Friedrich Schrader

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Friedrich Schrader (born November 19, 1865 in Wolmirstedt , † August 28, 1922 in Berlin ) was a German philologist of the oriental languages .

As a writer, art historian, social democrat, translator and journalist, he lived in Istanbul from 1891 to 1918. He also wrote under the pseudonym Ishtiraki (اشتراكى= Arabic / Ottoman "the socialist"). In 1908 he was co-founder and until 1917 deputy editor-in-chief of the German and French-language Istanbul daily newspaper Ottoman Lloyd (Lloyd Ottoman). His best known book is Constantinople Past and Present (1917). The literary collection of essays on the history of the multicultural Bosphorus metropolis was reissued in Turkish in 2015 (1st edition June 2015, 2nd edition August 2015).

Friedrich Schrader


Family background, training in Magdeburg and Halle (1865–1891)

Source: Foreword to: The Karmapradipa. Schrader's ancestors worked as whitewashers in Wolmirstedt for several generations . A great uncle, Johann Wilhelm Christian Schrader , made a career as an officer in the Prussian army, married a female descendant of the legendary artillery general Bernhard von Beauvryé (and his father-in-law Christian von Linger , the founder of the Prussian artillery) and was adopted by his father-in-law in 1837 then raised to the Prussian nobility (" Schrader von Beauvryé ").

Friedrich Schrader passed his Abitur at Magdeburg High School. After completing his studies (philology, oriental studies, art history) he received his doctorate in Indology under Richard Pischel (managing director of the German Oriental Society ) at the University of Halle . At the time, Pischel was one of the most important Prakrit researchers in the world. As part of his dissertation, Schrader translated the first part of the so-called " Karmapradipa ", a Vedic sutra , into German. Other PhD students of the same age who became known later at Pischel's time (around 1890) were Richard Schmidt (1866–1939), later professor of Indology in Münster and translator of the Kama Sutra and the Witch's Hammer , and the Austrian Karl Eugen Neumann (1865–1939) 1915), who had already converted to Buddhism before his doctorate in 1884 and at the beginning of the 20th century, with his widely read translations of Buddhist and Indian texts, helped trigger the enthusiasm for India and Buddhism of German-speaking writers and intellectuals at the time. Another prominent student of Pischel was the German diplomat, politician ( DDP ) and colonial official Wilhelm Solf (1862–1936).

From 1889 to 1891 Schrader worked as a librarian for DMG in Halle.

Teaching in Istanbul (1891–1907)

Source: Annual Directory of Members of the DMG From 1891 to 1895 Schrader worked as a lecturer in German language and literature at Robert College in Bebek near Istanbul . During this time Schrader got to know the most important contemporary Turkish poet of the time, Tevfik Fikret . Schrader reviewed Fikret in an article in Literary Echo in 1900 and later described in detail Fikret's role at Robert College. Around 1900 he was a professor at an Armenian - French lycée in Pera . Schrader began translating Turkish writers and reviewing them in German-language magazines during the tenure of Sultan Abdülhamid II . During his work at Robert College Schrader met the German music teacher Paul Lange , who worked at the American College for Girls , which is closely associated with Robert College , and remained on friendly terms with him for decades. Lange's son Hans later emigrated to the USA, where he became a well-known conductor.

First journalistic activities, criticism of the export of ethnic-nationalist ideologies to the Middle East

From around 1900 Schrader was a correspondent for various German daily newspapers and magazines and also taught at various higher schools in Istanbul.

Together with Paul Weitz and the much younger Max Rudolf Kaufmann , he reported for the liberal Frankfurter Zeitung on the political and cultural scene in the Bosporus metropolis with critical sympathy for the “New Turkey”. Within the competing networks in the German Embassy, ​​which various authors describe, Schrader and Kaufmann belonged to the so-called "Weitz Group", which criticized the German attitude towards Young Turkish minority politics and was in contrast to the group around Hans Humann and Ernst Jäckh .

In Vorwärts and in Die Neue Zeit (ed. SPD ) he published articles critical of the regime under the pseudonym " Ischtiraki ", in which he criticized Germany's policy in the Ottoman Empire, especially the focus on economic and military interests while neglecting the cultural exchange between the two Nations. In an accompanying letter to Karl Kautsky (today in the Kautsky archive at IISG Amsterdam ), Schrader referred to the repression and spying by the Turkish authorities during this time. In the letter, Schrader mentions an activity for a French-speaking Armenian lyceum in the capital.

In the article The Spiritual Life in Turkey and the Current Regime , published in 1900 under a pseudonym in Die Neue Zeit , Schrader pays particular tribute to the role played by the Turkish authors Sinasi ("Schinasi Effendi") and Namik Kemal ("Kemal Bey") in the second half of the 19th century as pioneers of the Young Ottoman and later Young Turkish reform efforts. Schrader calls for the democratic potential of the pluralistic society of the Ottoman Empire to be developed (see also the article "Robert College" from 1919, in which he acknowledges corresponding American activities in the years before the First World War), and sharply criticizes scholars like Vámbéry ( Hungarian orientalist and Zionist and advisor to Theodor Herzl ) and Friedrich Max Müller (Indologist like Schrader and inventor of the term " Aryans "), who by exporting ethnic-nationalist ideologies to the Middle East ( Zionism , Panturanism ) without any understanding of the complex social structures of real Ottoman society with simultaneous collaboration with the repressive-dictatorial Abdul Hamid regime threaten to wreak havoc.

Also in 1900 was Schrader. again under the pseudonym "I.Schiraki" (= Ishtiraki), in the culture supplement of the SPD party sheet forward "The New World" Sheikh Bedreddin and his companion and disciple Böreklice Mustafa as the first "Mohammedan communists". Long after Schrader's death, the Turkish poet Nazim Hikmet wrote his famous “Epic of the Sheikh Bedrettin” in Bursa prison from 1932–1934 after reading a “treatise on Bedreddin”, and he realized how close he was to the ideas of the Marxist Socialism had stood (1936). It is not known whether the German mighty (Hikmet had met the eldest son of Friedrich Schrader as a student at the Naval School in Halki 1917-18, who served there as naval staff interpreter for the commanding officer of the school, Lieutenant Kurt Böcking.) Bedreddin through Schrader's essay.

Teaching in Baku (1907–1908)

Russian Business School in Baku

From 1907 to 1908 Schrader was a lecturer at the Russian Business School in Baku ( Azerbaijan ) and carried out field research in the Caucasus region . Schrader studied the history of the Caucasus and dealt with the Tatar language . He wrote an article about the places of worship of the Parsees (" fire worshipers ") located near Baku at natural gas springs and their fire temples . After the outbreak of unrest in Baku in May 1908, Schrader first managed to bring his family (wife and three sons (14, 12 and 3 years old) back to Turkey, where they found a place to stay in what is now Giresun , where his English-raised Bulgarian-born second wife before the marriage in 1903 worked as a tutor for English- speaking Pontus Greek families, and followed a short time later herself.

