Mannheim Drawing Academy

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Former building of the drawing academy (around 1920, destroyed in World War II)

The Mannheim Drawing Academy was the art school of the Electoral Palatinate capital and residence city of Mannheim , which existed from 1758 to 1804. A large number of well-known visual artists were taught and trained there by renowned teachers.


The Mannheim drawing academy , often also called Mannheim drawing school or Mannheim art academy , was founded in 1758 by the court architect Peter Anton von Verschaffelt from the Electorate of the Palatinate . Elector Karl Theodor took up the idea of ​​the systematic training of visual artists in his capital and converted the private foundation in 1769 into a state institute. The ruler's politics had a strong cultural and educational policy intention; under his government Mannheim advanced to a center of the arts and sciences. As a counterpart to the drawing academy , Karl Theodor founded the Electoral Palatinate Academy of Sciences in 1763, also in Mannheim .

The art academy building had been built in 1756–58 according to plans by Verschaffelt in square F 6, 1 and the private school opened in December 1758. From 1764 the elector awarded scholarships to talented young artists and suggested collecting old plaster statues from his castles, as well as casts of famous figures made in Italy in order to make them available to the students as study material. From 1767 onwards, the most important sculpture collection in Europe of its time, the so-called Antikensaal, which attracted many visitors and the like arose. a. also the poets Herder , Lessing , Schiller and Goethe . Regular teaching was only started with the state takeover on November 4, 1769. The institute was very popular and ultimately formed a whole generation of artists.

In 1777 the Bavarian line of the Wittelsbach family died out; Elector Karl Theodor inherited the Electorate of Bavaria and merged it with his state to form Electoral Palatinate Bavaria . According to the contract, he had to move his residence to Munich in 1778 . He was followed by the court and government agencies; Mannheim sank down to the province. This also marked the beginning of the decline of the Mannheim drawing academy. Until the death of Peter Anton von Verschaffelt in 1793, many students came because of his reputation.

In the Electoral Palatinate of Bavaria, the Munich Academy of Fine Arts had meanwhile taken on the former rank of Mannheim. Nevertheless, in 1802/1803 the sculptor Maximilian Joseph Pozzi as secretary and the painter Carl Kuntz as director tried to revive the Mannheim Academy again, but this failed. The last head of the academy was the sculptor Peter Simon Lamine (1737–1817) in 1804 .

The Mannheim drawing academy finally closed in 1804. A cigar factory moved into the building in 1808, later it housed parts of the Mannheim city administration and was destroyed in the Second World War.

Most of the sculptures in the Antikensaal (approx. 200) came to Munich in 1807 in order to return to their original purpose in the Academy of Fine Arts there. A small part (approx. 50) remained in the Electoral Palatinate and is now in Mannheim Castle .

Well-known teachers

Well-known students


  • Joseph August Beringer : History of the Mannheim Drawing Academy , Strasbourg, 1902; Reprint 2012, ISBN 3-8460-1121-5 , (digital scan )
  • Barbara Grotkamp-Schepers: The Mannheim Drawing Academy (1756 / 69-1803) and the works of its associated painters and engravers , Verlag Haag and Herchen, 1980

Web links

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Website of the Mannheim Collection of Antiquities with naming of the poets as visitors ( memento of March 13, 2014 in the Internet Archive )
  2. ^ Bénédicte Savoy: Temple of Art: The Birth of the Public Museum in Germany 1701-1815 , 2006, ISBN 3-8053-3637-3 , pages 246 and 252; (Detail scan)
  3. Website on the history of the Munich Art Academy, with a mention of the characters ( memento from March 13, 2014 in the web archive )
  4. Website on the remainder of the Mannheim Palace ( Memento from March 13, 2014 in the Internet Archive )
  5. ^ Joseph August Beringer: Palatinate art and culture in the 18th century , Bielefeld Verlag, Freiburg im Breisgau, 1907, pp. 73 and 74
  6. ^ Painting by Carl Heinrich Brandt in Wikicommons
  7. Samuel Baur : General historical hand dictionary of all strange people who died in the last decade of the eighteenth century , Volume 5 of: New historical hand dictionary , Ulm 1803, page 495; (Digital scan)
  8. ^ Josef August Beringer:  Sintzenich, Heinrich . In: Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie (ADB). Volume 54, Duncker & Humblot, Leipzig 1908, pp. 365-367.
  9. ^ Friedrich Walter: Geschichte Mannheims , Volume 1, 1907, page 574; (Detail scan)
  10. ^ Maren Gröning: The German and Swiss drawings of the late 18th century , Volume 9 of: Descriptive catalog of hand drawings in the Albertina graphic collection , Böhlau Verlag Vienna, 1997, p. 34, ISBN 3-205-98739-X ; (Digital scan)
  11. ^ Reiss-Museum Mannheim: Louis Coblitz, 1814-1863: Paintings and drawings , page 85, 1984; (Detail scan)
  12. Medizinhistorisches Journal , Volume 19, 1984, page 394; (Detail scan)
  13. ^ New library of the beautiful sciences and the free arts , Volume 44, Leipzig 1791, page 236; (Digital scan)
  14. ^ Georg Kaspar Nagler: New general artist lexicon or news of the life and works of painters, sculptors, builders, engravers, etc. , Volume 11, page 6, Munich, 1842; (Digital scan)
  15. ^ Bärbel Kovalevski: Between Ideal and Reality , page 301, Schlossmuseum Gotha, 1999; (Detail scan)
  16. ^ Oswald Hederer: Karl von Fischer , Callwey Verlag, 1960, page 128; (Detail scan)