luxury underfloor" truck from Büssing, with 8.6 tonnes and 170 hp, was now as a stump schnauzer the vehicle for the new real "captain of the country road". Also Krupp in Essen had with the 150-horsepower Type "Mustang F" a real long-distance cab on offer. Magirus-Deutz had built the “Jupiter S 7500” with 175 hp as a prototype in order to first test a tilting cab. This driver's cab with the controls and seats was firmly bolted to the frame in the lower third and the upper part could be tilted forward onto a trestle. The manufacturer and also the truck drivers feared that the cab would tip over in the event of extreme braking. Henschel now built the 1953 "HS 170 T" as the "HS 165 T" with a tram cab for long-distance transport.
At that time around 60% of all hauliers were self-employed and only had one truck, but in many cases they could not even afford a co-driver. Now, to forego a third of the loading area and almost half of the total weight and to be able to work one day less next year, burdened the industry. It was foreseeable that numerous freight carriers would not survive economically, and many sold their trucks to the factories for which they drove and were able to continue driving there as employed truck drivers. The so-called factory forwarding agents were created, some of which are still on the transport market today (2008). One had z. With the Büssing-Langschnauzer, for example, I was used to the fact that no engine in the driver's cab was interfering, and so it was understandable that at the low speeds of the time, the driver would change drivers etc. while driving (e.g. on a long mountain). Above all, the so-called life insurance through the long bonnet was very important to the truck driver, because few wanted to steer this so-called “flat hut” as a short driver's cab without a snout and at risk of accidents. Meanwhile, some truck manufacturers have also started to build their cabs entirely from steel. The English truck manufacturer Bristol used plastic or GRP for the first time to build the cab.
Only seven truck manufacturers built long-haul trucks with a long nose. These trucks were dubbed the last "Magnificent Seven" by insiders, because: the Daimler-Benz L 6600, Büssing S 8000, Krupp Tiger, Faun 170, Henschel HS 170, MAN F 8 and Magirus-Deutz S 6500 were sold because of the " standard built-in life insurance "cherished and looked after. Everyone wanted to keep their “iron pile” that was supposed to protect them from an accident, but the boss said: “The truck is there to drive and not to crash.” The truck drivers hoped that the transition period would be extended because of the truck length change that was due from 1960 onwards and their schnauzers would have a longer truck life.
On May 25, it was decided in Europe that there should be a common internal market in twelve years. The Sunday driving ban of March 14, 1956 and the reduction of the trucks from 20 to 14 m total length or from 40 to 24 tonnes total weight as well as the prohibition to increase wages through freight turnover, mileage allowance, tour allowance etc., were now adopted for the employed truck drivers Problem. Good advice was expensive in order to satisfy the truck driver to some extent, because continuing to work for a significantly lower wage and then having to drive such a life-threatening misery as a flat nose could only be successful with a satisfactory solution for the truck drivers. There was little space in the driver's cab as a stump schnauzer, although there was too much noise to be able to talk properly at all, and a heat and odor development in the cab, which brought additional problems. This means that because of the high engine cover and insufficient insulation, the truck driver in the driver's cab was no longer able to relax sufficiently . Many long-distance drivers stopped, and therefore a federal collective agreement for commercial long-distance freight transport was copied from the 1936 Reich collective agreement and agreed.
The last Schnauzen-Krupp “Mustang” had its time in long-distance transport and was one of the best on the highways. Daimler-Benz z. B. had the filler neck for the cooling water directly in front of the split windshield in the driver's cab and because of the warmth of the engine in the driver's cab there were ventilation flaps on the right and left of the engine cover to let in cool or fresh air. With its “Merkur”, Magirus-Deutz was one of the first to have a large, full-length panorama windshield as standard , which other truck manufacturers had previously only consisted of a split windshield, and built in a so-called “Silencecab” as additional sound insulation against engine noise . Krupp also began with an elaborate noise insulation and a one-piece windshield for its new all-steel driver's cabs and the “Büffel F” truck with 160 hp, should be sufficient for the new length regulation. At that time, Daimler-Benz was already delivering the "LP 326" with a 192 hp engine as a front control, which, however, had insufficient entry due to the slightly sloping cab.
With the exception of von Büssing, who was already using air suspension in buses and trucks at the time , there were no usable front control vehicles in 1957 that had what a long-distance driver's cab should be as standard. The driver's cab offers of the truck manufacturers could only be added with Schwalbennest or from special body companies such as B. Wackenhut etc. are expanded.
Innovation time for the forward control truck from 1960 to 1966
The transition period for long trucks expired on June 30, 1960. Due to European agreements, Minister of Transport Seebohm had to increase the length of the truck to 16.5 m and the total weight to 32 tons. Due to this connection, the semitrailer tractor types were built increasingly from 1958 , but these were only 15 m long. As a result of the reduced weight and the change in length, freight turnover fell by a third and many drivers were paid less. A number of entrepreneurs managed to compensate for this by doubling the expenses and saving the second driver. Also, some hauliers were only able to keep the truck drivers because they had bought the drivers a spacious special or luxury cab.
As early as 1958, Daimler-Benz built the Mercedes-Benz type “LP 333”, which long-distance drivers called it “three hundred and thirty-three” or “ millipede ” because of the two steered front axles . It could be improved with good special equipment from Wackenhut in Nagold . The special luxury equipment "Hamburg" from Wackenhut z. B. could be ordered separately, with the equipment then including a wardrobe and the frames of the beds, etc. consisted of high-gloss lacquered wood. The engine cover was made of quilted leather, under which there was insulation. The driver's seats were also covered with high-quality leather and the colors were adapted to the driver's cab. The front axle, which was very far forward, made it necessary for the driver to bend properly when entering the slightly inclined driver's cab, and it was therefore a very poor entry. It was curious that the letter L for trucks and the P for Pullman had been used next to the designation “LP”, because Pullman built the very large, spacious and well-equipped railway wagons. However, some truck manufacturers did exactly the opposite and built a standard cab as a so-called "flat nose", also with a half-deep cab for long-distance transport, where two fold-up loungers were attached behind the driver's seats, e.g. B. Magirus-Deutz with the "Saturn" and Krupp with the "SF 901". In the front control vehicles, there was a large, high engine cover between the two driver's seats as a major obstacle (except for Büssing underfloor trucks) and good insulation could not prevent the odor, noise, and heat of the engine. As early as 1958, Henschel built z. B. a double-walled, insulated hood cover in the front control cab. In the case of trucks, the battery was often also installed in the driver's cab under the lounger or behind the driver's seat, and it became very difficult when a truck had to be bridged to start it.