Deputy Editor-in-Chief at Ottoman Lloyd (1908–1917)

Schrader returned to Constantinople from Giresun in 1908 to support the young Ottoman revolution, whose intellectual leadership he knew through his academic, journalistic and literary activities.

From 1908 to 1917 Schrader worked as co-founder and deputy editor-in-chief of the German and French-speaking Constantinople daily newspaper Ottoman Lloyd . A collection of his essays from that time for the feature pages of the newspaper can be found in the book "Konstantin Opel past and present", su His knowledgeable literary and cultural-historical essays were given by experts praise and were, for example, in the " Frankfurter Zeitung " or the " Cologne Gazette " reprinted.

From 1908 Schrader lived with his family in the Doğan Apartmanı , a residential complex that still exists today, which is mostly inhabited by European foreigners and is located in the Beyoğlu district.

In April 1909 Schrader witnessed the Islamist coup against the Young Turkish government of the “second constitutional period” (the so-called “ March 31st incident ”). In an article for the left-wing liberal magazine “ März ” , Schrader described the coup of sultant-loyal officers who demanded the abolition of the constitution and the “reintroduction” of Sharia law, and its subsequent crackdown by Macedonian officers under the leadership of the moderate Mahmud Şevket Pasha , who was murdered in 1913 .

Commitment to the German-Turkish cultural exchange

From 1907 Schrader translated Ottoman literature into German, a. a. Novels by Ahmed Hikmet and Halide Edip , and reported on current Turkish literature in magazines such as “ Das literäre Echo ” and the feature sections of well-known daily newspapers such as the Frankfurter Zeitung.

In addition to popularizing new Turkish culture in Germany, Schrader was also committed to spreading German culture in the Ottoman Empire. In November 1909, together with a Turkish-Armenian theater ensemble , the Zarifian-Sevunian troupe, he organized a commemoration for the 150th birthday of Friedrich Schiller in what was then the Tepebaşı Theater, with a lecture he held in Ottoman and staged representations from Schiller's dramas. Also in 1909, Schrader received a visit from Martin Hartmann , a Berlin orientalist, who in his 1910 report on his stay in Turkey (“Unpolitical Letters from Turkey”) Schrader had an excellent reputation in the literary and intellectual scene and in the international press corps of the Ottoman capital Honored relationships with non-Muslim intellectuals such as the Armenian university professor and journalist Diran Kelekian .

In the spring of 1914 the young writer Otto Flake was in Constantinople. Flake described the hikes together with Schrader around the Golden Horn in an essay in the Neue Rundschau , which was later reprinted in his collection of essays "The Logbook".

Five decades before the first Goethe Institute was founded in Istanbul, Schrader was concerned with the Euro-Mediterranean tolerant spirit of the Weimar Classics of Goethe and Schiller . Goethe in particular referred not only to Greco-Roman antiquity , but also to the Islamic tradition ( West-Eastern Divan ). By promoting this heritage, Schrader tried to lay the foundation for a cultural dialogue between Germany and the Orient, in contrast to the one he experienced and described emphatically in earlier articles in the “Neue Zeit” and “Vorwärts”, the official German- Prussian militarism and economic imperialism dominating Turkish relations , as well as the arrogant to racist demeanor of German "experts" from politics, science, business and the military in the Orient . Schrader tried in vain to influence the Young Turkish movement , which he supported from the beginning, in this way.

Contacts with Zionists

In November 1913 Richard Lichtheim , from 1913 to 1917 the representative of the World Zionist Organization in Constantinople, visited Schrader in his private apartment in the Dogan Apartmani. Lichtheim reported on the visit in a letter to the Zionist Action Committee in Berlin. Lichtheim mentions Schrader's positive attitude towards Judaism and Zionism, also as editor of "Ottoman Lloyd". He mentions Schrader's "very democratic" views and the fact that he was married to a baptized Sephardine (see quote below). Schrader's wife Fanny Goldstein Schrader (whom he calls "Juana" in his book "Refugee Travel") was a survivor of the anti-Jewish pogroms during the Russo-Turkish War in 1878 and grew up as an orphan girl in the orphanage of the Anglican Jewish Mission (" London Jews Society ") in today's Istanbul-Ortakoy. The orphanage was run by convert James Baruch Crighton-Ginsburg . It is likely that Schrader also had contacts with other Zionists such as Lichtheim's predecessor Victor Jacobson , or employees of the "Jeune Turc" Sami Hochberg , Vladimir Jabotinsky , or the German-Russian social democrat Parvus , but this has not yet been proven.

Schrader's criticism of Turkish minority policies, aid for Armenian refugees, conflicts in the Ottoman Lloyd, Schrader's dismissal

The persecution of non-Muslim minorities, especially of the Armenians and Greeks, which took place especially from 1915 onwards, by the young Turkish rulers who were mainly recruited from Prussian officers, document the failure of Schrader's efforts to unite the young Turkish revolution in the spirit of the spiritual traditions of Europe and the Orient to give a humanistic impulse. In contrast to other German authors such as Ernst Jäckh and Friedrich Naumann, Schrader was, in contrast to other German authors such as Ernst Jäckh and Friedrich Naumann, a sharp critic of the Young Turkish minority policy, especially in his publications that appeared immediately after the end of the First World War , despite his fundamental sympathy for the Young Turkish cause and his numerous personal connections to the Young Turkish leadership elite .

In connection with this critical stance by Schrader and some colleagues, internal disputes arose in the editorial office of Ottoman Lloyd. In 1916, Max Rudolf Kaufmann , a close colleague of Schrader, was first deported to Ankara and then deported to Germany because of his critical stance on Turkish militarism and minority politics, where Eugen Wednesday took care of him and the young Swiss in the Berlin news office for occupied the Orient . In the course of 1917, as a result of legal disputes with the then editor-in-chief Max Übelhör (Schrader had supported an insult by an employee of the Ottoman Lloyd before the consular court against Übelhör), Schrader prematurely terminated his contract with the Ottoman Lloyd, although he was also recalled and sent back to Berlin. Due to his enormous knowledge and excellent networking in Istanbul society, Schrader continued to work as a freelancer until the end of the war.

Armenian employees of Ottoman Lloyd were also threatened with deportation in the summer of 1915 as the persecution of the Armenians began ; In individual cases, Schrader, as her superior, tried to get her to leave the country.

From 1917 to 1918 Schrader articles appeared in the Istanbul newspaper Am Bosporus . Deutsche Soldatenzeitung which, in addition to numerous articles by members of the German armed forces active in the Orient, also published articles by other prominent journalists and writers such as Kurt Tucholsky (under the pseudonym " Theobald Tiger "), Otto Flake and Egmont Zechlin (then a uniformed war correspondent).

