Kokand Khanate

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Flag of Kokand
Palace of Xudayar Khan in Qo'qon, built 1863–73

The Kokand Khanate was a Khanate in the Ferghana Valley in Central Asia with the capital Kokand ( Qo'qon ). It existed from around 1710, when it broke away from Bukhara Khanate , until 1876, when it was annexed by the Russian Empire . In the early 19th century in particular, it enjoyed prosperity and regional influence.


The history of the Kokand Khanate begins at the beginning of the 18th century, at a time when the political order of the established centers of power, Bukhara and Khiva, was shaken. The entire situation in the Bukhara Khanate (later: the Emirate of Bukhara ) was determined by uncertainty, because two large parties were in a bitter feud. The Bucharian ruler, mainly occupied with the western and southern part of his country, had little control over the events in the eastern part, so that Kokand was able to relieve himself.

Starting from a local rule in the western Fergana Valley, east of Khujand , the Ming Amirs were initially able to defeat the Naqschbandīya sheikhs of Cadak. In 1709 or 1710 the Scheibanide Shah-Rukh founded the Kokand Khanate and united the Ferghana Valley , which was torn by incursions by Kazakh tribes of the Great Horde and sect disputes - at the end of the century the Ming Amirs controlled the entire valley and ruled until 1876. The Uzbek tribe of the Ming also became Minglar or called mines.

At the same time, however, the destroyed Dzungars much of the Syr Darya region in their campaigns against the Kazakhs of the 18th century in the first quarter. When the Chinese conquered the Djungarian khanate of Amursana Khan in the 1750s , a power vacuum arose which the Ming Amirs knew how to exploit.

Erdeni Bey (also: Erdana Beg, ruled 1740-1769) succeeded in gradually separating the area from the ruler in Bukhara and separating it from the Chinese Qing empire . He sent a mission to Beijing to declare his formal submission to the Chinese emperors (around 1758). A Chinese geographer wrote at the time that the area of ​​Ferghanas had four parts (principalities): Andijon , Namangan , Margilan and Kokand . Around 1763 Erdeni sought an alliance with Ahmad Shah Durrani (r. 1747–1772), the first state ruler of Afghanistan . But Kokand's khans remained Chinese vassals for the rest of the century.


In the period from 1760 to 1790 there was an upswing in urban life in the Fergana Valley. The silk spinning became the engine of economic power, because the connections to Kashgar and China allowed a prosperous trade. The agricultural areas were expanded by irrigation structures such as the 120 km long Sahr-i Khan-Sai near Andijan or the Kahn Ariq near Tashkent, which were laid out by the settled arable farmers at the instigation of the Kokander khans . The enormous upswing made Kokand within 20 to 30 years a rulership that was one of the most powerful states in Central Asia at the beginning of the 19th century. As a result, a considerable number of public buildings in the Iranian style were built, so that Kokand last had 600 mosques and 15 madrasas .

In the 19th century, the khans Alim (ruled 1798-09), who was the first Ming ruler to assume the title of "Khan", his brother Muhammad Umar (ruled 1810-22) and his young son Muhammad Ali (also: Madali , * around 1810, ruled 1822–42) expand their domain: 1803–09 conquest from Tashkent to Sairam, 1820 founding of Aq Masjid, expansion in the north of the Tienschan , founding of the fortress Karaköl east of the lake Issykköl , expansion to Badachschan and ins Tarim basin . Some tribes of the Kazakhs (the so-called Great Horde ) up to Lake Balkhash were forced to recognize Kokander suzerainty. Khan Muhammad Ali (formally in connection with trade disputes) even took action against Qing China by supporting local uprisings in Kashgaria (e.g. a Hodja uprising in 1826 ). Kokand also granted the Kasachenadel asylum and support, which rose against the Russians: Sars Chan Kasymow (from 1825, 1831/34) recruited in Kokand equal to an army.

The success of the khanate was initially based on a mercenary troop that Alim Khan had recruited in the mountains around Karategin and who supported his authority in the country (e.g. over the tribal leaders) so that he could think of conquests. Under the rule of his pious brother Muhammad Umar, the khanate also experienced its cultural and economic heyday. The sciences and arts were promoted at court, and the educational commitment in the cities' Islamic universities increased. The population was about three quarters of a million.