In 1960, MAN presented the so-called “chubby cheek” as a “10.210 TL” snout, which had a high engine cover in the driver's cab and could only be tilted from 1965 in order to access the engine. The high engine covers were currently almost the same size for all other truck manufacturers. Maintenance and repair of the engine also mostly had to take place in the driver's cab and meant extreme difficulties, i.e. H. the most impossible contortions were required from the drivers. In this regard, z. B. Mack in the (USA) to build a vertically upwardly movable cabin that completely released the engine. The truck manufacturer Alfa Romeo in Italy made repairs easier for all of its front control vehicles by making the front frame easily removable; then the machine could be pulled out to the front. At the truck manufacturer Büssing, the underfloor engine with 192 HP was swiveled out to the side and the driver's cab, which had been freed from the engine, was now called "Commodore", as for the captain on his "command bridge". This truck had a spacious cab due to the lack of an engine box and truck testers were enthusiastic about the atmosphere in the cab because it was a relief to drive such a heavy truck. The truck's driving stability therefore had a positive effect, because the low center of gravity of the underfloor engine and the middle frame position of the engine resulted in the very good load distribution monogram as if by itself.
The technical development of the trucks was currently very rapid. Scania built a forward control truck with a compressed air operated dual circuit brake and servo-assisted parking brake. The passenger seat retained its coach-box character and it was still a seat frame without any suspension option, which could be adjusted in height on some seats. The trucks were equipped with thick or strong leaf springs so that a driver had to suffer the strong vibrations, so that back pain and faster fatigue were the result. At that time, the cab itself could not be properly cushioned either, which meant direct contact with the road through the thick leaf springs. The truck designers have not yet been able to reduce the longitudinal vibrations or the bumping caused by the trailer and the articulated lorries.
At the IAA , many new long-haul truck models were presented for the purpose of changing the length of truck manufacturers. The truck manufacturer Kaelble presented its "K 652 LF" with 192 hp and a long cabin, but the long delivery times put off customers and until 1964 only 42 trucks were built. Magirus-Deutz had provided its type "Saturn 200 F" with 200 HP and a steering wheel gearshift, as well as with a relatively small or short rest cabin, i. In other words, the loungers were very narrow or had to be folded up. Henschel from Kassel presented its new blunt-nose type "HS 16" with a large, cubic driver's cab at the IAA, showing that the interior dimensions of a long-haul cab can be used very well. This driver's cab, designed by the designer Louis Lucien Lepoix , was manufactured by Karmann in Osnabrück , was in a modern, modern form, clearly and objectively designed and provided with a large panoramic window . This "HS-16" truck already had hanging pedals and a hydraulically operated clutch, but the noise in the cab could not be completely eliminated despite the insulation of the engine cover. How else can you explain the fact that the Henschel brochure says: “Close contact between the driver and the engine, without additional instruments”, and the hood had to be tilted far back into the cab for maintenance and repair of the engine. From May onwards, Büssing installed a new, smooth-running “spindle hydro” steering in his “Commodore U”, which, however, got very warm at the bottom of the steering column when a lot of maneuvering had to be carried out. Of the 42,500 transport companies, only 6,980 transport companies were in long-distance freight transport with their large long-distance trucks on the West German roads.
DAF , a commercial vehicle and truck manufacturer in the Netherlands, entered the European market with a simple cab for long-distance freight transport that also had a split windshield. In the Federal Republic of Germany, the transport companies gradually became aware of the types of trucks from other countries in Europe. Since the FRG became the crossing point in European transit traffic, more and more foreign trucks were sighted. The first Euro pallets came onto the market; The time-consuming repackaging of the goods from the truck or the up and down from the loading area became superfluous, i.e. In other words, the many tons no longer had to be moved on the bones of the truck driver. Volvo built a small forward control truck "Raske", which was one of the first in Europe to be equipped with a tilting cab.
From July 1, 1963, instead of the "winker", only turn signals were allowed as direction indicators. Magirus-Deutz built the “Transeuropa” front handlebar driver's cab with the well-known bent edge in the roof, which could now be tilted. This type of truck was also called "vacuum cleaner" because the Deutz diesel engines howled a lot at high revs and low speeds. Because there was no water cooling, additional heating was installed, which mostly did not work properly. Daimler-Benz built a new cubic long-distance driver's cab "LP 1620", which could not be tilted and was only built with half a resting cabin, whereby the resting loungers had to be folded up. Allegedly because of the Euro pallet size, no normal long-haul cab was offered for over two years. However, the entry was very good and inside it made a very tidy impression, u. a. through the low engine tunnel and the narrow dashboard. The type LP 1620 was presented at the IAA, had many flaps for maintenance (oil, water, etc.) and the drivers therefore called the car "Advent calendar" or "rat trap".
Büssing tested a “Supercargo 22–150” (LU 5/10) deck truck, which was developed in collaboration with the Rationorm company in Zurich. The three-axle vehicle with two steered front axles could be used as a loading area over the entire length of the truck, had a very low underfloor driver's cab and power steering, air suspension and a hydraulic converter transmission. The payload was 14.7 tons with a dead weight of 7.3 tons. The large, high Büssing & Sohn wooden frame driver's cab was now built as the "Commodore U 11 D" with a continuous, slightly curved panoramic windshield and side vent windows. There was a bench or a passenger chair with armrests and headrests, and the loungers were widened to 68 cm. The entire interior was processed and clad with high-quality wood, so that this cab has been a model for all truck manufacturers to this day. In West Germany there were 25,932 permits for long-distance commercial goods transport, which were connected with the chassis and the truck registration.