Expert for the protection of historical monuments in Istanbul (1917–1918)

In 1917/18 Schrader withdrew, not least because of the above. internal disputes in the editorship of Ottoman Lloyd, resigned from journalistic work and devoted himself entirely to his interests in the preservation of monuments. He became a member of the Municipal Commission of Constantinople for the recording and cataloging of Islamic and Byzantine architectural monuments (collaboration with the Armenian - Turkish photographer Hagop Iskender, among others ).

The commission was founded in 1917 on the initiative of the then Director General of the Archaeological Museum , Halil Bey . Schrader headed this commission from the spring of 1918, whose task it was to compile a classified list of all the monuments of the then Turkish capital. Together with a team of Turkish experts, Schrader systematically recorded buildings in the city that were damaged and threatened by the effects of war. On the basis of archaeological investigations, research and surveys of the residents, information about the monuments was systematically recorded and photographed by Iskender. Valuable components were salvaged and secured in the city's archaeological museum. Since Schrader had to leave the city in November 1918 as a result of the Allied occupation, the work could not be completed (see also the note about Çelik Gülersoy below). Some of the documents apparently came to the archive of the German Archaeological Institute in Istanbul in the 1920s . The Byzantinist Otto Feld refers in an article to two photos of the Byzantine church of Silivri , which was demolished in the 1920s , which he found in the 1960s under the inventory number 4428/4429 at the time, and which he publishes in the article. In an old inventory from May 1930 he found the entry for the photos “Photos from the Schrader estate”. Apparently part of the Schrader collection including the photos taken by Hagop Iskender is in the archive of the German Archaeological Institute in Istanbul, but cannot be reproduced there.

Escape through the Ukraine to Berlin (1918/19), worked for Die Neue Zeit and liberal newspapers in Berlin (1919–1920)

In 1918/19 Schrader came to Berlin after a spectacular escape from the threat of internment through the Entente , via Odessa , Nikolayev , and through the Ukraine , which was involved in the Russian civil war after the October Revolution . Odessa was already under French occupation, so the refugees had to go ashore in Nikolayev. They had been assured of safe conduct by the official Ukrainian government of Petlyura, allied with Germany ; But they got caught in various ambushes by the Machno troops and the Bolsheviks led by Trotsky , from which they escaped alive only with tricks and the courage of a Swedish Red Cross sister traveling with them .

In Berlin he initially tried in vain for a position in the scientific field or diplomacy. From 1919 to 1920 Schrader worked for the magazine “ Die Neue Zeit ” published by the party executive of the SPD and the Prussian SPD member of the state parliament and ethnology professor Heinrich Cunow (from 1917 successor to Karl Kautsky ) . He also wrote leading articles for the newspapers for which he had worked as a correspondent before 1918, e. B. the "Magdeburgische Zeitung". In several articles for the theory magazine of the SPD he dealt critically with the German policy towards Turkey during the First World War. In an article "The Egyptian Question" published in 1920, Schrader prophetically warned of disastrous developments in European-Arab relations as a result of the British-French colonial policy in Egypt, Palestine and Syria after the First World War. From 1919 Schrader was "earmarked" at the Foreign Office for use abroad, but tried several times in vain to get a job in the Foreign Service, most recently in a letter to Foreign Minister Köster from May 1920, shortly before the SPD was in the Political Archives. The Weimar coalition led finally lost its majority in the first Reichstag elections in June 1920.

Employee of the DAZ 1920–1922, death

Most recently, from 1920 to 1922, Schrader worked for the " Deutsche Allgemeine Zeitung " (DAZ) in Berlin , where another SPD politician, the Reichstag member and economist Paul Lensch , headed the foreign policy department at that time, but from the then conservative-liberal DVP was dominated, the election winner of the Reichstag elections in June 1920. While the DAZ in the years 1918–1920, shortly after its re-establishment, still had a conservative-liberal profile and supported the reconsolidation of Germany in the Weimar Republic (collaboration with Friedrich Meinecke , the later founding rector of the Free University of Berlin , and the young Egmont Zechlin (who had been seriously wounded as a soldier in what was then still Ottoman Macedonia ), as well as Otto Flake , an old friend of Schrader from Constantinople), Max Rudolf Kaufmann was temporarily deputy editor-in-chief of the DAZ bought the newspaper in 1920 from Hugo Stinnes , the Hans Humann , the former naval attaché d he embassy Constantinople, who was an apologist for the genocide of the Armenians and himself a Pan-Germanic-nationalistic friend of Enver Pasha and a bitter adversary, especially of Weitz and Kaufmann, was appointed as the publishing director.

Schrader died in Berlin on August 28, 1922 at the age of only 56, after the DAZ had published his historical novel Im Banne von Byzanz a few weeks earlier . He is buried in the II. Municipal cemetery Eythstrasse in Schöneberg (section 31, row 8, position 2).

Fate of the work of Friedrich Schrader

In the book A Refugee Journey through Ukraine , Schrader mentions his extensive private library, which he left behind in his apartment in Doğan Apartmanı, Istanbul-Beyoglu, in November 1918. After the death of his British-Bulgarian wife, who remained in Istanbul, during the Allied occupation in September 1919, this library was lost; the extent to which parts are still in private collections or public libraries can no longer be proven.

Schrader became known through his book Constantinople in the past and present , published in 1917 , which was still received in Germany and Turkey after 1945. The Swiss journalist Max Rudolf Kaufmann , who was Schrader's colleague at Ottoman Lloyd as a young man, discussed the book in 1957 in the communications of the German-Turkish Society . Çelik Gülersoy , who was the main driving force behind the preservation of historical monuments in Istanbul for many decades, received a copy from Kaufmann in 1958 and enthusiastically reviewed it in 1959 in the messages of the Turkish automobile club TTOC (see quote below). In 1981 and 1987 texts from the book were selected for literary anthologies on the subject of Istanbul published by Insel-Verlag and Deutsche Taschenbuch Verlag . The book is out of print at the original German Mohr Siebeck Verlag , but is now available online, like several other works and publications by Schrader (see bibliography).

The only completely preserved set of the daily newspaper Ottoman Lloyd is in Istanbul in the library of the German Archaeological Institute. Irmgard Farah evaluated this material as well as the files on Ottoman Lloyd in the Political Archives of the Foreign Office in her dissertation, but did not deal with Schrader as a person. In particular, Schrader's political commitment, which dates back to before 1900, in connection with his contacts with leading Young Turks and the SPD leadership in Berlin has so far remained unexplored.

For the legacies of Schrader's archaeological and monument preservation activities, see the note above.

Rediscovery of the Schrader plant in Turkey in 2015

Schrader's book Constantinople was reissued in Turkey in June 2015 in a translation by Kerem Caliskan by Remzi Kitabevi ; the first edition was out of print within a few weeks, and the second edition was published in Turkish in August 2015. The book was enthusiastically reviewed in numerous well-known Turkish newspapers and magazines.