But the success was short-lived. Persistent internal conflicts broke out around 1840, and Nasr Allah, the Emir of Bukhara (ruled 1826–1860), with the help of a foreign adviser, equipped a reasonably modern army with which he threatened the khanate. The insurmountable opposition between Bukhara and Kokand was based on the territorial ideas about the border area around Jizzax and Uroteppa . In 1841/42, after several years of fighting for Jizzax and Uroteppa, the Bucharian armed forces also reached Kokand, penetrated there and murdered Ali Khan in his palace. But with the razing of the palace and the sacking of the city, the Bukharans turned the Ferghans against them so much that they were soon forced to leave the city. It was primarily the nomadic armies ("Kipchaks") who drove the Bucharian forces out of the city of Kokand.

The third successor of Ali Khan, Hudayar Khan, soon found an antipole in the ruling group around the "Kazakhs" Musulman-qul. In internal conflicts, the Uzbeks preferred to oppose the Tajiks, and the peasants in general opposed the nomads, including the Kyrgyz. But the Dervish Orders were not inactive either. Hudayar Khan managed to mobilize the settled farmers against the nomads and deal them a decisive blow. The constant struggle with the Emirate of Bukhara (especially around 1852/53), however, weakened the country in such a way that the power of the Khan became vulnerable to intrigue. His brother Molla Khan disempowered him and the clique of officials belonging to it with the help of the nomad troops (1858). The new strong man became his helper, Alim-qul. Alim-qul led new conflicts with the Emirate of Bukhara, which Hudayar Khan wanted to bring back to power or to conquer Tashkent. Finally, Alim-qul was killed in the war against Russia near Tashkent in May 1865 .

Advance of Russia

The Russian expansion that would lead to the fall of the khanate began in 1853 when the fortress of Aq Masjjid , the northernmost of the Kokander holdings, was captured. In June 1865, the Russian troops under Colonel Chernyayev captured Tashkent and the following year Khujand , the latter with the loss of only five men against 2,500. After the Russian advance, the Kokand Khanate became a vassal state of the Tsarist Empire (1868, as did the Emirate of Bukhara ), and Hudayar Khan lost his power for good. The Russians were given free entry and trade with insignificant taxes, and the Khan paid war indemnity and confirmed the Russian conquests. During this time, the rise of warlord Jakub Bek began , who was then in the service of Kokander and then became independent in Kashgar.

The Kokand Khanate, however, remained a factor of uncertainty, because Hudayar Khan was expelled from the population in July 1875 because of cruelty, excessive tax demands and relations with the Russians, who appointed his son Nasruddin under the leadership of the "Kipchak" Abdurachman Avtobachi (the son of Musulman-qul) . He fled to the Russians, who deployed an army against the rebellion spreading across Russian territory (specifically Khujand) and, in view of this "holy war", soon lost interest in tolerating a local government. Therefore, the Khanate was finally annexed by the Russian Empire on February 19, 1876 under General von Kaufmann and incorporated into the General Government of Turkestan , founded in 1867 .

Follow-up: The Kokander autonomy

Structure of the Alasch Orda State (1917–1920)

In November 1917 the “4. Extraordinary Congress of Turkestan Muslims “ convened a Provisional People's Council. This set up a Provisional Government of the Autonomous Turkestan , headed by Alash member Mustafa Chokayev as the highest minister. The so-called "Kokander Autonomy" saw itself as a continuation of the khanate, which was dissolved in 1876, and encompassed de jure the area of Syr Darya Oblast . De facto , the area was a territorial unit of the Alash Orda State , which was declared in December 1917 . The "Provisional Government of the Autonomous Turkestan" saw itself as the political representative of the whole of Turkestan , but was not recognized as such. The Kokander autonomy did not enjoy much support from the traditionally Muslim population. In addition, she was in direct competition with the in Tashkent proclaimed Turkestan Council of People's Commissars . Both structures were relatively powerless, since the Council of People's Commissars only had control of a few railway junctions, and Kokander's autonomy did not extend beyond the city limits, but was limited to the old town of Kokander.