The commercial vehicle manufacturer Ackermann in Wuppertal presented the swap bodies for trucks and trailers to the public. These so-called swap bodies saved the freight forwarder from reloading the load, and the truck driver could continue to drive "his truck", because nothing worse could happen to him than that he had to hand over "his" truck, which he always drove alone . a. has been furnished with a lot of personal items. Due to the vehicle registration permit that was firmly attached to the truck, some hauliers screwed the license plates over because the chassis number was not always checked.
The truck lengths were adjusted from May 1, 1965 due to the European internal market and increased to 18 m length and 38 tons total weight. Büssing presented the angular sheet metal cab with 210 hp designed by French designer Louis Lucien Lepoix . The driver's cab offered sufficient space thanks to the underfloor engine and the narrow sheet metal dashboard with plastic edges, but without the raised roof attachment could not ensure the well-being of the truck drivers until 1967 . The old "Commodore U" with 210 hp and its large Büssing & Sohn cab was therefore officially delivered until 1967. Büssing also built semitrailer trucks as forward control, which had access to the engine through the removable front center section. The new driver's cab, however, was designed as a semi-trailer truck with a very short nose to accommodate everything. For maintenance, the front middle section and the side sections were simply folded away to the front axle.
At the IAA, Henschel presented its “HS 16” cubic driver's cab, built in 1961, which can now be tilted hydraulically and the roof extension has been increased by approx. 10 cm. The driver's cab was moved forward about 20 cm so that entry was easier, and a 6 cm lower engine tunnel was now possible because of the new (lower) underseat engine. Oil, water, etc. could be checked without having to tilt the cab, the round headlights in the grill moved into the bumper as oval headlights. The modular system could be used here and many of the same components were used for all types of trucks, including those with an engine front end / "snout".
In many trucks, new hydro driver seats were offered as special equipment, which should make driving comfort easier by adapting the hardness of the suspension to the driver. Krupp also brought out a tilting cab for its forward control types. Volvo is now building the smallest tiltable “dog house” (F 88) in Europe, setting two standards by providing an extremely narrow driver's workstation with a wide bed and where the stability gave way as a crumple zone in the rear of the cab in the event of a collision . The so-called Sweden tests are an unbeatable safety test for the stability of the driver's cab and its safety to this day.
Competition and new developments to this day
Effects of the EEC from 1966 to 1973
The first major truck comparison test with the 210 hp customary at the time caused a stir. The truck brands Büssing , Henschel , Krupp , Magirus-Deutz , MAN and Daimler-Benz competed against each other. It was u. a. Great emphasis was also placed on the ergonomics of the driver's cab in the truck, and of the six trucks that entered, the Büssing truck won the cab test in the mountain measurements and in the average speed. In terms of fuel consumption, Magirus-Deutz and Krupp were the best. For the first time in Germany, a truck, the Büssing “Commodore 210 S” tractor unit, had an exhaust pipe pulled up behind the cab.
The first driver's cab or "driver's cab directive" was introduced by Germany, for the first time in Europe. Safe, stable and comfortable cabs have not been considered in this guideline. More emphasis was placed on objects slipping and falling out, as well as on the driver's field of vision, and therefore the standard driver's seats (by today's standards) were still very primitive, so that individual adjustment to the driver's weight was not yet possible. There were mainly three oscillation systems, depending on the truck manufacturer: the single oscillator, the parallelogram oscillator and the scissor system. Now containers from overseas and increasingly swap bodies have been introduced in Germany and no driver was really aware of the effects and consequences of these two swap systems.
MAN had taken over the tilting "F 8" cab from the French company Saviem . The truck manufacturer Saviem, which belongs to the Renault Group, cooperated with MAN from 1967 to 1977 a. a. in the development of a truck cab. After that, MAN was able to use the jointly developed driver's cab alone, which was continued to be built until 1986. It was an enormous improvement in the cab space for the truck driver compared to the so-called chubby cheek, only because of the shorter loungers was the narrower cab width criticized. The narrow dashboard was made of sheet metal, top and bottom with a rubber edge and the first few years an unsynchronized steering wheel gear was installed. Henschel in Kassel now became Hanomag-Henschel and the Henschel star was omitted. At the IAA, the truck could now be seen with smooth surfaces at the front and the very small protrusion was gone, so that the windshield was a little bigger. A spring-loaded handbrake, a steering wheel that can be adjusted in height and tilt, a folding safety dashboard and even air conditioning were part of the new equipment. The floor pan of the driver's cab was made of a soundproof, closed sheet metal so that the engine noise was largely quieter. Büssing built a fully air-suspended tractor unit.
The Austrian truck manufacturer Steyr built a cubic, tilting driver's cab for the European market that was similar to the Henschel in terms of space. The cab was slightly restricted by the front sloping slightly upwards from below the windshield. The Swedish commercial vehicle manufacturer Scania built its new cubic, angular tilting "110" cab and was relatively narrow and low, had a very hard suspension, so that it was also called the "torture chamber" among drivers. Krupp in Essen stopped producing trucks and handed over the supply of repairs and spare parts to Daimler-Benz . The sheet metal driver's cab from Büssing was now built with a roof raised by 17 cm, whereby the driver could stand almost upright, and a good, optionally built-in air suspension with central lubrication . Thanks to the good insulation to the underfloor engine and the good chassis, the Büssing truck actually achieved coach quality, although the tachometer had to be taken into account because of the low volume of the engine. The truck superstructure and body manufacturer Büssing & Sohn continued to produce the "BS 16 U" with the (optically old) rounded, large, high driver's cab including luxury equipment.