On the role of Turkey in Europe (1900)

“The German semi-official papers call China a land of barbarism. The barbarism exists in Turkey to a much worse degree than the product of a government which is constantly exchanging tenderness with the German one. The rawness that is brought up under the current regime, the intolerance, the militarism that is exclusively cultivated here, can be dangerous for Europeans for a while, as can the Chinese wasp's nest, in which they carelessly stung. The only danger comes from the government, not from the people. […] What the Turkish people need, and what their real friends want them, is freedom of movement for their intellectual, political and material development, which is now totally prevented. There is then every prospect [...] that in its time it will become a useful member of the European family of nations. "

- Ishtiraki: The spiritual life in Turkey and the current regime, Die Neue Zeit , 1900

On the conflict between Islamism and secular laicism in Turkey after the 1908 revolution (incident of March 31, 1909)

“The year 1908 came and the country was suddenly given freedom. 'Yes, freedom - what kind of thing is that?' the Anatolian farmers asked themselves. 'Freedom', they themselves answered the question that came to their minds under the influence of the Hodjas , 'is the greater freedom of the previously bound religion, which has had to renounce the implementation of the most sacred regulations up to now.' The modest amount of concessions that ancient Turkey had made to modern state ideas and modern society seemed to the rural people and their leaders to be far too extensive. Their sufferings, the harassment they were exposed to under absolutism, they now saw from this point of view and hoped that freedom would bring them the desired relief and the introduction of the law of scheria . "

- The Constantinople mutiny of April 13th

On the German Role in Respect of the Persecution of Non-Muslims by Turkey in the First World War (1919)

"The unheard of what happened in the Orient, the almost complete annihilation of the Armenian population of Asia Minor ."

- Refugee trip, 1919 (see below), p. 4

“Even abroad, as we have done so far, we must not always stand by the party that seeks to rape important cultural elements in favor of its own national supremacy. That will always take revenge, as it has in Turkey. We shouldn't have been more Turkish than the Turk. "

- Refugee trip, 1919 (see below), pp. 112/113

"If we had had more representatives of this kind in our foreign service, our Orient policy would certainly not have been steered in the wrong direction, on which one had strayed in Berlin."

- (About the German consul of Adana, Eugen Büge (1859–1936), who traveled with Schrader through the Ukraine to Germany in 1918/19: Refugee trip, p. 10

"What an unfortunate policy our Berlin rulers!"

- Refugee trip, p. 17

Role of Non-Muslims in Turkey, 1908-1918 (1919)

“Political life among non-Muslims found its center in the patriarchates and their two council bodies, a lay council and a synod. With this category of citizens the political interest was limited exclusively to their relationship to the Muslim state and the defense of their rights against it. Her initial enthusiasm for the Ottoman constitution turned into indifference, which then turned into open hostility, in the face of the paralysis that arose in the Muslim state society. The Ittihad Committee has tried several times to build a bridge to the non-Muslims. The insightful elements of the Young Turks recognized the necessity of a reconciliation with them, which had to take place with regard to Turkey's European position. But in the committee the "Tschetedschilik" (modern spelling "çetecilik" ) spread, the gang, a popular means to establish the desired Turkish unitary state in the provinces through terrorist measures. And it was this institution, reminiscent of half the Balkans, half of the Renaissance, which completely spoiled the relationship between the Turkish population elements and confirmed the non-Muslims in the assumption that the government in Stambul was their most unforgiving enemy. And it was also this last evil trait in political life that ultimately thwarted and completely paralyzed the will for progress of the honest patriots in the committee - and there were quite a number of them. Only if political life in the newest Turkey, as it will now emerge from the peace treaty (of 1918), appears without this disfiguring and pernicious trait, can a union of the valuable forces of the Turkish nation be hoped for. This alone will be able to awaken new life from the ashes of the old. "

- Political life in Turkey: Die Neue Zeit, 1919, Volume 37, Volume 2, pp. 460–466

On the role of women in New Turkey (1920)

“The new Turkish woman, who will be educated in elementary and secondary schools, differs significantly from her ancestors, the pale flowers of the harem, the 'disappointed'. With her own highly developed intelligence she will not stand behind her European sisters and show herself worthy of participation in political life. There can be no doubt that the proven leader of the Turkish women's world, the master of the poetic word Halide Edip Hanum, will also play a role in these new reforms. There is no doubt that these innovations, however bold they may appear, will actually be carried out in view of the dull resistance that emanates from the social classes and the women of the people themselves. But one must not believe that the masses are already convinced of their necessity and cheer them on. "

- The Young Turkish Lausanne Program, Die Neue Zeit , 1920, Volume 38, Volume 2, pp. 6–11, 31–35

On the role of the Western powers (England, France, USA) in the Middle East (1919/1920)

“Despite the naval guns that England has at its disposal, one cannot help but fear that the nationalist movement in Egypt might one day again turn against England, as well as against any foreign exploitation in general. England would certainly master this movement, but with what sacrifices and with what loss of moral prestige this would happen! It is the guilty conscience of imperialism, which seeks to justify itself morally by the claim of an alleged cultural mission, that is now making it hesitant about the concessions demanded by the Egyptians. […] The spirits that the British government conjured up in agreement with France will not be rid of anytime soon. Everywhere in the Arab possessions of Turkey a tremendous excitement of the Arab population is noticeable, who had much to complain about the Turkish rule, but now realizes that after their "liberation" from the rain they went into the eaves and one fist in feels her neck that she won't be able to shake off anytime soon. "

- The Egyptian Question, The New Age , 1920

“The history and the spirit of Robert College can also be instructive for us Germans with regard to our school efforts in the Orient. One should not forget that Turkish soil is an essentially democratic, freedom-loving country that has less understanding for German militarism and German war history than for the struggle of a people for basic human rights. Therefore, in showing the great figures of George Washington and Abraham Lincoln to their students, the Americans found more fertile and grateful soil than we have found with all our educational wisdom and scientific depth. "

- From: Robert College, Nord und Süd , November 1919, pp. 165–169

Quotes with reference to Friedrich Schrader

Martin Hartmann (1909)