While the "Turkestan Council of People's Commissars" was supported by the Soviet power with weapons and soldiers, the Kokander autonomy lacked any infrastructure and a powerful army. In mid-February 1918, the Red Army effectively eliminated it with bloodshed, and the victors in the old town of Kokander wreaked havoc on the population.

The brutal excesses of the Red Army soldiers resulted in Chokayev joining forces with the Red Army in March 1919 and entering into an agreement with the emerging Soviet power. After losing his position in Kokand, Chokayev was now concerned with internal supremacy in the Alash Orda state. In this three territorial units emerged, which were controlled by Älichan Bökeichan , Abdulgaffar and Amangeldy Imanow on the one hand and Chokayev on the other: The west of today's Kazakhstan ( Orenburg region ) was under Böckeychanow, central Kazakhstan ( Turgaj region ) the Imanovs and the east of the country ( Semipalatinsk region ) Chokayev. With the dissolution of the Alasch Orda in 1920, Kokander's autonomy was also ended de jure. Their territory was incorporated into the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Turkestan , created in April 1918 .

Khans of Kokands

  • II. Şahruh 1710 - 1721
  • Abdurrahman 1721-1739
  • Abdulkerim 1739-1746
  • İrdana bi Erdeni 1746 - 1770
  • Suleyman 1770--1774
  • III. Şahruh 1774
  • Narbuta Bey 1774-1800
  • Alim 1800-1809
  • Muhammed Ömer 1809-1822
  • Muhammed Ali 1822 - 1841 (* around 1810)
  • Şir Ali 1842-1845
  • Murat Bey 1845
  • Muhammed Hüdayar 1845 - 1858 (1st / 2nd)
    • Regent: Musulman-qul 1845-1852
  • Muhammed Molla Bey 1858-1862
  • Şah Murat 1862
  • Muhammed Hüdayar 1862 - 1863 (3.)
  • Muhammed Sultan 1863-1866
    • Regent: Alim-qul 1863-1865
  • Muhammed Hüdayar 1866 - 1875 (4.)
  • Nasruddin 1875-1876
    • Pretender: Polat, December 1875 - January 1876


  1. ^ Jürgen Paul : Central Asia . Frankfurt am Main 2012 ( Neue Fischer Weltgeschichte , Volume 10), p. 360
  2. ^ Jürgen Paul : Central Asia . Frankfurt am Main 2012 ( Neue Fischer Weltgeschichte , Volume 10), p. 377
  3. ^ Jürgen Paul : Central Asia . Frankfurt am Main 2012 ( Neue Fischer Weltgeschichte , Volume 10), p. 377f
  4. The term was used by Meyers Konversationslexikon, Verlag des Bibliographisches Institut, Leipzig and Vienna, Fourth Edition, 1885-1892 and in this context is supposed to be a "tribe in Central Asia, especially living in the former Chanat Chokand (now the Russian province of Ferghana)" mark. There is also the note: "Kipchaks live as trade and agriculture exclusively in the northern part of Ferghana."
  5. a b Marie-Carin von Gumppenberg, Udo Steinbach (Ed.): Zentralasien , p. 43.

Web links


  • Marie-Carin von Gumppenberg , Udo Steinbach (Ed.): Central Asia. History - Politics - Economy. A lexicon. Beck'sche Reihe, Verlag CH Beck Munich 2004, ISBN 3-406-51113-9 .
  • PP Ivanov: Istoriya kokandskogo Xanata. In: Ocherki po istorii srednej azii (XVI - seredina XIX v.) Moscow 1958, pp. 186–194.
  • RN Nabiev: Iz istorii Kokandskogo Xanstva (Feodalnoe Xozyajstvo Xudoyar-Xana). Tashkent 1973.
  • LJ Newby: The empire and the khanate. A political history of Qing relations with Khoqand c. 1760-1860. Brill, Leiden [u. a.] 2005. Table of Content
  • Fischer World History Volume 16: Central Asia