New teacher

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New teacher training in the Soviet occupation zone in Berlin-Lichtenberg in 1946

New teachers were teachers who had been trained in courses outside of their studies and were deployed by the Allies in the four zones of occupation in Germany from 1945 to 1949 . This was to ensure that in German schools henceforth not by their NS loaded -Vergangenheit teacher taught and the German youth thus received a democratic education (→  Reeducation ).

In order to resume school operations after the end of the Second World War , academics and, in the Soviet occupation zone, also young workers, were given the opportunity to become teachers in short programs .

For the program, all registered citizens with an academic degree were examined and, as long as there was no involvement with the NSDAP or its state organs, accepted into the teacher training program. This essentially consisted of instruction in pedagogy according to the state of knowledge at the time, so that they could start school after just a few months.

In the new teacher program in the Soviet zone of occupation , the courses typically ran for 4 to 8 months, often in specially established schools. Young workers were given special support here. In the western occupation zones, pedagogical faculties were set up at all universities, which trained young teachers in courses lasting a maximum of one year.

Examination certificate from the GDR (anonymized)

While some teachers with a National Socialist past were tolerated in the first year of school, the guidelines for remaining in school service were gradually tightened. In the western occupation zones, some teachers with dubious backgrounds were able to re-enter the school service after so-called "tanning courses" from 1947, while in the Soviet occupation zone the new teacher program was so extensive that large parts of the previous teaching staff were replaced by around 40,000 new teachers. Although the old teaching staff questioned the quality of a one-year retraining at the most, the result was sufficiently good due to the mostly academic background of the new teachers and enabled the occupations that otherwise had no job in post-war Germany to find permanent employment. The great majority of the new teachers remained permanently active in the school service.

In the Soviet occupation zone, the recruitment of new teachers also served to ensure the SED's control of school education. In 1949, 67.8 percent of all teaching positions were filled with new teachers. 47.7 percent of these new teachers belonged to the SED, 13 percent to the LDPD and 10 percent to the CDU , who were aligned with block parties . This largely achieved the SED's control over the school system.

Individual evidence

  1. Martin Broszat, Gerhard Braas, Hermann Weber (eds.): SBZ manual. State administrations, parties, social organizations and their executives in the Soviet occupation zone of Germany 1945–1949. Oldenbourg, Munich 1993 (2nd edition), ISBN 3486552627 , p. 233.