Pera, September 7th, 1909: (p.26) The situation is currently not unfavorable for us. […] We benefit from the fact that we have an excellent organ for German interests in 'Ottoman Lloyd'. Even before him, a German paper appeared in Pera, 'Die Neue Turkey', which only got around 70 issues in two and a half months. […] The 'Ottoman Lloyd' took over the legacy in which it […] took over part of the staff, including Dr. Schrader , who also worked as a literary Turkologist. Pera, October 1st, 1909: (p.139) That was once a pure Pera day. [...] First of all, I gave Dr. Schrader, I would like to thank him for his extremely friendly presentation on my booklet 'Islam' in 'Ottoman Lloyd' on September 30th. Pera, October 2nd, 1909: (p.142) So it went on quickly to the visit that was particularly close to my heart: in the editorial office of the " Sabah ", the largest newspaper in Stambul, which is probably also called the best run can. It has existed for about fifty years and has been in the hands of Armenians from the start, even though most of the staff are Turkish. [...] From the man I was most concerned with, "Ahmed Rasim", it was said "he did not come today", and unfortunately I first asked a Bey who had been told to visit me, Der Lord didn't even know what to do with me. […] The Bey was visibly busy, I had to be brushed off when the savior in need, Dikran Kelekian , the political editor of the paper I introduced myself to, immediately gave up his reserved attitude when I gave him the Name of his colleague from Ottoman Lloyd, Dr. Schrader , named and showed me familiar with his highly respected position in the local press world (Kelekian is president of the press association). "

- Martin Hartmann: Non-political letters from Turkey: The Islamic Orient - Reports and Research (Volume 3), Leipzig, Verlag Rudolf Haupt, 1910

Richard Lichtheim (1913)

“Dr Schrader is a strange person who might be useful to us. I was with him last night privately and I want to share some of the conversation with him with you, because he is of value to our political relations. Dr. Schrader has lived in Constantinople for 20 years and has been the leading article writer for the paper since Ottoman Lloyd was founded. He claims that the local embassy and also the German Foreign Office are quite anti-Semitic and have no understanding of the importance of the Jews in the Orient for Germanness . The former Ambassador, Marschall von Bieberstein , understood that the current Ambassador von Wangenheim was an insignificant person, with whom German merchants were not satisfied either, because he did not understand their interests. The embassy had already criticized the “Ottoman Lloyd” 's pro-Jews attitude several times, and he had had inconvenience when he had given a laudatory review about a Yiddish theater company that had performed here. Dr. Schrader explains that neither here nor in Berlin is there any sign of a friendly attitude towards the Jews or the colonization in Palestine . The Press Secretary in Berlin, Privy Councilor Hammann , and the local embassy counselors Count Kanitz and Mr. Mutius are more likely to be anti-Semitic. Dr Schrader expressed himself very sharply, and even if he is exaggerating for some personal reason (he is very democratic and Jewish-friendly, his wife is a Spaniolin who was baptized as a small child ), his expression of opinion is very noteworthy, since he is precisely this Question must know well in his position and his experience. I will stay in touch with him [...] "

- Richard Lichtheim (representative of the World Zionist Organization in Constantinople 1913–1917) to the Zionist Action Committee in Berlin, November 13, 1913 (Central Zionist Archives, Jerusalem, Israel, CZA Z3: 47)

Otto Flake (1914)

“He had been in the country since his youth and knew it better, much better than any Turk - as well as only a German with philological inclinations and German devotion to foreign conditions can know a country. He was a complete scholar, mastering all the languages ​​and all literatures of this empire, a connoisseur of the history and culture of centuries past. Instead of being a journalist in Constantinople, he would have to be a professor at a university. "

- Otto Flake on "Doctor S.", 1914, From Constantinople: New Rundschau. 15th year, Volume 2, pp. 1666–1687 (quotation on p. 1678 f.), Republished in the collection of essays "The Logbook"

Otto Hachtmann (1917)

“Among the German newspapers, three in particular tend to bring articles about Turkish intellectual life in general and Turkish literature in particular: the 'Berliner Tageblatt' with the excellent articles by Wilhelm Feldmann, the 'Frankfurter Zeitung', where Friedrich Schrader sometimes talks about his masterfully dominated area writes, and the 'Vossische Zeitung'. "

- Otto Hachtmann : The Newer and Latest Turkish Literature - An introduction to your studies

Deutsche Allgemeine Zeitung (obituary, 1922)

“In addition to a dozen living European languages, Schrader spoke and wrote a further dozen from the Balkans and the Near East, including Albanian, Armenian and the like. a. that have only been studied by a few Europeans. He was fluent in Turkish, Greek and Arabic, both spoken and written, and therefore maintained close relationships with numerous important politicians and writers in the former Turkish empire. From this intimate acquaintance grew a rare knowledge of the literature of modern times, such as the late Middle Ages of these countries. "

- Obituary, Deutsche Allgemeine Zeitung . August 30, 1922

From reviews of Schrader's book "Constantinople Past and Present"

Max Rudolf Kaufmann (1957)

“He has recorded his knowledge of this city and its history in this document, which belongs in the library of all oriental seminaries in our universities, in the bookcases of all friends of Turkey and of our German-speaking Turkish friends. How bumbling is everything that we have written about the Turkish Constantinople and the explorers of Istanbul write in our time compared to Schrader’s presentation! "

- Max Rudolf Kaufmann: A literary discovery: Communications of the German-Turkish Society Bonn, 17 (08/1957), p. 6/7

Çelik Gülersoy (1959)

"Le livre de F. Schrader m'a étonné et émerveillé à la fois, il n'est pas exagené de l'avoueur. L'auteur, à l'example d'un Istanbulitain, a décrit la ville, ses habitants, ses monuments, autant de trésors légués par la passé, ses beautés naturelles, avec conviction, ardeur et amour. […] Le livre de Monsieur Schrader peut être utilisé comme source de renseignements à qui voudrait parler de notre belle métropole. F. Schrader témoigne une amitié reelle pour notre ville et une reconnaissance dévouée a l'egard des turcs, sentiments qui lui font honneur et que l'on ne rencontre plus…. »

- Çelik Gülersoy , the great old man of the Istanbul monument protection and long-time general director of the Turkish automobile club TTOK, in the French edition of the TTOK magazine about the book “Constantinople in the past and present”, January 1959, pp. 31–32


Books (essay collection, memory, novel)

Reprints from Schrader's Constantinople

  • Esther Gallwitz (Ed.): Istanbul. Insel Taschenbuch Verlag 1981, ISBN 3-458-32230-2 .
    • Pp. 250–252 The Koran School (Orig, pp. 7–9)
    • Pp. 285–286 In the shadow of Mahmud Pascha (Orig, pp. 33–38)
    • P. 329–330 The Bosporus (Orig, p. 204–207)
    • Pp. 396–397 Old and new superstitions in Constantinople (Orig, pp. 132–136)
  • Jale Tükel (Ed.): Dtv travel text book Istanbul. dtv, Munich 1987, ISBN 3-423-03904-3 .
    • P. 57 A winter morning in the Mahalle (Orig, p. 1–2)
    • P. 135–136 Remedies and Fragrances (Orig, P. 17–19, Missir Tscharschi (Mısır Çarşısı) - The Spice Bazaar)
    • P. 233–234 In Jihangir (Orig, p. 199–204)