Büssing produced the most powerful truck in Europe, with 310 hp. The "BS 16 U" was visually revised by adding a Büssing lettering instead of the Büssing brooch, and a large Braunschweig castle lion was attached below or above the bumper . Scania has now built its "110" truck with a 140-cc engine with 350 hp. Because of its enormous strength for the time, this truck was awarded the title " King of the Road ". For the first time, Mercedes-Benz built a tilting driver's cab, as a so-called intermediate generation , i.e. H. the truck was equipped as a slightly better "LP" with 265–320 hp or V-10 engine. This cab was criticized by drivers because the contact with the road when cornering or when braking was not optimal. Büssing launched its "BS" truck types with 240 HP underfloor and upright engines. Mack in the (USA) was the first to build an air-suspended truck cab. The driving and rest times have been reduced from 10 to 8 hours per driving time period.
The Holiday Travel Ordinance came into force in Germany and fresh, perishable goods were no longer allowed to be transported on the motorways during the holiday season . It became apparent that some truck manufacturers were buying up each other. For example, MAN took over the truck manufacturer Büssing and Daimler-Benz took over Hanomag-Henschel . DAF improved its cab from 1962, it became more spacious and could now be tilted.
Büssing, meanwhile entirely at MAN, gave its underfloor engine an output of 320 hp including turbocharger because of the 8 hp per ton regulation, whereby this truck also got a luxury cabin, which was continued to be built until 1973, e.g. B. a slightly wider cab and a high-quality, cream-colored leatherette paneling.
From that time on, most of the new trucks also had a car radio , and radio stations were now also broadcasting traffic reports, which was an advantage for truck drivers. Scania built a new hooded truck, whereby the floor-level cab was still too low in the interior height, and this hooded truck could only be used for tank semitrailers or somewhat shorter trailers.
On January 1, the vehicle-related permits were revoked and converted into an owner permit for commercial freight transport. From now on, the trucks could be used in local and long-distance transport at the same time, and vehicle utilization increased significantly. But now the long-distance truck was also used for local transport and some freight forwarders increasingly introduced the swap body system. The veteran long- haul truck driver was now able to keep "his" truck with a specially designed cab because of the transport permit , because that was extremely important for most of them. The first compact brake according to the EC directive was prescribed as a dual-circuit brake . Volvo brought its hood truck "N 10" onto the market, but it only had half a long-distance cab.
Energy crisis and its effects 1974–1986
Because of the 1974 oil crisis and the associated Sunday driving ban , motorways were less frequented. On these Sundays, only perishable food, as well as a. Meat and milk are transported. People walked on the freeways on Sundays and waved friendly to the truck drivers in their cabs. The Swiss truck manufacturer Saurer built its new large, rounded cab in 1974. While the new cars were only available with seat belts, the belts in the trucks were missing and the truck drivers did not have to use their seat belts yet.
Ford built the Transcontinental truck, called “Transconti” by long-distance drivers, with a very tall truck cab from Berliet , which in 1975 was still an impressive sight. On May 22nd, CB radio was also permitted for trucks in Germany and now the drivers could talk about traffic jams, BAG controls, the police as interceptors, wages, etc. while driving ; because the search for companies could also be carried out via the CB home stations. The truck manufacturers FIAT , Lancia , Magirus-Deutz , OM and Unic joined forces as IVECO to build standardized trucks and cabs. Scania again brought a "King of the Road" with 375 HP onto the market and many young truck drivers got shiny eyes, because they would rather have a lot of HP and a torture chamber than a lame Büssing with his comfortable living room.
The designer Luigi Colani had presented a futuristic truck of the future as "Project 2001" at the IAA. This tractor unit was reminiscent of a huge one-eyed insect, but it was roadworthy. The concept, technology and design came from Colani and Helmut Schneikart from the commercial vehicle magazine VerkehrsRundschau . New developments have been implemented, such as a driver's cab that can be pushed back in the event of an accident and a very clearly arranged, compact instrument panel . Loungers (beds) and storage compartments were deliberately avoided in the cabin, because the long-haul driver should only sleep in the motel or at home , which would be made possible by a new relay or encounter traffic. IVECO built the first so-called Euro cab as an economy version. Volvo introduced the "F 10" box cab, which only had a flat roof. In the case of this driver's cab, the cost-saving measures in development could also be seen as a result of the energy crisis, because it was designed to be simple, economical and practical, but was an improvement on the "F 89" type. MAN presented its pilot project "X-90" cab at the IAA in 1977 and was shown with a sleeping compartment on top because of the length of the loading area and the size of the Euro pallet . This truck study, which has been tried and tested in practice, has shown the way forward in the design of driver's cabs. Daimler-Benz launched its "new generation" with half a sleeping cabin, as a so-called European driver's cab, in order to obtain more loading space for the Euro pallets .
For the first time, truck manufacturers offered air-cushioned driver's seats (at an extra charge ), and air cushions for the back or to support the spine could also be ordered as accessories . With the high-quality seats, the weight of the driver could be adjusted automatically by using the horizontal suspension. The commercial vehicle manufacturer Ackermann-Fruehauf in Wuppertal was the first to build a volume truck with a top-sleeper (roof-top sleeping cabin). This was also very criticized by drivers as a "bird box" or "nest box". A plastic cab was placed on top of a Mercedes-Benz local transport driver's cab and was without thermal insulation , had no emergency exit , no auxiliary heating or no proper ventilation. To sleep, the driver had to climb through the small skylight and use the mattress to close the opening under him. This roof sleeping cabin was very narrow in the upper roof area due to the sloping windshield of the Mercedes-Benz driver's cab. The rear section of the cab became shorter and shorter because the pursuit of the last centimeter of cargo space was continued, which was at the expense of driver comfort. With the so-called "Philips Bak trains" with their 2 × 8.2 m swap bodies that could load 40 Euro pallets , the truck driver was deprived of his last freedom of movement, because the backrests could no longer be adjusted. To sleep, the driver had to go through a small hole in the top sleeper and was then locked under with the mattress. There was no emergency exit.