  • The Karmapradipa . Dissertation, Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg , 1889
  • Ahmed Hikmet : Turkish women. Berlin, Mayer and Müller 1907 (translation by F. Schrader, editor Georg Jacob )
  • Aka Gündüs : "O young German" (Aj Geng Alman). In: Frankfurter Zeitung. January 1, 1915 Link UB Frankfurt
  • Ahmed Hikmet: The Grape Seller ( short story). In: Max Rudolf Kaufmann : (Ed.), Turkish stories. Delphin, Munich 1916
  • Ahmed Hikmet: The carrier of culture (story). In: Max Rudolf Kaufmann: (Ed.): Turkish stories. Delphin, Munich 1916
  • Ahmed Hikmet: Aunt Naqije (story). In: Max Rudolf Kaufmann: (Ed.): Turkish stories. Delphin, Munich 1916
  • Halide Edip : The New Turan - a Turkish woman's fate. Gustav Kiepenheuer, Leipzig 1916 (translated by F. Schrader, Deutsche Orientbücherei (Ed.): Ernst Jäckh )
  • Halid Ziya Uşaklıgil : The Black Slave (story). In: Max Rudolf Kaufmann: (Ed.): Turkish stories. Delphin, Munich 1916
  • Halid Sia: 1916, In the service of the Mahalle (narrative). In: Max Rudolf Kaufmann: (Ed.): Turkish stories. Delphin, Munich 1916
  • The three sisters (Turkish folk tale). In: Max Rudolf Kaufmann: (Ed.): Turkish stories. Delphin, Munich 1916

Political articles in newspapers and magazines

"March" magazine

  • Friedrich Schrader: The Constantinople mutiny of April 13th. In: March. Edition 3, Issue 9, May 4, 1909, März-Verlag, pp. 169–180.
  • Friedrich Schrader: The Young Turkish Idea. In: March. Issue 3, 1909, März-Verlag, p. 284.

SPD publications

other publications

  • The Red Asia : Magdeburgische Zeitung, January 24, 1920
  • Turkish Nationalism and the Caliphate : DAZ, July 21, 1920
  • The Turkish Struggle for Freedom (Parts 1 and 2): Daily Review, July 20 and 21, 1920

Literary works

  • New Turkish literature. In: The literary echo. Volume 3, 1900, pp. 1686–1690, (mainly deals with the poet Tevfik Fikret )
  • Up, Turk, wake up! (Ai Türk, Ujan!). In: Vossische Zeitung. No. 553, evening edition, reviewed in Die Welt des Islams Volume 3, 1915, Issue 1, p. 90 (about the author's first reading of the poem of the same name by Mehmet Emin (Yurdakul) ).
  • From the Polish times of Peras. In: Ottoman Lloyd. 1916 (?), Reprinted in: Konstantinopel, pp. 180-184 (mentions the Polish freedom fighters, e.g. Adam Mickiewicz , who supported Turkey in the Crimean War against Russia in 1855 from Constantinople, published on the occasion of the official recognition of independent Poland by the German Reich in 1916)

Archeology and Art History (selection)

  • Thracian summer - pictures from my summer vacation. In: Magdeburgische Zeitung. No. 430, September 23, 1906 ("Constantinople", pp. 235–246)
  • At Sultan Selim - pictures from the Stambul spring. In: Magdeburgische Zeitung. Monday sheet (scientific supplement) No. 19 and 20, 1907 ("Konstantinopel", pp. 54–68)
  • At the Fire Temple - Baku, April 1908 In: Magdeburgische Zeitung. Monday Gazette (Scientific Supplement) No. 19, 1908
  • In the heart of Stambul. In: Frankfurter Zeitung. No. 268, September 27, 1916 Link UB Frankfurt
  • The art monuments of Constantinople. In: The New Orient. Volume 5, 1919, pp. 302–304 and 352–354 (description of the above-mentioned monument protection project)
  • Baroque and Rococo - pictures from Stambul. In: Ottoman Lloyd. No. 16, January 16, 1916, review in Die Welt des Islams Volume 4, Issue 1/2, p. 61 ("Konstantinopel", pp. 12-27)

History, education, religion and cultural politics

  • At the fire temple . In: Magdeburgische Zeitung, Mondaysblatt (scientific supplement) No. 19, 1908 (report on the cult sites of the Parsees in Baku, Azerbaijan)
  • The Turkish language reform. In: Ottoman Lloyd. No. 6, January 6, 1916, fully printed in Die Welt des Islams Volume 4, Issue 1/2, p. 53 (review of an article by Hashem Nahid)
  • Book trade and book art in Turkey. In: Ottoman Lloyd. No. 26, January 26, 1916, review in Die Welt des Islams , Volume 4, Issue 1/2, p. 57.
  • Official Turkish teaching statistics. In: Ottoman Lloyd. No. 37, February 6, 1916, printed in full in Die Welt des Islams Volume 4, Issue 1/2, p. 61.
  • Reform of the dervish monasteries. In: Ottoman Lloyd. No. 30, January 30, 1916, review in Die Welt des Islams Volume 4, Issue 1/2, p. 61.
  • Turkish history literature. In: Ottoman Lloyd. No. 36, February 5, 1916, review in Die Welt des Islams Volume 4, Issue 1/2, p. 55.
  • Im Tekke von Pera - a picture from the Turkish capital. In: Kölnische Zeitung. Supplement No. 23 of June 10, 1917
  • The Turk Constantinople. In: Bund. No. 71, February 12, 1917
  • The mosque. In: On the Bosporus. German soldiers newspaper. No. 1, 1917, pp. 4–5 (see Wikisource)
  • The Janissaries. In: On the Bosporus. German soldiers newspaper. No. 6, February 3, 1918, pp. 3–4 (see Wikisource)
  • Trebizond. In: On the Bosporus. German soldiers newspaper. No. 12, March 17, 1918, pp. 2–3 (see Wikisource)
  • In the chan. In: On the Bosporus. German soldiers newspaper. No. 41, July 23, 1918, pp. 1–2 (see Wikisource)
  • Robert College. In: Nord und Süd November 1919, Volume 171, pp. 165–169 ( )
  • Turkish culture. In: Nord und Süd , January 1920, Volume 172, pp. 268–305 ( )
  • Charles XII. in Turkey: Ottoman Lloyd , January 28, 1917 (book review of Ahmed Refik 's book "Karl der Eisenkopf" (Demirbasch). Reprinted documents of the Imperial Divan and the records of the contemporary historians. Stambul 1332. (Monographs of the History Commission I.) Turkish.) OCLC 940621208

German newspapers and magazines for which Schrader worked as a correspondent in Istanbul until 1918 (incomplete)

Secondary literature

Films and TV reports

  • Ceyda Nurtsch: Boğaziçi'nde Alman Schrader ailesinin izinde . In Deutsche Welle TV (Turkish), November 6, 2018: Link (in Turkish)