From December 29, 1978 to February 17, 1979, there was a snow catastrophe in northern Germany . At that time it became clear who had a good parking heater and CB radio in the truck, because there was usually no phone in the truck. Long-haul drivers had invited many car drivers in need into their trucks. At that time, the CB radio enabled the truck driver to maintain contact with the outside world and with disaster control.
MAN now also built the “F 8” as an underfloor with the name “MAN Büssing”. Volvo has now brought out its “F 10” as the stronger “F 12” with the “Globetrotter” high roof, which has become very popular in terms of space for international long-distance transport. With this high roof, Volvo had set a standard by installing large storage compartments for long-distance transport. DAF followed with its high-roof version only as a half-cabin and was the first truck manufacturer to bring a top-sleeper (roof sleeping cabin) for heavy trucks to the market as standard, in order to be able to load three (3) more Euro pallets. Daimler-Benz built a “ large European driver's cab” for the German market, which was only better insulated and somewhat processed by using the full outside width and getting 1.62 m inside height. The English truck manufacturer Leyland built a large driver's cab, which in part resembled the MAN pilot project "X 90".
The first international " trucker festivals " also began in Germany. Many brightly painted and visually pimped up trucks and driver's cabs were presented to a wide audience at large truck stops. The windshields of the trucks full of flags, name plates, etc., chrome-plated wider bumpers and the raised exhaust systems were the least that the so-called truckers had changed in their truck cabs.
Scania brought its “2” onto the market as the “142” and again became “ King of the Road ” with its 420 hp. This truck was also offered as a hooded truck with the same box-type cab for long-distance transport, with this hooded Scania currently being considered one of the most beautiful Schnauzers, but due to the truck-semitrailer combination length of 16.5 m it could only be used rarely. The Austrian truck manufacturer Steyr has now also built its truck with a high roof. Volvo produced its traditional flat "F 12", now with a roof raised by about 12 cm. IVECO built the “Turbo-Star” for European long-distance transport, with a slightly wider and 1.7 m headroom. The truck had a wide range of standard equipment, such as B. air conditioning and, as the first truck, a cockpit-like dashboard built around the driver, which, however, reduced the space available. Renault now also built the "R 370" (Berliet cab) in the high-roof version, as one of the largest cabs on the European market. Steinwinter , a special truck manufacturer, built a car-like "roof load semitrailer truck" with an 18 meter long overhead trailer, whereby there was also a swap body variant. This unique two-axle semi-trailer or tractor was made like a wide racing car.
An amendment or new edition of the driver's cab directive introduced in 1966 only contained an additional recommendation for a separate fresh air supply. A specially introduced berth regulation had to be passed, because there were no safety regulations for these top sleepers or roof sleeping cabins, which were produced in a boom. If the truck was occupied by two drivers, the second driver had to sleep upstairs in the roof sleeping cabin while driving. The question was asked what would happen to the second driver in a rear-end collision at the top of the sleeping compartment, and sleeping while driving was forbidden. In order to gain space for the volume transport, the length of the cab was shortened even further, so that critics could speak of a “standing cab”, and the door lock was custom-made. The CB radio in the truck was expanded from 12 to 40 channels and the FM-CB radio was introduced. The truck drivers' wish list included a spacious driver's cab, air conditioning and a refrigerator in the truck. Only Scania, Volvo and IVECO had air conditioning as standard, which other truck manufacturers only had as an expensive accessory or not at all.
Mercedes-Benz now had Ackermann Top Sleepers as standard, truck drivers called these sleeping cabins and the like. a. "Plastic coffin". With its “Space Cab” high-roof version, DAF built a spacious driver's cab. Volvo built a "Eurotrotter" truck with a half-deep high-roof cab and fold-up recliners. Because of the utilization of the loading area, long-haul drivers often did not want to use this "narrow crutch" in international traffic. A year earlier, on the other hand, MAN had launched its “F 8” front-wheel drive with a 360 hp underfloor engine, which had a continuous interior with plenty of space and almost full headroom, whereby the bus qualities were expressed during the journey.
The truck drivers had new driving and rest times, as instead of 8 they were now allowed to drive up to 10 hours a day. MAN presented the Eaton automatic transmission with the name “Velvet”, and ZF showed its automated truck gearshift.
Harmonization of development through the EEC
The total weight of the trucks increased from 38 to 40 tons. A new MAN “F-90” cab came onto the market and the insulated cab that many long-distance drivers had been waiting for was slightly wider, higher than the old forward control “F 8” from 1967. Most truck manufacturers now had semi-automatic ones as well as fully automatic gearboxes or ABS on offer. Renault built a future truck "VIRAGES" with a large cab and presented it to the public. In view of the standing cabs, no truck driver could currently imagine that such a large truck would even come onto the market or be bought by the transport company. This later "Magnum AE" was completely separated from the engine, so that there was no engine tunnel in the driver's cab, as in the Büssing. Lately, hauliers in commercial long-distance haulage have now been able to rent a truck or leasing was permitted with immediate effect . Ackermann , Kässbohrer and many others have been experimenting with the innovative trailer close coupling systems since 1978. It was achieved that the space between the motor vehicle and trailer could be reduced by up to 15 cm. Of course, only because the driver's cab was cut off or shortened from the door lock and further shortening was therefore no longer possible.
DAF came onto the market with the new type "95" truck. Around 2000 long-distance drivers were surveyed in order to optimize the workplace. Even so, the problem with the engine box in the cab could not be eliminated; the DAF cab was offered in four different versions, with the largest version also being offered as a “space cab” (high roof). The very precise 2 m as the outside dimension of the driver's cab in the depth was still very insufficient. Scania presented its 3 Series as "143" "Topline" . The cab got a very well done round cockpit and had 1.7 m headroom with the slightly raised roof.
The turning point was there and the wall was gone. H. the reunification of Germany began. The length of the articulated lorry was generally determined to be 16.5 m and the trailer was allowed 13.6 m. The technical monitoring association Dekra and Daimler-Benz built the first "Euro-Truck I" as a truck of the future with plug-in cards as ignition and door keys, airbags , ABS, electronic driver monitoring, cameras instead of mirrors, sliding doors and extendable and retractable steps , Telephone, fax, PC, reversing monitoring and a navigation system. All new trucks over 12 tons had to install large-angle approach mirrors or ramp mirrors on the right-hand side. MAN built its first “UXT” 360 HP underfloor tractor units, with a quantity of five trucks.
As a truck manufacturer, Renault brought its “space miracle” onto the market. A real COE (Cab Over Engine), i.e. H. with a large cab built above the engine, as type "Magnum AE" with 580 hp. This floor-level driver's cab, which is 1,700 mm above the road, sets new standards for European truck manufacturers, which have had a major influence and impact up to now. This “ palace ” as a driver's cab had a continuous headroom of 1,900 mm. With the front axle moved very far forward, getting in took a bit of getting used to, because the driver had to climb up the steep external stairs at the rear with dirty handles. In Germany, the reunification caused great astonishment among many truck drivers, because they wondered how the East German truck drivers could endure so many years in their very simple cabs. The bad truck suspensions and the very bad roads were a nightmare for truck drivers in western terms . In Germany, more and more flags and signs with the first name of the truck driver were attached to the windshield of the driver's cab. Many drivers wanted their cab to be different from other cabs, and this required features such as: B. these driver signs that flashed or were lit at night.
Innovation in electronics and technology from 1991
MAN now brought out its “F 90” with a high roof, with many large storage cupboards installed for long-distance transport.
Scania tried one type: Streamline, as a streamlined, embellished cab. The possibilities of an on-board computer have now been tested in connection with the "NÜS 2000" (commercial vehicle monitoring system) in trucks and have been gradually installed. Unimaginable possibilities of registration, records and controls could be achieved. Satellite surveillance ( GPS ) made this possible and many truckers were reminded of George Orwell with his book "1984". Volvo presented its further developed fully automatic transmission ("Geartronic"), whereby the driver could decide for himself whether he wanted to clutch, shift gears or do nothing at all. The technology developed by MAN underfloor - Tractor from 1989 now had 422 hp, as well as ABS, disc brakes , four-wheel and automatic and was complete with air suspension .
European single market and the development towards a cab competition
As the last European truck manufacturer, Daimler-Benz followed with its European high roof "Eurocab", which could be ordered as a special request. In trucks, seat belts became a law for long-distance drivers too. DAF built the first truck with a brake and retarder coupled, which was considered innovative. Mercedes-Benz and the surveillance company Dekra together built a second (practical) truck of the future called "EXT 92". This truck was equipped with all technical and electronic options and had a futuristic appearance. The truck type "UXT" with a 422 hp engine built by MAN in 1991 was also built as a tractor unit with a high roof, of which only seven were made. This truck was considered to be a “premium tractor unit” .
Volvo built a new "FH" truck with a sloping windshield and car driving properties, which was also launched on the market with its famous Globetrotter cab. The automatic, practical speedometer disc retraction was new. The first trucks painted with airbrush appear. IVECO built the "Euro-Star" with a high roof, as a large long-distance truck with an interior height of 2.37 meters or a standing height of 2,050 mm above the engine tunnel.
DAF has now built its large long-distance driver's cab as a "Super Space Cab" with an exterior depth of 2250 mm or interior depth of 2032 mm, standing height of 2.25 m or standing height of 1,950 mm on the engine tunnel and 81 cm wide lounger as well as electronic air suspension with 500 PS. The previously missing 250 mm in the driver's cab depth were now clearly visible on the outside of the rear driver's cab, because in 1987 the driver's cab was exactly 2 m deep . MAN improved its type “F 90” and was now called “F 2000”, whereby many improvements were incorporated in detail and others. a. recognizable by the headlights in the bumper, which are smoothly framed from the outside. At the same time, the Braunschweig lion could no longer roar, because: "the underground was dead". The underfloor motor , Büssing's trademark, was no longer allowed to remain on the production range for economic reasons and was discontinued by MAN.
Development of larger driver's cabs (until 2003)
Scania built its new 4 series, with the now slightly rounded corners and edges and very high "topline" design, i. H. with a standing height of 2.25 m and a 0.86 m wide relaxation lounger attached to the front or top of the forehead for the first time, which was accessible via a high ladder. The outside of the cab was 2,265 mm deep and the inside was 2,043 mm deep and for the first time the side windows were provided with double glass. Volvo increased its “FH” Globetrotter version to “XL”, raising the roof by 170 mm and lowering the engine tunnel by 130 mm, i. H. was only 170 mm. The trucks approved from 1988 onwards also had to install a speed limiter, which initiated a speed limiter at a maximum of 90 km / h, and the first truck manufacturers installed a cruise control.
Mercedes-Benz built the “Actros” in three cab types, which were offered as flat, normal and “megaspace” versions. The Megaspace variant had a floor-level cab. Now there were already two European truck types that had a continuously free cab floor, like the Büssing “underfloor” truck back then. Volvo was the first truck manufacturer to install airbags in trucks. Renault built a “premium” truck as a completely normal driver's cab that was narrower and lower than the “Magnum AE”. The trucks were now allowed to be 16.4 m long from the rear edge of the cab, i.e. In other words, the total length of the truck could be 18.75 m and the loading area 15.65 m. Thus everything was the same in the interior depth of the driver's cab, because the EU Council of Ministers did not have the courage to lay down the driver's cab on a spacious, large scale. Scania built a large hood with slightly rounded corners as a hood truck, which could also be ordered with a truck driver's cab. Despite the "Topline" driver's cab, the hood could only be used for silo transport or tanker trucks and in conjunction with it. Due to the length of the truck, this type was rarely bought. Rockinger had completed the automatic hitching and unhitching of the trailer , whereby the truck driver no longer had to leave his cab. Truck driver seats could now be set fully automatically using a personal code card .