Politics, journalism, general biography

  • Ceyda Nurtsch: The chronicler of the Bosporus . In, June 22, 2018: Link (also English translation)
  • Lennart Pfahler: Observation and Entanglement: The Young Turkish Movement from the View of Friedrich Schrader . Final thesis BA, Justus Liebig University Giessen, 2016: Link
  • Phillip Wirtz: German Expatriates in Late Ottoman Istanbul : Ottoman History Podcast, London, SOAS: Link
  • Wolfgang Günter Lerch : Chronicler of old Istanbul - Friedrich Schrader was born 150 years ago. In: FAZ , November 18, 2015, p. 7.
  • Martin Hartmann : Non-political letters from Turkey. Leipzig, Verlag Rudolf Haupt 1910 (description of visits to Schrader in Constantinople during his stay in 1909), p. 26, p. 39f, p. 42, footnotes, p. 197, p. 214.
  • NN: Obituary for Dr. Friedrich Schrader. In: Deutsche Allgemeine Zeitung. August 30, 1922.
  • Irmgard Farah: The German press policy and propaganda activity in the Ottoman Empire from 1908-1918 with special consideration of the "Ottoman Lloyd". Ed .: Orient Institute of the German Oriental Society. Beirut texts and studies, volume 50, Beirut 1993, ISBN 3-515-05719-6 .
  • Anja Hotopp: Friedrich Schrader - Wolmirstedt and world citizen with knowledge of Turkey. In: Volksstimme . August 31, 2007 (regional edition Wolmirstedt, now offline)
  • Mehmet Doğan: Schrader Ailesi. In: Kağnıdan internete. Baski, Ankara 2005, ISBN 975-6151-18-8 , pp. 186-191 (mentioned Friedrich Schrader).
  • Mehmet Doğan: Türk Dostu Schrader Ailesi. Cumhuriyet Bilim Teknik, October 2, 2015, p. 18.
  • Max Rudolf Kaufmann : Experiences in Turkey 50 years ago. In: magazine for cultural exchange. Volume 12, Issue 2/3, Institute for Foreign Relations, pp. 237–241 (1962)
  • AA Bispo: Alemães na vida musical do Império Osmano ea emigração de “alemães do Bósporo” ao Novo Mundo: Paul Lange (1857–1919), Hans Lange (1884–1960) and Guiomar Novaes (1895–1979) . Revista Brasil-Europa: Correspondência Euro-Brasileira 144/15 (2013: 4). (Link)
  • Paul Schweder : At the Turkish headquarters . Hesse and Becker, 1916, p. 59 Link (meeting of Schrader with his journalist colleague Felix Salten ).


  • Otto Flake : From Constantinople. In: New Rundschau . Vol. 15, Volume 2, 1914, pp. 1666–1687 (reprinted in: Das Logbuch, S. Fischer Verlag , Frankfurt, 1917 (Schrader appears as “Dr. S.” on pages 1678–1681.) ) ( Link )
  • Max Rudolf Kaufmann : A literary discovery - Schrader's "Constantinople". In: Mitteilungen der Deutsch-Türkische Gesellschaft , Issue 17, 1957, pp. 13-14, ISSN  0415-5289
  • Metin And: Mesrutiyet Döneminde - Türk Tiyatrosu 1908–1923. Türkiye Is Bankasi Kültür Yayinlari - 108, Ankara, 1971 (mentions Schrader commemorating the 150th anniversary of Schiller's death in 1909)
  • von Mende, Leyla: "Europeanization Abuses" around 1900. A short story by the Ottoman writer Ahmet Hikmet Müftüoğlu. In: European History Topic Portal (2011), URL: (visit on August 30, 2015, review of the story “Der Kulturträger” by Ahmet Hikmet, broadcast by FS)
  • Klaus Kreiser , 2013: Turkology as a hobbyhorse? From Paul Horn to Carl Frank: AIBU Journal of Social Sciences, Semih Tezcan Festschrift, Vol: 13, Year: 2013: 213-229 Link (as of September 15, 2015) (About Schrader on p. 222)

Archeology and art history

  • Çelik Gülersoy : Bibliography: "Istanbul" de Friedrich Schrader. In: Touring et Automobile Club de Turquie. Janvier 1959, pp. 31–32 (Celik Gülersoy, the “grand old man” of Istanbul's monument protection from the 50s to the 80s, knew and appreciated Schrader and his work. See quotation above.)
  • Otto Feld: Again Alexios Apokaukos and the Byzantine church of Selymbria (Silivri). In: Byzantion. 37, 1967, pp. 57–65 (refers to photos from the Schrader estate at DAI Istanbul)
  • Hans-Peter Laqueur: Holy fools - foolish saints - walks through old Istanbul. In: Istanbul Post. (Internet newspaper), since June 5, 2004 - (reference to Schrader's "Constantinople")

Web links

Wikisource: Friedrich Schrader  - Sources and full texts
  • Karl Kautsky Papers at the IISG Amsterdam: Letter from Friedrich Schrader to Karl Kautsky, dated July 1900, D XX 441
  • Find A Grave , database and images (  : accessed 26 July 2018), memorial page for Friedrich Wilhelm Heinrich Schrader (19 Nov 1865–28 Aug 1922), Find A Grave Memorial no. 134359721 , citing Schöneberg II cemetery, Friedenau, Tempelhof-Schöneberg, Berlin, Germany; Maintained by Ishtiraki (contributor 47490055).