DAF built the type “95” with the additional designation “XF” and a normal high roof as “Space Cab” and “Super Space Cab” for long-distance traffic, with the upper resting bunk now 1 m in the very high cab design was wide. Volvo now built the "FH" truck type with a snout, which was built as a very beautiful "VN Euro-Hauber" including a Globetrotter version. In the American big cab version of this type of truck was normally not be bought in Europe. The European cabs became more and more colorful as the airbrush artists decorated the cabs with an extremely large number of motifs or large pictures. The large chrome-plated cow catchers or ramming bars (for moose ) also became more popular with some truck drivers. Due to the commercial " Truck Grand Prix " at the Nürburgring , the American truck appearance and its optics are becoming more and more pronounced. B. was recognizable by the many headlights etc. on the truck. The many “ trucker festivals ” had changed the appearance of many truck cabs and truck drivers over the past 16 years.
Scania improved its 4 series, u. a. with 420 hp. Due to the optical soft curves on the driver's cab, this "Topline" version had meanwhile found favor with the long-distance drivers. The 3 series was a hard-sprung cab with lots of corners and edges, which was always "exactly" to be a Scania. The well thought-out changes in the driver's cab that were incorporated into the "R 124" were very much welcomed, including a. because for the first time there was a reversible gear stick that could no longer interfere. The passenger seat, which can be moved all the way back into the bed area, and a sliding table were also received positively. The Hauber version of the 4 series, however, was rarely bought for long-distance transport because of the overall length of the truck.
MAN built the new "TGA" truck type and was immediately available with the large "XXL" cab. The truck cab had become higher, the floor was now almost level and was now one of the most spacious truck cabs. With a standing height of 2,130 mm on the engine tunnel, which is only 100 mm high, and a full 2,070 mm inside cab depth from the windshield, MAN was now able to compete well. The so-called door module has now also become even more complete; window lifters, mirror adjusters, mirror heating and central locking etc. were housed in it.
Volvo improved its "FH" cab in many small details. That was u. a. recognizable by the fact that there were now upright, smooth glazed xenon headlights . The automatic gearshift was also improved and was now attached directly to the driver's seat as an I-Shift (joystick). Renault built its "Magnum AE" with a living room version, with the option of a converted lounger, two seats and a retractable table top.
Mercedes-Benz renewed the Actros "Megaspace" in many small details and responded to the criticism of many long-distance drivers. Scania and Volvo meanwhile offered all variants in the cab height. Scania was the first truck manufacturer to build its "eXe Longline" long cab, which could be described as a mobile home . Only the "more living space" was withdrawn from the loading area. DAF revised its “95” large cab, with the “XF” placed in front of the number 95 and it could also be ordered with disc brakes. The smaller long-distance driver's cabs were also equipped with roof and side spoilers in order to save more fuel, whereby the driver would prefer a larger cab instead of the spoiler.
IVECO built its “Stralis” with a large driver's cab that incorporated modern ergonomic knowledge. Many lightweight plastic materials were used in this cab, as well as many standard electronic extras for which other truck manufacturers demanded surcharges.
Improvements in the cab
The trucks were invisibly improved and almost all truck manufacturers began to use more electronics, such as B. ESP as electronic stability control and ASR , an electronic starting aid. A small button for the gearbox could also be ordered when buying a truck to shift gears, which included fully automatic shifting. This automatic gearshift could be ordered as a coherent unit with the retarder (third brake) and the electronics for the distance measurement, so that the truck would no longer collide with a truck in front (without intervention by the driver). Electronics have now also played such a major role in truck engines that truck drivers could hardly carry out repairs themselves. It was now "normal" that every long-haul truck had a large cab with standard air conditioning, a refrigerator, a digital radio with CD player, many storage boxes, very good seats, many electrically adjustable and heated exterior mirrors, and a retarder , Cruise control , a built-in navigation system and a car phone with a hands-free system.
The truck drivers, however, still had requests, for example a stand-alone air conditioner as standard, a special anti-theft device connected to the cell phone, a freezer compartment and microwave as standard, a special coffee machine, a digital television in the back of the cabin, etc.
Scania built its 145 Topline of the 4 series in a slightly revised version, whereby the upper wide lounger was built in normally again, so that the climbing effort to relax was again a little less. Renault built its narrow "Premium" from 1996, with a slightly higher roof, with a headroom of around 2 m inside.
The last truck manufacturers with large cabs
The last truck manufacturers for the large long-distance freight transport are back, as they were in 1956. Meaning the last seven trucks with large cabs in Europe, with Volvo , Iveco , MAN , Mercedes-Benz , DAF , Scania and Renault a truck driver - test had existed for truck cabs. No one had yet achieved the full depth for the driver's cab, so that between 10 and 20 cm was still missing. All of them had now illuminated the most important switches on / in the steering wheel and at night, when it was dark, drivers had a problem looking for another switch in a strange truck type, as the switches are often not illuminated. The lack of standardization of the switch positions in all trucks also gave rise to criticism. It was the same with the handbrake, which is placed differently on the trucks.
At the leading trade fair "IAA Commercial Vehicles" in Hanover, the Amberg-based truck seat manufacturer Grammer u. a. in the consortium with Hymer on September 21, 2006 a completely new concept for truck driver's cabs with a "MoTIS" (Modular Truck Interior System) equipment, which differs fundamentally from conventional truck cabs. As a special feature, the first-time integration of a full shower, toilet and kitchen into the "normal driver's cab" was successful. From 2007, according to Grammer, the goal was to equip up to 30 percent of all newly registered long-distance trucks with MoTIS within five years. Due to the limited number of parking spaces on motorways and service stations, around 35,000 truck parking spaces are available for the more than 1.2 million large trucks in Germany. If the trucks are equipped with a shower and toilet, the truck driver can stay on or in the truck, which also affects the safety of the truck, the freight and the like. a. because of cargo theft. The last seven truck manufacturers only made minor changes to their trucks for the IAA. The cab dimensions have remained the same, but in terms of communication technology and the on-board computer , the latest status has been achieved and the vehicles have a fully automatic gearshift on the steering wheel or directly on the seat so that the driver can intervene if necessary. This means that the gear stick has almost disappeared from the driver's cab and in view of the latest electronic technology such as ABS, ESP , ACC , etc. the driver only has to steer. The list of accessories has now become very long for all truck manufacturers, but there are also some things that are still on this list of accessories for the necessary security. The so-called trucker dream world thinking decreased and of the more than twenty "trucker festivals" in 1980 there were only four in Germany in 2006, where truckers could present their souped-up cabs.
The truck manufacturer Sisu from Finland had entered the European truck market and was previously only present in Finland. A cooperation with Renault had existed for some time . The new five-axle Sisu truck type "C 15" has been provided with a large driver's cab, which is somewhat similar to the Renault Premium .
- by Gregor Ter Heide - international truck driver since 1972
- Matthias Behrend (Ed.): From 0 to 100. Chemnitzer Verlag, 2001, ISBN 3-928678-70-1 .
- Kurt Möser: History of the car. Campus-Verlag, 2002, ISBN 3-593-36575-8 .
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- The German trucks of the sixties. Volume 1: Büssing, Faun, Hanomag, Henschel. Podszum-Verlag, Brilon 1991, ISBN 3-923448-68-6 .
- Wolfgang H. Gebhardt: The history of the German truck construction. 5 volumes of books. Weltbild-Verlag, 1994, ISBN 3-89350-811-2 .
- Felix R. Paturi : Chronicle of technology. Weltbild-Verlag, 1997, ISBN 3-86047-134-1 .
- Olaf von Fersen (ed.): A century of automotive technology - commercial vehicles. VDI-Verlag, 1987, ISBN 3-18-400656-6
- Wolfgang H. Gebhardt: Type compass Büssing. Motorbuch-Verlag, Stuttgart 2001, ISBN 3-613-02154-4 .
- Michael Hilgers: Commercial vehicle technology: driver's cab. SpringerVieweg, Wiesbaden 2016, 56 pages, ISBN 978-3-658-14643-6 , e-book: ( doi : 10.1007 / 978-3-658-15497-4 ).
- Magazine: Lastauto Omnibus . ETM publishing house
- Journal: Historischer Kraftverkehr . Publishing house Klaus Rabe
- Magazine: Last & Kraft . ETM publishing house
- Magazine: Trucker . Springer Transport Media Verlag
- Magazine: Truck Driver . ETM publishing house
- Magazine: VerkehrsRundschau . Springer Transport Media Verlag
- . Annex I, 1. Scope… 2. Definitions… 2.4. "Driver's cab"
- Commercial vehicle technology: Driver's cab, Hilgers Michael, SpringerVieweg, Wiesbaden 2016, 56 pages, ISBN 978-3-658-14643-6 , e-book: ( doi : 10.1007 / 978-3-658-15497-4 ).
- Paragraph 2, No. 2 of the Workplace Ordinance
- BGR 136 Guidelines for berths in driver's cabs and rest rooms of vehicles as well as roof sleeping cabins ( page no longer available , search in web archives ) Info: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- UVV / V D29 Accident Prevention Regulations ( page no longer available , search in web archives ) Info: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Verkehrsblatt [Official Gazette of the Federal Office for Transport of the Federal Republic of Germany], Official Part, Issue 11, 1986, p. 303, no. 128
- German trucks of the sixties. Verlag Podszun-Motorbücher, 1st edition, Brilon 1992, ISBN 3-923448-68-6 , pp. 29-43.
- cf. Justification for Council
- Official Journal of the European Communities . L 235, 17 September 1996, p. 2, para. 13. . In:
- Declaration of the new definition of the maximum permissible dimensions of road trains (91/60 / EEC)
- Commercial vehicle technology. Vieweg + Teubner, 2008, ISBN 978-3-8348-0374-0 , pp. 181-183.
- In: Lastauto Omnibus. Issue 8/2007, p. 19.
- Patent specification for additional extra reinforcement of a driver's cab
- Research facility KFV Forchheim u. a. see p. 4. ( Page no longer available , search in web archives ) Info: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- A century of automotive technology - commercial vehicles. 1987, p. 246.
- Research Association for Automobile Technology (FAG) in Munich for the elaboration, research and study
- Haulage companies complain about a shortage of drivers
- Verkehrsrundschau magazine, No. 19 from 2007, p. 35.
- Verkehrsrundschau article: "Scarcely Drivers" No. 18/2007, p. 21 and in the commentary on the Works Constitution Act § 90 "Early information with documents" and § 91 "Corrective participation in the workplace" (Wolfgang Däubler Bremen 1995)
- Trucks - history, technology, types. GeraMond-Verlag, 2007, ISBN 978-3-7654-7804-8 , p. 38.
- Lastauto Omnibus - special issue 80 years of Lastauto Omnibus. P. 105.
- Report in the specialist journal VerkehrsRundschau February 13, 2009, p. 52.
- The price difference between the narrow Mercedes-Benz Axor truck and the large Actros is a good 6,000 euros; the roof and side spoilers cost around 2,000 euros in addition. Source: VerkehrsRundschau magazine and L + O catalog 2009, p. 247.
- Truck driver's cabs equipped with "MoTIS" (Modular Truck Interior System) ( Memento of the original from July 5, 2007 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.