Individual evidence

  1. Friedrich Schrader: Constantinople in the past and present. JCB Mohr (Paul Siebeck), Tübingen 1917
  2. Friedrich Schrader, 2015, İstanbul 100 Yıl Öncesine Bir Bakış (German: Constantinople in the past and present) (translation by Kerem Çalışkan ): ISBN 978-975-14-1675-9 )
  3. Preface to: The Karmapradipa. Dissertation, Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, 1889.
  4. The second part of the Karmapradipa was translated in 1900 by Baron Alexander von Staël-Holstein , also as part of a dissertation with Pischel in Halle.
  5. ^ Source: DMG's annual membership directory, printed in the DMG magazine.
  6. ^ Robert College: Constantinople, Catalog. 1893, p. 6.
  7. Friedrich Schrader, 1900, Neutürkisches Literatur: Das Literäre Echo, Volume 3, pp. 1686–1690.
  8. ^ Friedrich Schrader, Robert College, Nord und Süd, November 1919, pp. 165–169.
  9. a b Karl Kautsky Papers, IISG Amsterdam, D XX 441, (PDF).
  10. On the antagonism of the networks of Hans Humann and Paul Weitz at the German Embassy: see Gust, p. 105 (Wolfgang Gust, ed., The Armenian Genocide: Evidence from the German Foreign Office Archives: Berghahn Books, New York, 2014, ISBN 978-1-78238-143-3 )
  11. ^ Ishtiraki (Friedrich Schrader): The spiritual life in Turkey and the current regime. In: The new time: Review of intellectual and public life. - 18.1899-1900, 2nd volume (1900), H. 45, pp. 548-555 Online article at FES Bonn , there pp. 549 ff.
  12. I. Shiraki "Böreklidsche Pasha, the first Mohammedan Communist: The New World, Supplement to forward, born 1900, pp 139-147.
  13. Dietrich Gronau, Nazim Hikmet: rororo picture monograph 1991, ISBN 3-499-50426-X , p. 86f.
  14. a b N.N., obituary for Dr. Friedrich Schrader. In: Deutsche Allgemeine Zeitung, August 30, 1922.
  15. ^ F. Schrader: At the fire temple. In: Magdeburgische Zeitung, Mondaysblatt (scientific supplement) No. 19, 1908.
  16. Schrader wrote the following text about the neighboring town of Trabzon: Friedrich Schrader: Trapezunt. In: On the Bosporus. German soldiers newspaper. No. 12, March 17, 1918, pp. 2–3 (Link see Wikisource)
  17. ^ Friedrich Schrader: The Constantinople mutiny of April 13th. In: March. Edition 3, Issue 9, May 4, 1909, März-Verlag, pp. 169–180.
  18. Metin And: Mesrutiyet döneminde - Türk Tiyatrosu 1908-1923. In: Türkiye Is Bankasi Kültür Yayinlari. - 108, Ankara, 1971.
  19. Friedrich Schrader: The Young Turkish Idea. In: March . Issue 3, 1909, März-Verlag, p. 284.
  20. Richard Lichtheim (representative of the World Zionist Organization in Constantinople 1913–1917) to the Zionist Action Committee in Berlin, November 13, 1913 (Central Zionist Archives, Jerusalem, Israel, CZA Z3: 47)
  21. Fanny Goldstein-Schrader (1873-1919) see "Find a Grave" database link
  22. ^ Bartłomiej Rusin: Anti-Jewish excesses on Bulgarian territories of Ottoman Empire during the Russo-Turkish War of 1877–1878 . doi: 10.12775 / SDR.2016.EN1.01 .
  23. A brief biography of James Baruch Crighton Ginsburg can be found in Noam Sienna: It is a “Minhag”: Algerian Judaism Through the Eyes of a Hebrew Christian Missionary: University of Toronto Journal of Jewish Thought, Volume 1, No. 5 (2015) pp. 23-41 ( Link )
  24. The New Era. Book A Refugee Trip. s. bibliography
  25. Released documents of the Swiss military intelligence service: La Section de Renseignements de l'Etat-Major général de l'Armée suisse au Département politique, Documents Diplomatiques Suisses, 1919, 7a, doc. 146, January 30, 1919, pp. 291-293, Archives fédérales suisses No. 60002872
  26. Max Rudolf Kaufmann: Experiences in Turkey 50 Years Ago: Journal for Cultural Exchange, Volume 12, Issue 2/3, Institute for Foreign Relations, pp. 237–241 (1962)
  27. Irmgard Farah: The German press policy and propaganda activities in the Ottoman Empire from 1908-1918 with special consideration of the "Ottoman Lloyd". Beirut texts and studies, Volume 50. Edited by the Orient Institute of the German Oriental Society , Beirut 1993, ISBN 3-515-05719-6 .
  28. 1915-07-28-DE-004 de The deputy editor-in-chief of Ottoman Lloyd (Schrader) to the consul general in the Embassy in Constantinople (Mordtmann).
  29. ^ Friedrich Schrader: The art monuments of Constantinople. In: Der Neue Orient Volume 5, 1919, pp. 302–304 and 352–354
  30. Otto Feld: Once again Alexios Apokaukos and the Byzantine Church of Selymbria (Silivri). In: Byzantion. Volume 37, 1967, pp. 57-65.
  31. ^ A refugee trip through Ukraine. Journal pages of my escape from Constantinople. JCB Mohr (Paul Siebeck), Tübingen 1919.
  32. Various requests for a position and inquiries from Schrader from that time are preserved in the papers of Carl Heinrich Becker and Eugen Wednesday in the Prussian Secret State Archives .
  33. ^ Friedrich Schrader: İstanbul-100 Yıl Öncesine Bir Bakış. Remzi Kitabevi, June 2015, ISBN 978-975-14-1675-9 ( )
  38. Celal Üster: Tarihin tavanarasindan ...... Istanbul Cumhuriyet, Kitap, August 6, 2015.
  39. The text was written during the Boxer Rebellion , a war waged by the major European powers in China to suppress a resistance movement against the imperial patronizing and exploitation of China, the so-called "Boxers".
  40. ^ The Constantinople mutiny of April 13th. In: March. Edition 3, Issue 9, May 4, 1909, März-Verlag, pp. 169–180.
  41. (previously German Vice Consul in Jaffa (today in Tel Aviv )). Bücke, the consul responsible for Adana, which was located in the center of what was then the western Armenian settlement area in Anatolia, had, like his colleague Rößler in Aleppo, repeatedly reported to the embassy in Constantinople about the repression against Armenians. See the corresponding files documented by Wolfgang Gust in the Political Archive of the Foreign Office ( ( Memento of the original from July 11, 2017 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and not yet checked. Please check the original and Archive link according to instructions and then remove this note. There search for "Bobe Adana"). @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  42. Schrader is alluding to the bombing of Alexandria by the British Mediterranean Fleet in 1882.
  43. Martin Hartmann, Nonpolitical Letters from Turkey. The Islamic Orient, Volume 3. Leipzig, published by Rudolf Kraft. 262 pages. Price 8 Mark: [Review] / Karl Radek. - Electronic edition In: The new time: weekly of the German social democracy. - 28.1909-1910, 2nd vol. (1910), no. 37, p. 353.
  44. The word "human" has a special, positive meaning in Yiddish (see English Wikipedia ( human ))
  45. Otto Hachtmann: The Newer and Latest Turkish Literature - An Introduction to Your Study. In: The world of Islam. Volume 5, 1917, pp. 57-152, there p. 63, JSTOR 1568851
  46. Jump up ↑ Leyla von Mende: “Europeanization Abuses” around 1900. A short story by the Ottoman writer Ahmet Hikmet Müftüoğlu . In: European History Thematic Portal (2011); accessed on November 17, 2015.
  47. Otto Hachtmann: The Newer and Latest Turkish Literature - An Introduction to Your Study. In: The world of Islam. Volume 5, 1917, pp. 57-152, there p. 63 (see quotation) JSTOR 1568851
  48. Quotation: “The first editor (of the Ottoman Lloyd), on the other hand, was the Turkish scientist Dr, who had lived in Constantinople for decades. Friedrich Schrader, who mastered all the languages ​​spoken in the Ottoman Empire, including the Balkans, and with whom I should soon be close friends. "